The role of the Industrial Development Corporation in regional development in Southern Africa.
The capability approach to economic development: its applicability to Sub-Saharan Africa
- Authors: Stevens, Jeremy
- Date: 2008-06-20T13:46:22Z
- Subjects: Africa, Sub-Saharan economic policy , Africa, Sub-Saharan economic conditions , Economic development , Well-being
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3284 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/668
- Description: The capability approach’s primary point of departure from mainstream economics may be stated simply: it perceives incomes and commodities value predominantly as instruments or means to other ends. In contrast to mainstream economics, the approach places individual freedom at the centre of its attention. Therefore, income is merely one of numerous variables that influence deprivation. The dissertation aligns itself with the capability approach to development in its conclusion that developments’ primary target ought to go beyond a study of the level of per capita incomes as it has more significant moral implication of diminished lives, agonised existences and a large percentage of premature preventable deaths. Therefore, the dissertation advocates a fundamental shift in the measures that economists utilise in their measurement of poverty. Accordingly, the dissertation suggests that the manner in which economists intellectualise the relationship between poverty and the lives that people lead requires alteration. The dissertation provides evidence, using regression analysis, that the democratic frameworks that are in place in Sub-Saharan Africa are failing to provide the negative freedoms that serve as the environment in which individual’s pursue their own conception of well-being. However, the dissertation acknowledges the constitutive and instrumental importance of democracy in the process of development. Therefore, the dissertation argues that it is the shape of democracy that has led to these results in Sub-Saharan Africa. As a repercussion, democracy remains an important ingredient in the development process. Instead of embracing the view that political freedom and, in particular, democracies failure to assist in human development is evidence of a flaw in the capability approach. The dissertation perceives the failure as an opportunity to re-evaluate the nature of democracies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, there is scope for policy makers to conceptualise and implement policies that will be able to harness the inherent strengths of democracy.
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Trade liberalisation and competitiveness of emerging market economies
- Authors: Çakir, Mustafa
- Date: 2009-03-11T08:46:15Z
- Subjects: Trade liberalisation , Free trade , International trade , Economic development
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:8216 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2275
- Description: MCom , In this study, the aim is to provide answers for the following questions: whether there is any positive relationship between trade liberalisation and competitiveness of emerging economies. How terms of trade affect economic growth in emerging market economies? Finally, do the emerging market economies benefit from free trade in terms of accelerated growth or they are actually harmed? There are two models used in this study to answer the above questions; the first model is the growth model and the second one is the per capita growth model. The first model determines the effects of terms of trade on the overall economic growth, and the second one determines the share of such effect on the population at large. In both models, panel data analysis is applied for eighteen emerging market economies. Based on the economic theory and the results from all the models, terms of trade does prove to have a positive effect on economic growth and standard of living. It is also found that trade liberalisation does improve economic growth which in turn leads to competitiveness. The findings indicate that there is convergence amongst the developing economies. This means that the countries are growing together and emerging economies can be expected to catch up with advanced economies.
