Inligting as onderneminghulpbron in die Roodepoort administrasie
- Authors: Van Wyk, Brenda
- Date: 1996
- Subjects: Local government -- South Africa -- Roodepoort , Management -- Information services , Information audits
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9524 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5952
- Description: M.A. , Researchers and futurists like Alvin Toner state that we are currently moving into the information era. In the information economy, information is an alternative source of capital. The role of information in the management of an organisation is being realised by more and more high profile companies and organisations. Information management should form part of top management. Information management does not only consist of the management of information technology. It consists of the whole information spectrum which includes information technology, information services as well as information systems. It implies the management of information as an organisational resource. Many companies and organisations however do not recognise information as a resource. It is therefore not managed as such. In most organisations information management develops in different stages until it reaches a state of maturity. The question arises what the cost implication is if information in this day and age is not managed as a valuable resource. The value of information is often difficult to establish and measure. The value of information depends on its timeliness and usefulness in a specific situation. It is therefore important that the organisation should be aware of the nature of its information resources as well as its location and flow. This can be achieved by a thorough information audit. When the organisation is aware of the extent of its information resources as well as its usage, the relation between cost and value can be determent. A cost-benefit analyses will establish whether the costs spend on information is justified. Because of the intricate nature of information a cost-benefit analyses renders several problems. Its usefulness are often questioned. It goes without saying that where unnessary costs are avoided the organisation will benefit. The process of cost avoidance is seen as a form of cost-benefit analysis. Local government in South Africa is the third tier of government, and currently in a process of change. The principles of Public Administration plays an important part in the management of local government. The absence of the profit motive in local government is often used as a reason why general management principles are not applied. Information plays an important role in local government decision making. An information audit in the Roodepoort Administration identified several important information resources. Through interviews and a case study it was established that information management does not occur on top level. Information is not recognised as a resource. This does not lead to cost avoidance. This study concludes that the Roodepoort Administration is in an early stage of information management, where information technology is managed to a certain degree. The lack of information management in the Roodepoort administration causes unnessary costs, departmentalisation and duplication of information. The recognisation of information as an organisational resource in the Roodepoort Administration, and in local government as a whole will assure effective and cost-effective decision making and administration. Cost avoidance will lead to accountable administration of communities.
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A marketing strategy for child welfare, Boksburg.
- Authors: Bhana, Asna
- Date: 1999-11
- Subjects: Child welfare - Research - South Africa - Boksburg
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8970 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5440
- Description: M.A. , Nonprofit organisations are facing a crisis of survival. The changing face of funding through the implementation of financial reform measures on government funding, new expectations from donors, decline in regular private donations and new forms of competition have all contributed to the financial constraints facing the Organisation under study. In addition, the emphasis on transforming services to embrace the developmental, strengths based approach, as well as the growing demand for services from the users themselves have called for the Organisation to reposition itself if it wants to not only survive but to succeed as well. This study focused on the Boksburg Child Welfare Society and was based on a need to develop an intervention tool that will enable the Organisation to address these changes in a creative and innovative manner. Thomas (in Grinne1,1981:591) calls for a new methodology, one where new energies can be directed to the changing tasks and methods of Social Work. Within a changing environment, a strategy in nonprofit marketing is the tool that will provide organisations with the impetus to not only work creatively but to think differently…
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A study to determine the effect of homoeopathic Baptisia tinctoria (3ch, 15ch and 30ch) and Thuja occidentalis (3ch, 15ch and 30ch) on the growth production of streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans respectively
The function of the charismatic teacher as the mediator between Heaven and Earth in Matthew 16:13-28
'n Raamwerk vir die ontwikkeling van selfrigtinggewende studiepakkette vir verdere en hoëronderwysstudie
Systematics of the Metalasia group in the Relhaniinae (Asteraceae - Gnaphalieae).