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Desperately seeking FDI: the impact of globalisation on the state and its devolved entities
- Authors: Weertman, Warren
- Date: 2009-04-30T09:23:47Z
- Subjects: Globalization , Foreign investments , The state , Economic development , Economic policy (South Africa)
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:8326 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2453
- Description: M.A. , Of our age, perhaps the two defining terms have been “the state” and “globalisation”, each of which is constantly changing and adapting as the international community has to deal with an increasing multiplicity of actors in the field of international relations. Witness not only the rise of supra-national state units such as the European Union, but also the increased importance of sub-national state units such as provinces and cities in international relations. At the same time it is possible to distinguish between various types of globalisation such as political and economic globalisation. Each of these types of globalisation influences the state in a variety of ways. For example, political globalisation has led to the rise in importance of supra-national and sub-national state units. As for economic globalisation, this study assesses the influence of one particular feature of economic globalisation namely FDI on the South African state and its sub-national state units, particularly Gauteng and Johannesburg. In order to assess the influence of foreign direct investment on the structure of the South African state, the study provides a theoretical framework of globalisation and the state. This theoretical framework is then built upon by incrementally discussing the structure and economic policies of the central South African state before assessing the structure and economic policies of Gauteng and Johannesburg. Particular attention is paid to the economic responses of the central South African state, Gauteng and Johannesburg to a particular manifestation of economic globalisation, namely foreign direct investment. In this regard the study discusses the precepts of the central state‟s policy known as “Growth, Employment, and Redistribution” as a means of attempting to attract foreign direct investment to South Africa. Within the context of Gauteng and Johannesburg the study assesses how these sub-national state units have adopted local economic development policies as a means to attract foreign direct investment. At the same time it is necessary to consider how these local economic development policies fit into the neo-liberal precepts of central government‟s economic policies. It was noted above that it is possible to distinguish between various types of globalisation such as political and economic globalisation. Each of these types of globalisation influences the state in variety of ways. This study assesses the influence of one particular feature of economic globalisation namely FDI on the South African state and its sub-national state units, particularly Gauteng and Johannesburg. In order to assess the influence of FDI on the South African state, Gauteng and Johannesburg, the study assesses how each of these three spheres of the South African state are attempting to attract FDI through the adoption of economic policies and other policies (such as GEAR and LED programmes). This study will assess the possibility of whether Gauteng and Johannesburg should be given greater autonomy and flexibility to attract FDI. The question which the study thus seeks to answer is: how does FDI (as a feature of globalisation) influence the structure of the South African state and the relationship between the central South African state and its sub-national state units?
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Impacts of primary energy constraints in the 21st century
- Authors: Nel, Willem P.
- Date: 2010-03-25T06:25:17Z
- Subjects: Energy conservation , Energy development , Power resources , Fossil fuels , Nuclear energy , Sustainable development , Economic development , Global warming
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6691 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3094
- Description: D.Phil. , Global society has evolved into a complex multi-dimensional system in which it has become increasingly difficult to construct and maintain a systemic model of cause and effect. Specialisation and abstraction in the various disciplines of scientific and societal complexity has led to divergent theories of sustainability. Failure to integrate real life problems across disciplines poses a threat to modern society because the causal links between disciplines are unattended in many instances and events in one dimension could lead to catastrophic unintended consequences in another. In light of the above, this thesis contributes towards the multi-disciplinary integration of some of the most important sustainability concerns of modern society, namely Energy Security, Economic Growth and Global Warming. Analysing these real-life sustainability issues in a multi-disciplinary context leads to conclusions that are controversial in terms of established philosophical worldviews and policy trends. Firstly, the thesis establishes deterministic expectations of an imminent era of declining Energy Security resulting from the exhaustion of non-renewable fossil fuel resources, despite optimistic expectations of technology improvements in alternative energy sources such as renewable and nuclear. Secondly, the exhaustion of non-renewable fossil fuel resources imposes limits to the potential sources of anthropogenic carbon emissions that render the more pessimistic emissions cases considered in the global warming debate irrelevant. The lower level of attainable carbon emissions challenges the merits of the conventional carbon feedback cycle with the result that the predicted global warming is within acceptance limits of the contemporary global warming debate. Thirdly, the consequences of declining Energy Security on socio-economic welfare is a severe divergence from historical trends and demands the reassertion of the role of energy in human development, including Economic Growth theory. The thesis develops a novel economic growth model that treats energy as an explicit and Autonomous Factor of Production, thereby facilitating plausible predictions of future Economic Growth potential. The results challenge the sustainability of the current free-market capitalist economic system and demand strong policy responses to avoid the collapse of modern society.
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Long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth : evidence from SADC countries
- Authors: Mulamba, Kabeya Clement
- Date: 2010-10-04T07:57:57Z
- Subjects: Economic development , Public expenditures , Southern Africa's economic conditions
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6911 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3422
- Description: M.Comm. , This study attempts to investigate the validity of Wagner’s law and the Keynesian perspective of a long-run relationship and causality between government expenditure and economic growth in SADC countries from 1988 to 2004. In order to determine the existence of the long-run relationship and causality, a univariate analysis is carried out to assess whether panel series are integrated at the same order. Subsequently, this study finds that all panel series under investigation are indeed integrated of the same order. Therefore, the second stage consists of assessing whether there is cointegration between government expenditure and economic growth. This study applies two procedures of panel cointegration, namely, the Pedroni panel cointegration test and the Kao panel cointegration test. Both procedures find that certainly a long-run relationship exists between government expenditure and economic growth in the SADC. Moreover, since two equations are estimated in this study, there is unidirectional causality. In both equation 1 and 2, the study finds that economic growth Granger causes government expenditure in both the long and the short-run which is consistent with the Wagner’s law than the Keynesian stance.
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Promoting remittance as a tool for economic development in South Africa
- Authors: Gumede, Sibusiso Sanele Ernest
- Date: 2010-10-04T08:08:58Z
- Subjects: Economic development , Migrant remittances
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6913 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3424
- Description: M.Phil. , Global capital inflows particularly foreign direct investment, official development assistance and portfolio flows, have over time, played a prominent role in strengthening developing economies. There is, however, a recent phenomenon in which migrant remittances have turned out to be the leading source of capital inflows to developing countries after foreign direct investment. Remittance flows have reacted largely to an increasing international migration, albeit more rapidly than the latter. It is observed nevertheless that in the case of South Africa, the impact of neither of the two phenomena on economic development is least understood. This formed the basis for this study. The study aims to sensitise policy officials to the positive potential impacts of remittances on economic development whilst also arguing that international migration is an exogenous phenomenon that cannot be prohibited. However, it is a source of a much needed resources, provided realistic instruments are in place to examine, monitor and ensure that remittances are used appropriately. The study is empirical and is based on the literature review on the subjects of remittances and migration. The research has consistently demonstrated that remittances improve economic development. It is within this context that South Africa should, as a matter of urgency, develop an effective policy framework to influence remittances for development.
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The role of foreign direct investment in regional economic integration
- Authors: De Beer, Frans Alwyn
- Date: 2010-11-09T06:18:38Z
- Subjects: Foreign investments , Economic development , Commercial treaties
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6951 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3460
- Description: M.Comm. , This mini dissertation is a literature review that deals with trade liberalisation in the form of Regional Trade Agreements. It focuses on the importance of FDI for economic growth of developing countries. This study investigates ‘new regionalism’ critically. New regionalism suggests that economic growth may be possible if developing countries form trading blocs, which partner with a larger economy and engage in policy reforms aimed at attracting FDI. The study concludes that a trading bloc may possibly attract FDI and create export and growth opportunities. However, the developing countries should be able to manage all aspects associated with REI. These aspects include the negative effects of trade diversion, the impact of adjustment costs, and the administrative requirements of managing RoO in the landscape of highly proliferated RTAs. In addition, FDI will only result in the required growth if the developing economy is able to absorb and assimilate the new technologies and production methods FDI is expected to bring to its shores. Moreover, the FDI should be targeted so as to develop industries of comparative advantage. In order to absorb these benefits a high level of skilled labour is required as well as support structures to assist with training and development of the labour force. In addition, new rules under the WTO is restrictive in the latitude it allows developing countries to assimilate the production methods and technologies of MNCs. The research concludes that careful planning and policy development is required prior to REI if it is to have a hope of succeeding in its goals.
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The impact of bank intermediation on economic growth in South Africa, 1981-2007
- Authors: Mashele, Shighughudwana
- Date: 2010-11-09T06:26:59Z
- Subjects: Economic development , Banks and banking , Finance
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6958 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3467
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , This study essentially is about the correlation between finance and economic growth. The research hypothesis postulates a direct causal correlation between bank-intermediated finance and economic growth in South Africa (SA) during the reference period. International research findings give mixed signals on the role, if any, that finance plays in economic growth. In the past, many economic commentators ignored the role of finance in economic growth, or argued that finance had no direct role in economic growth. However, contemporary research tends to assign a positive role for finance in economic growth. This has implications for economic policy-making, because policies which promote bank intermediation indirectly contribute towards enhancing prospects for economic growth, and vice versa. An innovative dimension in the discourse on the finance-economic growth nexus is introduced in this study by means of qualitatively linking bank regulation to economic growth. It is argued in this thesis that bank regulation influences the intensity and scope of the mobilisation and allocation of loanable funds in an economy. If the financial regulatory regime restricts banks from optimising their mobilisation of surplus funds, and the subsequent allocation of credit for productive investment, then the prospects for economic growth will be diminished. On the contrary, financial regulatory policies that promote bank intermediation are also likely to enhance prospects for economic growth. Moreover, financial regulation that unwittingly triggers financial crises, such as bank runs, will be harmful to the performance of the economy. This emphasises that financial regulation should be designed to create an environment in which stability reigns in the financial markets.