- Authors: Koekemoer, Marinda
- Date: 2002
- Subjects: compositae , plant classification
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8279 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/238
- Description: The revision of Metalasia by Karis (1989) made it clear that the rest of the Metalasia group, as defined by Anderberg (1991a), also needed to be investigated. Anderberg (1991a) identified the Relhania and Metalasia groups in the subtribe Relhaniinae of the tribe Gnaphalieae. The Metalasia group consists of 14 genera, of which seven are monotypic and four have recently been described. The monotypic genera Bryomorphe, Dolicothrix and Phaenocoma are well known, whereas the more recently described Atrichantha, Calotesta, Hydroidea and Planea (Hilliard & Burtt, 1981; Karis, 1990) are known from limited collections. In the broader context of the tribe it also became evident that Disparago (Koekemoer, 1993), Stoebe and Elytropappus (Levyns, 1937, 1935b) needed to be re-assessed to establish the rank of their formal and informal groupings. A number of genera in the group: Amphiglossa, Bryomorphe, Lachnospermum, Phaenocoma and Pterothrix, had not been studied since Flora Capensis (Harvey, 1865) and needed attention. The aims of this study were therefore, to clarify the taxonomy and nomenclature, to provide full taxonomic treatments for all the species in the Metalasia group, and to discuss their phylogenetic relationships. The fact that almost all taxa are endemic to southern Africa provided additional motivation to investigate the group. Furthermore the newly described genera and species have not been studied in the context of the whole group and the large number of specimens that are available today add a wealth of new information to the available knowledge. The need for further investigation was also emphasized by comments by Anderberg (1991a) that Elytropappus and Stoebe are probably paraphyletic or polyphyletic and that Amphiglossa is probably paraphyletic if Pterothrix is kept separate. Extensive fieldwork was undertaken to investigate species in their natural habitat. Spirit-preserved and dried specimens were collected and studied in the herbarium. Thorough morphological studies were undertaken, with extensive use of the SEM and light microscopes; photographs were produced to document the characters. Accurate records were kept of all specimens to assist in determining distribution ranges for each taxon as well as species densities for every genus. Anatomy of selected species was investigated. The results revealed that the leaves of Dolicothrix and Dicerothamnus were indeed glandular, that there are two small resin cavities in the leaf bases of some Seriphium species, and for the first time, provided information on leaf and cypsela anatomy for the group. During the course of this study several nomenclatural problems were solved: the correct name for Bryomorphe aretioides; Klenzea lycopodioides is a synonym of Dolicothrix ericoides, rather than of Bryomorphe; and the confusion around the names Elytropappus gnaphaloides and E. glandulosus was cleared. It was also found that Elytropappus hispidus and E. cyathiformis, and Stoebe cyathuloides and S. sphaerocephala are conspecific. On generic level it was found that Amphiglossa and Pterothrix are congeneric; and that Disparago, Elytropappus and Stoebe are paraphyletic. This resulted in Seriphium being re-surrected for a group of Stoebe species, and Disparago being divided into four genera and Elytropappus into three. Taxonomic treatments for 64 species, including nomenclature, synonymy, typification, full descriptions, geographical distribution, and keys to genera and species, are given. Fieldwork resulted in a large number of new distribution records, the discovery of six new species and also the re-collection of two species (Amphiglossa callunoides and A. corrudifolia) that were only known from type specimens and were thought to be extinct. Although attempts were made to investigate the group, both chemically and cytologically, I was not able to do this successfully. Chemical results indicated that the volatile oils and flavonoids are complex and would provide a wealth of information for future studies. Together with DNA investigations in the Gnaphalieae it could possibly assist to unravel existing uncertainties. A summary of the taxonomic implications of this study is given below: Genera New species No of species Taxonomic implications Amphiglossa A. celans, A. grisea A. rudolphii, A. susannae 11 • Pterothrix as synonym with several new combinations • Four new species • P. flaccida and P. spinescens as synonyms Atrichantha 1 Bryomorphe 1 • Nomenclature clarified Calotesta 1 Dicerothamnus 2 • New genus • New combinations Disparago 4 • Reverting to original concept of Gaertner for the genus • Three new genera created Dolicothrix 1 • Klenzea lycopodioides as new synonym Elytropappus E. aridus E. monticola 3 • E. cyathiformis as synonym • Genus split into three Gongyloglossa 1 • New genus • New combination Hydroidea 1 Lachnospermum 3 • Nomenclature clarified Laevicarpa 1 • New genus • New combination Metalasia 52 Monticapra 3 • New genus • New combinations Myrovernix 5 • New genus • New combinations • M. intricata transferred from Stoebe Phaenocoma 1 Planea 1 Seriphium 9 • Resurrect the genus • New combinations • Elytropappus ruscianus, Stoebe burchellii and S. vulgaris as synonyms Stoebe 16 • S. copholepis, S. ensori, S. sphaerocephala, S. humilis, S. salteri and S bruniades as synonyms. Total 117 Characters and character states were evaluated in terms of their taxonomic value and their contributions towards an improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships amongst the genera and species of the Metalasia group. The patterns of character state distributions were explored, using cladistic methods. This resulted in the discovery of several ‘new’ characters, as well as new ways of interpreting some of the ‘old’ characters. Examples include several very interesting observations made by means of SEM studies; e.g. the true identity of Elytropappus cyathuloides, the glands on the leaf surfaces of Dicerothamnus rhinocerotis, D. adpressus and Dolicothrix ericoides as well as resin cavities at the bases of leaves of some Seriphium species. All data gathered from the study were evaluated and analyzed cladistically to determine inter- and infraspecific relationships. New hypotheses regarding the relationships amongst the genera and species of the Metalasia group are presented. , Van Wyk, B.E., Prof.
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Chemical analysis of medicinal and poisonous plants of forensic importance in South Africa.
- Authors: Steenkamp, P.A.