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The role of service delivery for local economic development : a case study of Mamelodi township, 1999-2008
- Authors: Ramafamba, Elvis
- Date: 2011-08-31T06:47:31Z
- Subjects: Economic development , Municipal services , Local government , Community development , Mamelodi (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7176 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3787
- Description: M.Comm. , The study aims to give a better understanding of the relationship between service delivery and local economic development through the examination of local economic development theories and by evaluating their historical development and evolution in the world, Africa and South Africa. The study also determines, through assessment of available information, whether or not some of the areas in Mamelodi are receiving services from the municipality or local government to sustain local economic development. The theories underpinning LED were examined in this study, and all indicate that there exists a strong relationship between LED and service delivery. From the early stages of LED, areas with inadequate service delivery failed to attract businesses that are instrumental to LED. Central place theory maintains different growth prospects of central and peripheral regions. Attraction theory indicates that communities initiate policies and strategies that will make their areas more attractive. There is a need for the adequate provision of infrastructure to sustain LED, as indicated by the growth and regional theory. Economic base theory maintains that the success of the local economy is determined by the demand of its produced goods, services and products by areas outside its local economic boundaries. Location theory emphasises the importance of minimum cost due to the state of the industrial site in the local area. LED has been developed in different countries to address various economic problems. After the great depression, there was a high rate of unemployment and LED was used as an instrument to create jobs for the local communities in some countries. The study indicates that in some countries like Latin America where LED was implemented, economic problems such as unemployment in the municipal level were addressed. South Africa also had the objective of addressing unemployment in the municipal areas when LED was introduced. However, municipalities have to draft the integrated development plans to indicate how they can tackle such problems. Mamelodi has a number of projects implemented as a way of promoting LED. Jobs were created and areas improved economically. The CTMM has also provided some funding to ensure that the infrastructure in Mamelodi is adequate to support LED. However, much still needs to be done as the area has a number of challenges in terms of housing, water supply, and other related infrastructure for LED. Service delivery has an important role to play in the sustainability of LED. The history of LED has shown that countries that did not provide services in their municipalities failed to succeed in LED as compared to those with adequate service delivery. Financial incentives are other factors that play a major role in the sustainability of LED. Businesses need to be supported financially to create jobs and retain existing jobs.
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Developing entrepreneurial organisations for sustainable growth
- Authors: Du Plessis, Andre
- Date: 2011-12-06
- Subjects: Entrepreneurship , Economic development , Sustainable development
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:1812 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4174
- Description: M.Comm. , The overall objective of this study was to find the influence of entrepreneurship on sustainable economic growth by defining entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial organisations as well as the inter relationships between entrepreneurship, development and growth. In today's competitive environment the influences on success through sustainable economic growth needs to be known. This will allow the understanding of failure as well as the reproduction of the success in other business. If the success can be reproduced this will be of benefit to the organisation, the community and at a macro level the country. There is an everincreasing amount of research to quantify the contribution entrepreneurship has to sustainable economic growth. Most research agrees entrepreneurship has a significant impact on economic growth. What is also of importance is that the economic growth is sustainable since there are areas such as the Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises that may yield growth in the short term but can not sustain it. This can be argued as being more harmful to an economy than no growth at all. This strongly contrasts entrepreneurship where the sustainability of the growth is paramount. Entrepreneurship has over the past years enjoyed more and more attention as the underlying reason for sustainable growth. One of the reasons for this is that specific theories such as activity based costing or total quality management or any other management theory does not explain the complex inter-relationships of an organisation. Entrepreneurship is viewed as a broader approach that includes various management theories but also attributes the sustainable growth to the softer areas of study such as psychology, culture and creativity. These areas must be researched to assess the true impact on sustainable growth. The effect of the softer areas such as psychology on entrepreneurship, is shown by the way an entrepreneur is motivated. By understanding how an entrepreneur is motivated, more individuals can be exposed to this set of circumstances thereby potentially increasing the number of entrepreneurs. The effect of culture on the climate for developing entrepreneurship is also important. If the culture that is conducive to entrepreneurship can be maintained and introduced to a wider audience, it may be possible to increase entrepreneurship. In the same way creativity, which has been linked to studies in entrepreneurship, may be stimulated thereby increasing entrepreneurship. Various stakeholders have roles in developing entrepreneurship. This is important to understand since if these stakeholders do not develop entrepreneurship there may be a decrease in sustainable growth. The stakeholders must know the role as well as being measured on the success of the development. Even if stakeholders develop entrepreneurship, the entrepreneurs must then make use of the favourable environment to grow at a rate that is sustainable. This can be achieved by the use of entrepreneurial strategies. The conclusion is the inter-relationships and the positive impact entrepreneurship has on sustainable growth can be affected most by mentoring a potential entrepreneur. This was a method that produced the most significant results in previous empirical studies.