- Date: 2005
- Subjects: forensic chemistry , extraction (chemistry) , South Africa , poisonous plants , medicinal plants , botanical chemistry
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1898 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/425
- Description: The Forensic Chemistry Laboratory of Johannesburg (FCL JHB) is tasked with the chemical analysis of a variety of samples to assist in determining the cause of death where unnatural cause is suspected. Some of the samples submitted to the laboratory have a herbal or muti connotation, but a large portion of these cases turn out to have no herbal components present as only pharmaceutical or agricultural products are detected in these samples. This study combined, for the first time, forensic investigation, chemistry and botany to create a unique platform needed for the identification of poisonous plants and their components in forensic exhibits and viscera. The research was focussed on the poisonous plants previously detected at the laboratory, as well as the requests received for the analysis of muti/toxic plant components. The selection of plants included Nicotiana glauca, Datura stramonium / Datura ferox, Callilepis laureola, Boophone disticha / Ammocharis coranica, Abrus precatorius, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander / Thevetia peruviana and Bowiea volubilis. All these species are known to have caused fatalities, hence their choice. Nicotiana glauca has been implicated in the deaths of at least 15 people since 2001. It was previously detected by GC-MS (EI) in plant exhibits, but could not be detected in a viscera matrix. A selective extraction method for alkaloids was used to extract botanical and viscera samples. Anabasine was successfully detected on the HPLC-MS (EI) system but this detection technique was not considered sensitive enough. A very sensitive HPLC-MS method was developed on the ZMD detector by using electrospray technology. This method outperformed both electron impact detectors (GC and HPLC) and could detect 1ng/ml anabasine with relative ease in full scan mode. Datura stramonium and D. ferox have not been previously positively linked to any human poisoning or death due to exposure to botanically derived products at the FCL JHB. Atropine and scopolamine were successfully ionised in ESI positive mode and could be detected at 10 pg/ml and 100 pg/ml level respectively. The identities of the compounds were confirmed by characteristic ISCID fragmentation patterns. The developed method was successfully applied to a suspected heart attack case. The results proved conclusively that the deceased was given D. ferox seeds as part of his meal and an overdose of atropine and scopolamine contributed to his death. Callilepis laureola is reputed to be one of the more commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa, and although its use has been indicated by the specific mention of a possible nephrotoxin and/or hepatotoxin as causative agent, it has not been detected in any of the forensic chemistry laboratories in South Africa. This was mainly due to the absence of a reliable method for the analysis of the main toxic component of C. laureola, atractyloside, by mass spectrometry. A sensitive and very selective HPLC-ESI-MS method was developed that could detect atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside and their monodesulfated analogues in botanical and viscera matrices. The method was successfully applied to a variety of forensic samples and proved that C. laureola may play an important role in herbal poisonings. In a selection of suspected herbal poisonings where the cause of poisoning was unknown, 30% of the samples tested positive for the presence of atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside or their monodesulfated analogues. The bulbs of Boophone disticha are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids and some of the alkaloids were detected by GC-EI-MS and LC-EI-MS, but the detection of these alkaloids in viscera samples was not successful. A routine method used for the screening for drugs of abuse in forensic samples, were successfully used for the analysis of the bulb extracts of B. disticha and the bulb scales of A. coranica. The chromatographic profile of these two plants appeared very similar at a first glance, but a closer evaluation of the mass spectra highlighted significant differences between the two plants. Six alkaloids from B. disticha were isolated and characterised by LC-MS and NMR and these compounds were detected in suspected herbal poisoning cases. It has been shown that B. disticha is one of the commonly used plants to “clean the system” but frequently results in the death of the patient. Abrus precatorius contains one of the most toxic compounds known to mankind, namely abrin that collectively refers to a group of glycoproteins. The seeds of A. precatorius also contain two indole alkaloids, abrine and hypaphorine. The two alkaloids were fractionated and characterised by LC-MS and NMR. Due to the fact that the instrumentation of the FCL JHB is not suited to the detection of proteins, an LC-ESI-MS method was developed for the detection of the two alkaloids in plant and viscera matrix as markers for A. precatorius. The presence of these two alkaloids was indicated on the TMD system (EI spectra) in a suspected herbal poisoning case. The LC-ESI-MS method was applied to the analysis of the samples and the absence of abrine and hypaphorine were proven in the samples. Ricinus communis is similar to A. precatorius in that it also contains a group of extremely poisonous glycoproteins, collectively refered to as ricin. The analysis of R. communis seeds encountered the same problems as the analysis of A. precatorius seeds, and the analysis was again focused on the detection of the minor piperidine alkaloid ricinine. The LC-ESI-MS method developed for abrine was modified to detect ricinine and functioned well in botanical and viscera matrices. This method will enable the forensic analyst to detect ricinine in very low levels when the presence of ricinoleic acid in samples indicates the use of a R. communis-based product. Nerium oleander is a common decorative garden plant that is used medicinally. The plant is rich in cardenolides with oleandrin the main compound. A reversed-phase chromatographic method with ESI mass spectral detection was developed to separate and detect 11 cardiac glycosides. The compounds were adequately separated to allow unambiguous identification, and displayed very stable cationisation with sodium. An extraction method was developed to extract the cardiac glycosides from the leaves of N. oleander and Thevetia peruviana and was also evaluated in a viscera matrix. The extraction method functioned well and extracted a variety of compounds that produced unique chromatographic fingerprints, allowing for the easy differentiation between the two plants. The method is ideally suited for the detection of oleandrin in high concentrations (full scan mode), low concentrations (selected masses) or trace levels (SIM analysis of ion clusters). The method is able to distinguish between extracts derived from N. oleander and T. peruviana and was able to detect and confirm neriifolin, odoroside and neritaloside in N. oleander leaf extracts. Analysis of forensic case exhibits were also successfully done with this method and performed well with liquid and solid matrices. With the new method oleandrin could be detected at trace levels in viscera samples that did not produce positive results in the past. Bowiea volubilis is widely used as a medicinal plant, but is also an extremely toxic plant. It is freely available at traditional healer markets, and is one of the most highly traded plants on the Durban market. Despite the high usage of the plant, it has not been detected by any of the forensic laboratories in South Africa. Bovoside A, a bufadienolide, is reported to be the main cardiac glycoside in the bulb of B. volubilis. The cardiac glycoside method was successfully applied to the analysis of the bulb extract of B. volubilis and bovoside A was identified as the main bufadienolide present in the bulb. Bovoside A was fractionated and characterised by LC-MS. Four extracts of botanical origin could be successfully distinguished from each other by monitoring the main masses of bovoside A, oleandrin and thevetin A and thevetin B. These marker compounds were well separated from each other and made the identification of the botanical extracts quite easy, and the identity of each extract was confirmed by the mass spectrum of each peak. , Prof. F.R van Heerden
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A comparative examination of the novels of Farida Karodia, Rayda Jacobs, Pamela Jooste.
- Authors: Green, Kathleen Eileen
- Date: 2007-10-01T07:04:03Z
- Subjects: Farida Karodia , Rayda Jacobs , Pamela Jooste
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8358 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/24
- Description: The intention of this dissertation is to examine the writings of three South African women authors who are active in the post-apartheid era. Work by South African women writers, mainly English-speaking, has been emerging at a remarkable rate in the first 10 years of democracy. The three women authors chosen for examination here have been selected because of their different racial and social backgrounds. In different ways, they attempt to recuperate an alternative past by using a voice previously denied them through sexist and racial discrimination during apartheid South Africa. Post-apartheid writing has not received its due attention. In the main, the treatment of the works of post-apartheid authors has been slight and superficial. Unsurprisingly, the writers whose works are examined here reveal a cultural awareness of a society previously dominated by racial discrimination. However, their creative responses to the period of transition and the new social and political realities have been diverse, and this makes for revealing and enlightening analysis, criticism and comparison.
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Identity, culture and contemporary South African poetry.
- Authors: Mashige, Mashudu Churchill
- Date: 2007-10-01T07:29:26Z
- Subjects: identity ( psychology ) in literature , culture in literature , South African poetry ( English )
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8436 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/25
- Description: The main focus of this thesis is to examine how identity and culture are conceived and articulated in a representative selection of contemporary South African poetry. In the introductory chapter, an examination is made of the concepts of identity and culture, in the course of which the polarities of inside and outside, self and other, personal and political, subjective and objective, are carefully examined. Then, through close textual reference to relevant poems considered under the titles “Poetry of the Self”, “Black Consciousness Poetry”, “The Poetry of Revolution”, “Worker Poetry” and “Feminist Poetry”, the thesis attempts, by tracing the dialectical relationship of these polarities, to analyse how each putative body of poetry conceives and articulates cultural identity. The concluding chapter of the thesis, titled “Towards a New Aesthetics”, argues that current research into the relationship between identity and culture opens the way to a “new” aesthetics, a new literary-critical practice, one that takes into cognisance the intersubjective complexities that shape cultural expression.
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Vietnam war literature: reflections of the sustained tension between politics, history, morality and the effect of war on human nature.
- Authors: Melissakis, Catherine-Jeanette
- Date: 2007-10-01T13:22:29Z
- Subjects: Robert Mason , Rumour of war , Philip Caputo , Vietnam War 1961--1975 , Chickenhawk
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8544 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/26
- Description: Vietnam War literature is a reflection of a sustained tension between politics and history on the one hand and morality and the effect of the war on human nature on the other hand. Although the authors under discussion urge the reader to forget the political, moral and historical milieu of the Vietnam War, it is impossible to separate the war from those three factors and by extension, the literature that stems from it. I have chosen Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War (1977) and Robert Mason’s Chickenhawk (1983) because I think they represent, perhaps in the simplest and least obtrusive way, the voices of 55 000 men whose names appear on a black, granite wall in Washington. The authors chose to write their respective memoirs for the Everyman who died in, or lived through, the aberration that was Vietnam. Through their reconstruction of the war and their experiences, they keep the demand for recognition of those who fought (whether morally sanctioned or not) in Vietnam for their country. While American society tried to force the war from its psyche because so many of them thought it was unjust, immoral and unnecessary, authors like Caputo and Mason demanded that the nation examine itself on the whole and reconsider its political endeavours. But perhaps one of the starkest revelations is their portrayal of the corruption of innocence, loyalty and idealism of those soldiers who represented their country abroad.