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Operationalising social capital in developing political economies – a comparative assessment and analysis
- Authors: Müller, Jozet
- Date: 2012-06-04
- Subjects: Infrastructure (Economics) , Social capital (Economics) , Political economy , Social capital (Sociology) , Economic development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2359 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4814
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil , The study focuses on the role of social capital in socio-economic development in developing political economies. While the concept of social capital originated as a sociological construct focusing on social relations, the theoretical debate has recently developed towards a grounding in political science, political development and political economy. Despite these advancements, a universally accepted definition has not been arrived at. However, there is consensus regarding the elements of social capital, which include norms, networks, institutions, relationships, civic engagement, membership of voluntary associations, trust, reciprocity and altruism. Dimensions of social capital include the structural and the cognitive, and types include bonding, bridging and linking social capital. This study examines the role of linking social capital, specifically in facilitating the relationship between state and society, aimed at mutual benefit. Social capital is regarded as a resource, particularly in communities with limited or no access to other, more traditional forms of capital. Operationalisation of social capital is examined by means of a comparative and analytical review of existing indexes, case studies and surveys. In this regard, initiatives in both developed and developing political economies are examined. The study emphasises the multi-disciplinary nature of social capital and propagates its value in socio-economic development. Empirical data that confirm the relationship between social capital and economic growth are presented. Initiatives to contribute to the development of conceptual frameworks and to increase and improve qualitative data are assessed, in order to determine the contribution of social capital to socio-economic development. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on the important contribution of the World Bank’s Social Capital Initiative. The literature emphasises the interdependence of politics and economy and the study highlights the need for a political economy approach to socio-economic development. In this regard, the development initiatives of various multi-lateral development agencies are examined. The focus is on the current trend to follow a political economy approach to country strategies, programmes and projects aimed at achieving socio-economic development. The study concludes that social capital is a valuable element in this regard and argues that political economy analysis tools are well placed to integrate social capital in a multi-disciplinary approach to address poverty and socio-economic development challenges.