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Writing in hostile spaces: a critical examination of South African prison literature.
- Authors: Oswald, Eirwen Elizabeth
- Date: 2007-10-01T13:22:41Z
- Subjects: prisoners as authors , prisoners' diaries , prisoners' correspondence , prisons in literature , South African literature
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8557 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/27
- Description: Prison, a place that no one can call home, a place where all that was familiar no longer exists, a place where a friendly face is nowhere to be seen, a place that is full of hostility. That which becomes ‘home’ is nothing more than a concrete space, a hole in which one is expected to live. Those with whom the prisoners come into contact are hostile, unkind and unfair. Thus, as a means by which to retain sanity and show the world what happens on the ‘inside’, prisoners begin to write – they begin to write in hostile spaces. This study will argue that the body of writings that constitute ‘South African prison literature’ is both substantial and under-researched. For both of these reasons it warrants closer examination. Another argument that this thesis will advance is that specific authors have made major contributions to this collection of works, with Herman Charles Bosman being the foremost of these. Bosman not only pioneered the prison novel in South Africa, but also set the mould within which most of the other prison-authors have patterned their works. Herman Charles Bosman is often referred to as the ‘father’ of South African prison literature. Such a statement of course presupposes that there is a discernible body of writing that can be called ‘prison literature’. This study will attempt to show that within the larger corpus of South African literature there is indeed a body of writing that can usefully be categorized under the broad rubric ‘prison literature’. Undertaking such a categorization, however, requires generating certain criteria, and then applying these criteria to determine whether specific works adhere to them. For the purposes of this study, the most important criterion is that, for a work to be considered as belonging to the corpus of South African prison literature, it must be about the writer’s personal experience of prison. In other words, fictional (imaginative) narratives about prison life will fall beyond the purview of this study. While it must be conceded that this criterion is not unarguable and self-evident, as the study proceeds it will, I believe, be seen that there is good sense in excluding purely fictional works. (Chapter Three advances the argument for this criterion in more detail.) Other variables have been accommodated – for example, from which prison the prisoner is writing, whether the prisoner writes about his or her experience during or after imprisonment, the nature of the crime committed and when the imprisonment took place. In addition, there is no rigidity about the number of criteria a particular work must fulfil in order to be included in this study (Chapter Three also discusses these criteria at length). One of the questions this thesis will attempt to answer is why prisoners write in the first place. Society’s stereotypical view of a criminal – someone lacking in morals and education – is no doubt dominant, and the notion of a ‘criminal’ adding value to the study of literature is not often conceptualized by many. Writing becomes a powerful tool for the authors examined here, often for different reasons and purposes, but a tool nonetheless. Paul Gready says that, “the word is a weapon that both inflicts pain and secures power. Prisoners are relentlessly rewritten within the official ‘power of writing’… Within this process the prisoner’s sense of self and world is undermined, pain is made visible and objectified in writing and converted into state power [but] prisoners write to restore a sense of self and world, to reclaim the ‘truth’ from the apartheid lie, to seek empowerment in an oppositional ‘power of writing’ against the official text of imprisonment” (1993: 489). The thesis will attempt to show that, notwithstanding their considerable diversity, individual works within the corpus of South African prison literature share many common characteristics. Despite this the study will show also that, even though the prison writings have many common threads running through them, there are many differences within individual writings and the body of literature as a whole. It could be argued that, in earlier years, the works that are the subject of this study were quite satisfactorily regarded as part of other genres (for example, autobiography). So is the whole process of reclassification necessary? In other words, is there any point in attempting to argue for a distinct category of writing (‘prison literature’)? One of the points that will be made in detail later is that frequently the prison writings of a particular writer are only a small aspect of his or her larger oeuvre, and these writings have merely been included in more general discussions of the author’s body of work as a whole. Clearly, this does not do justice to the distinct nature of such a writer’s prison writings. It is the purpose of this study to give the works that make up the corpus of South African prison literature their due. The thesis begins with a brief summation of the prison system in South Africa. This chapter puts the experiences that follow into context. Many of the laws under which these writers were held no longer exist and so, in the interest of better understanding, these are explained in the first chapter as well. This is followed by a brief survey of prison literature. Chapter Two attempts to provide a concise and up-to-date list of the primary and secondary sources that make up the category ‘prison literature.’ Chapter Three introduces the term ‘prison literature’. The chapter includes many of the common characteristics found in prison writing, and outlines the essential criteria of this body of writing. This is followed by a brief examination of the various theories of literature that can be found in prison literature. Chapter Four introduces a vital aspect of the thesis and the argument provided within it. An examination of the theories of Foucault takes place in this chapter. He offers a thread that binds all prison literature together when he states that the prison system is put in place to punish an offender. Modern power to punish is based on the supervision and organization of bodies in time and space. The thesis will then argue that it is in this very space that prisoners write. Thus the hostile space of prison and prison life provides the context in which the literature under examination can be created.The second section of the thesis contains the close examinations of the prison writings of various authors. This section begins with a fairly comprehensive chapter on Cold Stone Jug (Chapter Five), and attempts to describe the foundation that Bosman laid in the writing of this novel. The chapters thereafter include comparisons between each individual prisonauthor’s work and Bosman’s seminal novel, noting the similarities and differences. Each of these chapters (Chapters Six to Nine) also provides a justification for the selection of each of the authors discussed and attempts to show why their writing must be considered some of the greatest prison literature produced in South Africa. Chapter Six examines the prison novel as exemplified in the writings of Breyten Breytenbach and Hugh Lewin. Chapter Seven introduces the concept of prison poetry. It is shown how poets like Jeremy Cronin and Dennis Brutus have also followed the example of Bosman, despite the generic difference in their work. This chapter also attempts to show why poetry must be considered an important part of this novel-dominated category of writing. This argument continues in Chapter Eight, in which prison letters and diaries are discussed and shown to be a vital part of prison literature. The main focus of this chapter is the writings of Ahmed Kathrada. Chapter Nine introduces the writing of women prisoners. This writing shares the typical characteristics found in the works of the prisoners’ male counterparts. No one novelist or poet is examined in detail. This section rather examines women’s writing as a topic in terms of the study as a whole. Importantly, however, it shows that prison writing is not gender- or race-specific. The thesis concludes by discussing the notion that these authors wrote and lived in hostile spaces not only during their imprisonment, but also afterwards: life after imprisonment becomes a hostile space too. The conclusion argues that a clear development can be found in this writing – vii from the publication of Cold Stone Jug in 1949 up until the publication of the final documents from Robben Island in the 1990s.
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States of grace: metaphors and their use in Anne Michael's Fugitive pieces.
- Authors: Ristic, Danya
- Date: 2007-10-01T13:22:52Z
- Subjects: Metaphor in literature , Anne Michael's Fugitive pieces
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8606 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/28
- Description: This study explores Anne Michaels’s representation of the Second World War – with particular reference to the Holocaust – in her novel Fugitive Pieces. The study contends that Michaels demonstrates a way of remembering these traumatic and debilitating events which not only promotes physical, emotional and spiritual recuperation but is also capable of beneficially affecting the future. The first chapter contextualises the study by describing the literary debate that surrounds Holocaust representation in writing, a debate which furthermore entails an argument on the efficacy of literary techniques such as the use of metaphor. In the chapter, it is proposed that the novel ‘speaks out’ against silence, and privileges remembrance over disregard. The second chapter suggests that the novel is an example of the way in which metaphor can be used effectively to figure the Holocaust for survivors and victims, and for subsequent generations. Concomitantly, the chapter defends Michaels’s use of metaphor in its presentation of proposals, concerning her characters and their experience of the Holocaust, that display rare perspicacity and benevolence. The third and final chapter of this study comprises a four-section exploration of specific metaphors which the author uses in Fugitive Pieces to demonstrate that the horror characterising the Holocaust should not be the sum total of its effect, and that affirmations such as faith and hope can and did arise in the context of extreme physical and mental distress. This thesis is based on the proposition that Michaels’s layering of real-life testimony with imaginative intuition introduces her readers to a valuable way of dealing with the past and facing the future.
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Can Themba: the life and work of a shebeen intellectual.
- Authors: Snyman, Mari
- Date: 2007-10-01T13:23:05Z
- Subjects: Can Themba
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8643 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/29
- Description: Can Themba, unlike most of the other Drum writers, e. g. Todd Matshikiza, Es’kia Mphahlele, Bloke Modisane and Lewis Nkosi, did not write an autobiography, probably because he died at the young age of forty-three after prolonged, acute alcohol abuse. The aim of this dissertation is to trace his life and career as a journalist and short story writer during the 1950s, popularly known as the ‘Drum decade’, through (sometimes autobiographical) interpretation of his work, through interviews with and information from the autobiographies of his contemporaries, as well as through a close examination of material on Sophiatown. The dominant genre in the 1950s for black writers was the short story. Environmental circumstances seemed to have created a kind of live-for-today attitude, which suited the immediate, concentrated form. Admittedly, Themba’s short stories seem escapist, even melodramatic and sensational, but they do have a distinctive South African flavour, mirroring the plight of the township black in the 1950s. There are also hard-hitting journalistic pieces, emphasizing the day-to-day struggle of blacks living in a world controlled by a minority group of whites. Themba’s realistic, mostly autobiographical, sketches, seemed to fill the need for politically relevant journalism, although his contemporaries did not necessarily agree with this view. By examining what he wrote about himself, directly as well as indirectly, as well as what others have to say about him, an attempt will be made to create a biography of this informal cult figure, popularly known as an intellectual tsotsi, a shebeen intellectual, of the 1950s. This study will show that he was a versatile writer of popular short stories and hard-hitting sketches, as well as an astute social witness of his world. Although lately there has been a revival of interest in the period, very few critical works have become available. In fact, the interest seems almost superficial, highlighting the romantic notion of the 1950s as a devil-may-care period, in which the live-for-today attitude of its people was characterized by gangsterism, swanky cars and the so-called nice-time girls. This dissertation will attempt to highlight the overwhelming ambience of sadness, of wasted time and lives, of what could have been. Can Themba may be the ultimate example of writer-intellectual trapped in the ambiguous reality that was Sophiatown. His life and work illustrate how the boundaries between fantasy and reality can fade in such a way that a new kind of reality, an inter-racial bohemia, comes into existence. He not only captures African speech and the rhythm of tsotsitaal, but also uses the sharp wit and intricate phrases which illustrate his affinity with writers like Oscar Wilde. In this way his African roots and European education are fused. This phenomenon, which seems to be a unique characteristic of the 1950s, will be explored. Ultimately, though, an attempt will be made to demonstrate Can Themba’s relevance as a writer to a contemporary audience by illustrating that through his unique style he manages to recreate his original context, and therefore speaks to us today.