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Holisme en ontwikkeling
- Authors: De Beer, Stéfan Johannes
- Date: 2012-08-14
- Subjects: Holism , Economic development , Philosophy and civilization
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9148 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5602
- Description: M.A. , The inability and shortcomings of current scientific models, methods and theories to fully and effectively explain certain phenomena and provide certain solutions to everyday problems, is a great cause for concern. The ruling Newtonian scientific paradigm that serves as the foundation for current scientific methods and theories, provides an insufficient ontological basis for studying and explaining complex and interdependent phenomena and questions. The attempt to explain and address problems and phenomena from this deterministic and fragmented viewpoint, was generally unsuccessful - an instance that is especially prominent in the social sciences. As with most fields of study, Development studies is also affected by the abovementioned reality. Development theories and approaches are still being distinguished by singular and fragmented approaches and views, where only single facets of the development process are being addressed. These theories and approaches also try to find solutions for development problems from a Western, First World perspective. Local communities' meaning-giving context was, and still is, rarely considered as part of the development equation and development as viewed by the West, was consequently "enforced" on these communities. In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis to a search for approaches that are inclusive, non-deterministic and process-driven which would better explain complex behaviour, problematique and phenomena. This tendency is also to be found in all the fields of scientific inquiry, including Development studies. In view of the abovementioned reality, it is subsequently necessary to examine the holistic ontology as it provides a clear and essential, albeit supplementary, alternative to the Newtonian scientific paradigm. The holistic ontology, which manifests concepts like linearity, causation, determinism, objectivity and inductive reasoning, differs from the Newtonian scientific paradigm in that it represents an opposite reality where concepts such as process, context and recursive relationships play a central role. The holistic ontology is also non-linear, non-causal and non-deterministic in nature. This dissertation then focuses on the holistic ontology as applied to development studies. The topics that receive attention in this dissertation are the meaning and goals of the concept of "development", the evolution of development theory, the concept and nature of holism and how the holistic ontology can be applied and operationalised in terms of development. It becomes evident that holism can contribute in a positive manner towards the whole development discourse and that this approach will sensitise developers (on a conscious level) of the importance of communities' recursive relationships and meaning-giving context in the development process. The holistic ontology thus provides, for the first time, a clear and definite alternative to the current fragmented Newtonian-based approaches from where development can be implemented.
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The macroeconomic imperatives of growth, employment and redistribution [GEAR] : an analysis of investment and policy choice
- Authors: Kavese, Kambale
- Date: 2012-08-15
- Subjects: Reconstruction and Development Programme (South Africa) , South Africa - Economic policy , Economic development , Macroeconomics - South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9294 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5737
- Description: M.Comm. , International studies have indicated that a high ratio of investment relative to Gross Domestic Product (GOP) is one of the most important preconditions for achieving sustainable high economic growth. For the South African economy to achieve a high employment and economic growth rate, it requires two further important factors, namely a sustained increase in productivity and an expansion of production capacity. Poor levels of investment performance, coupled with a lack of skilled labour, are the main reasons for restricted expansion in the country's growth potential and declining job opportunities. Keynes, (1936:30) argued that employment cannot increase without investment increasing, and strongly declared that the level of investment determines the level of employment. In his analysis, Keynes (1936:30) concluded that investment is a driving force for economic growth. Investment expenditure can be divided into four categories: - infrastructural investment in the public sector;- infrastructural investment in residential construction; - business fixed investment; and - the net change in the business inventories. This study examines Gross Domestic Fixed Investment and focuses mainly on private fixed investment as a driving force for economic growth for many years, GOP growth has been declining; unemployment has increased...
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Technical skills for technoeconomic development
- Authors: Renecke, Sean Godfrey
- Date: 2012-08-28
- Subjects: Economic development , South Africa -- Economic conditions , Labor supply -- South Africa , Unemployment -- South Africa , Education -- South Africa , Technical education -- South Africa , Engineering -- Study and teaching -- South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3288 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6693