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Locating Bosman : revaluating issues of culture, language and style in a selection of Herman Charles Bosman's English and Afrikaans short stories (1948-1951).
- Authors: Snyman, Salome
- Date: 2007-10-01T13:23:12Z
- Subjects: Herman Charles Bosman
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6697 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/30
- Description: This dissertation addresses issues of culture, identity and style in Herman Charles Bosman’s bilingual writing, produced during the latter part of his life, in order to reassess his place in South African literature. Although questions pertaining to these issues are constantly debated by Bosman scholars, the focus has in the past mainly fallen on his English literary corpus. The bilingual dimension of his work has not received much academic attention. In fact, literary historiographers in South Africa appear to have been largely oblivious of Bosman’s contribution to this area. This situation may partly be ascribed to the ‘disappearance’ of his Afrikaans stories from the time of their publication, in popular periodicals of that time, until recently. Up until 2001 these stories, sixteen in total, have never been collected in book form. Stephen Gray and Craig MacKenzie decided to assign this project, as part of their Anniversary Edition, to Leon de Kock. This collection, aptly titled Verborge Skatte, contains all the Afrikaans stories which have been traced to their original publications as well as polemical and critical pieces written in or about Afrikaans by Bosman. From a literary-historical point of view, it would be untenable to call for a revaluation of Bosman’s place in South African literature on the basis of the mere existence of his Afrikaans writing – particularly given its rather slim substance. However, regarding Bosman’s Afrikaans stories, Leon de Kock draws the important conclusion that Bosman was ahead of his time by virtue of his metafictional skill, self-reflexive irony and political independence. De Kock goes on to highlight interesting aspects that emerge when Bosman’s Afrikaans short stories are compared to their English equivalents as well as the way in which Bosman makes certain cultural emphasis shifts when translating. The implications for South African literature of De Kock’s assertions are evident. They mean that, in addition to the general confusion about Bosman’s identity and place in South African literature, it would appear that he has not been recognised as an important Afrikaans short story writer, nor as an accomplished bilingual writer. De Kock ends his introduction with a call to researchers: “Much work lies ahead for the writers of dissertations, who will be able to lay out the evidence at greater leisure” (2001: 210). This study, then, represents the laying out of evidence that De Kock calls for. It does so through a detailed analysis of critical aspects of this ‘new’ dimension of Bosman’s oeuvre. To begin with, Bosman’s life is probed for possible motivations for his turning to bilingual writing. Key aspects of his English writing and how they are transposed into Afrikaans are then analysed and finally, his language proficiency is put to the test. In the end it is concluded that Bosman was indeed one of the most progressive writers of his time – in English as well as in Afrikaans – and that a revaluation based on a balanced and inclusive view of the unique impact of Bosman’s diverse corpus has been long overdue. It follows, therefore, that South African literature has been the poorer for the conspicuous absence of his Afrikaans short stories, in particular, and that, on the strength of his extraordinary contribution to both English and Afrikaans literatures, certain adjustments should be made to situate Bosman as a key figure in the South African literary canon.
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Price setting in the South African coffin industry.
- Authors: Baur, P.W.
- Date: 2007-10-02T06:50:20Z
- Subjects: coffin prices , coffin industry , burial , burial finance , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6869 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/32
- Description: The aim of this study is to analyze the price setting in the South African coffin industry which is affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Consumer behavior and decision making, producer and retailer response, as well as the overall effects that this industry may have within the realm of the South African economy is analyzed. The central focus however, is the price determination governing the supply and demand relationship, and the influence that this relationship has on the market mechanism, which is important in regulating the functioning of the South Africa coffin industry. Chapter One introduces the problem statement by highlighting the purpose of the study in light of the effects of HIV/AIDS. The link between the coffin industry and the economy is the increase in mortality rates caused by HIV/AIDS. Sub-Sahara is the worst affected global region, and within South Africa over four million people have been affected by the pandemic. The effects on the economy can be observed on several fronts for example, the weakening of South Africa’s social structure, increasing costs to the state by putting pressure on the limited medical facilities and other social institutions, reducing the skill base, reducing national economic growth rates, etc. Due to the high levels of unemployment experienced in South Africa, several problems become relevant, especially in rural areas. Such problems can be highlighted in terms of an increase in the financial burden placed on those paying for burials. This is also extended to those organizations supplying financial aid to help cover the costs, such as societies and funeral policies. Due to the low levels of income experienced by many in urban centers, this puts a great deal of pressure on government to assist in the burial of those whom are not in a position to afford the funeral costs. Due to the upward pressure on demand for coffins, prices for coffins may increase, which will be transferred onto the rural population, which characteristically experience a greater degree of low incomes, putting additional financial pressure on these people. The increased rate of burials increase the demand on limited burial space, causing costs to rise, putting additional pressure on household savings. This becomes increasingly important, as the levels of household savings in South Africa are relatively low. Chapter Two focuses on the theoretical aspects of price determination. Price setting behavior is not only a method of profit maximization, but is also an extension of marketing strategies used to generate and establish a larger share of any target market. This chapter is based on a literary survey and applies a theoretical approach to price determination, analyzing and comparing market structures. Pricing strategies, nominal and real price rigidities and modern pricing methodologies under the influence of Internet and global markets are explored. Chapter Three takes a close anthropological review of traditional South African cultures and religions, and illustrates how these traditional beliefs and religions influence the decision making of the consumer and the undertaker. Within the context of these cultural perspectives, the issue of cremation as an alternative to the burial is explored. An analysis of the consumer demand is achieved by using the data collected for the consumer and the undertaker surveys. The costs and the consumer decision making regarding burial practices and the financing thereof is highlighted. Burial policies and funeral societies are discussed, and the overall effect that they have on consumer spending patterns, the misallocation of resources as well as the negative tradeoff effects of this misallocation has on the employer, the household, the government and the overall economy. The financing of funerals is also an important issue as the high rates of unemployment and the huge social demands that it places on consumers are forcing the majority to search for funding from other sectors of the economy that already feels the strain of a global slowdown. Economically, this chapter challenges the traditional customs and the redirection of scarce resources that are been greatly misallocated into inappropriate sectors. Chapter Four investigates the influence of HIV/AIDS on the economy, and the influence that HIV/AIDS has on the South African coffin industry. This chapter highlights the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus and the influence that this virus has on society. The role woman play in the South African economy, and the effect of HIV/AIDS on the labor force. The discussion then focuses on HIV/AIDS and the workings of the coffin industry and the near perfectly competitive market structure that functions within the South African coffin industry. Pricing strategies highlighting the role of religion, HIV/AIDS and income are considered and the role of the undertaker in society. The research was predominantly based on the information generated in the undertaker and the consumer surveys as well as a literary survey. However, the undertaker does not operate independently. There are many related industries, which are discussed, and the relationship between them is highlighted. The growth of the complementary industries, similarly, must not be underestimated, as the coffin industry provides them with a springboard from which they may enter the market. Chapter Five constructs a model to show how the influence of HIV/AIDS affects the price setting behavior of coffins. Thereafter, the model introduces the concept of competition, showing how the growing rate of competition, in conjunction with HIV/AIDS, is a more suitable model in determining the influence on price setting behavior. The model is based on the Ordinary Leased Squared (OLS) method, and the model is tested on economic a priori, Statistical evaluation and econometric tests, for example, Autocorrelation, Heteroscedasticity and Multicollinearity. Using Theils Inequality Coefficient, the model is proven sound for forecasting purposes. The combination of HIV/AIDS and competition using the SIC and AIC test proves that this combination is a better-forecast model than if HIV/AIDS was used as a determinant on its own. In chapter Six, the construction, distribution and analysis of the Consumer and the Undertaker surveys are discussed. For the purpose of the study, it became obvious that within the South African coffin industry, there is a gap between available literature on the industry and what was required for the compellation of this research. A detailed discussion on the methodology, purpose, the target sample, limitations and format of the surveys is discussed. The data collected proved very useful on two fronts: Firstly it provided detailed information that was required in order to complete the study. Secondly, the data collected introduced new questions and opened new doors to further investigation. The data provided sufficient information to show the relationship between the economy and the coffin industry. In chapter Seven, the main findings of the study are highlighted by the overwhelming influence of HIV/AIDS which has affected both the nature of the market, as well as price setting behavior. However, it has led to a large degree to the misallocation of resources, that are required in other spheres of the economy. The motivation behind funeral policies is an area of concern, and requires additional research into the social and economic influence of such structures. The influence of the rapid growth of competition has a large role to play in the coffin industry. Furthermore, the traditional beliefs of the consumer need to be protected and the role of the undertaker in this regard is a major concern. The final chapter highlights areas of further research, makes note of shortcomings in the available literature and highlights the role of policy makers with respect to the South African coffin industry.
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