- Description: M.Ing. , The low level of living standard of South Africa's black population is a characteristic of its history. The economic growth and development of any country rely on its factors of production. The main factor of production that can not be neglected is its labour force. The labour force of South Africa is plagued by its history, where the strategy of the past government of that era was to ensure that the black population remains uneducated. South Africa has however moved beyond its past and is looking into the future where its people can live in harmony. The majority of the population fall between the ages of 15-35 classified as youth. Unfortunately the highest unemployment rate occurs amongst the black youth of South Africa. The challenge South Africa faces is to alleviate poverty and the high rate of unemployment. The focus is to boost the work force by changing the skills profile of the people, which is currently enforced by the government through the Skills Development Act. The study undertaken indicated that to achieve a better life for all a paradigm shift in the educational system of the country must be initiated. A much needed technical skills development is required. However the long term remedy could be to ensure that the schools provide quality learners who will be able to be utilised in the work place. Another important factor of production is technology innovation, the only set-back is that there is a small community of engineers in the country and the enrolment figures for this field of study are not promising. One of the root causes of this is the low percentage of mathematics and physical science learners completing school. As a result there are a low percentage of learners moving into a technical field of study especially engineering. One of ways to unlock South Africa's economic growth is an investment in its people and engineers are the most suitable custodians. The engineer can drive technology which is one of the portals to techno-economic growth. While humanity shares one planet, it is the planet on which there are two worlds, the world of the rich and the world of the poor. Raanan Weitz, 1986. We cannot rebuild our society at the expense and standard of living of ordinary men and women. We cannot develop at the expense of social justice. We cannot compete without a floor of basic human standards. Nelson Mandela The school in many underdeveloped countries is a reflection and a fruit of the surrounding underdevelopment, from which arises its deficiency, its quantitative and qualitative poverty. But little by little, and there lies the really serious risk, the school in these underdeveloped countries risks becoming in turn a factor of underdevelopment. Joseph Kizerbo, former Minister of Education, Burkino Faso
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Local economic development in a globalised world economy : a South African perspective
- Authors: Vosloo, Lizet
- Date: 2012-09-12
- Subjects: Economic development , South Africa -- Economic conditions
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:10219 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7592
- Description: M.Comm. , Cities around the world face, to different degrees, the same problems of inequality, poverty, unemployment and other shortcomings regarding basic human needs. These realities are compounded by international trends and new realities like rapid urbanisation, technological revolution and the rise of a new economic order that is linked to phenomena like globalisation and a changing competitive environment, that directly impact on the economies of cities. A combination of these factors form the new external framework in which cities must address their economic destiny. South African cities face the same problems as cities around the globe, but most of these problems have been worsened for a section of the population by the country's history of racial segregation. However, South Africa's new found political freedom provides the opportunity to rebuild the economy in a way where even the poorest communities are free to play a part in, and be able to share in the advantages. Even though the opportunity is there, a process is necessary that will make it possible to take on economic strategies and projects that alleviate poverty, create employment opportunities, promote growth, mobilise existing resources and make the most of new investment potential for the upliftment of the wider community. This process is not simple, and necessitates a wide range of initiatives on different levels and in different contexts. It is generally accepted that 'top-down' initiatives on their own are not sufficient, and require complementary 'bottom-up' initiatives. In the international arena the notion has already gained acceptance that a community's economic and employment-creating future are increasingly dependant on the initiatives that its own citizens take - or the failure to take on the challenge. In line with this argument, Local Economic Development (LED) is being promoted internationally as a local approach that addresses the problems listed earlier, filling the gaps that national policy directives have left, and putting the responsibility for economic development of the locality in the hands of the new local role players. LED could be just what South Africa needs: a local approach to local problems that compliment national policy initiatives.
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Effective knowledge sharing within communities of practice in a financial institution
- Authors: Nkuna, Shyless
- Date: 2013-07-18
- Subjects: Knowledge management , Information technology , Economic development , Business education
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7625 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8495
- Description: M.Comm. (Business Management) , This research paper is a study of the effectiveness of knowledge sharing within the communities of practice (CoPs) in a financial institution in South Africa. Specifically, the focus is on investigating the requirements for establishing CoPs that share knowledge effectively within this organisation. This was achieved through understanding the current state of knowledge sharing within the CoPs, identifying critical factors for effectively sharing knowledge and thereafter determining reasons for a CoP not being effective in sharing knowledge. The results showed that there is still a long way to go to ensure the effectiveness of knowledge sharing through CoPs. The CoPs within this financial institution are informal in nature, and therefore not necessarily given the attention that they deserve. Time used for CoPs is not maximised effectively, which reduces the chances of their effectiveness and improvement of productivity. Lack of effective system infrastructure to support knowledge sharing is also a massive challenge for the CoPs, as is not having virtual Cops to reduce challenges faced in the use of face-to-face CoPs. The literature review in chapter 2 of this paper covers the importance of the role of technology in supporting knowledge sharing, which is supportive to this finding.
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The effects of financial liberalisation on the sustainable growth rate of dual listed companies on the JSE Limited
- Authors: Serithi, Legoabe Tumelo
- Date: 2014-06-10
- Subjects: Capital market , Economic development , Sustainable development , JSE Limited , Johannesburg Stock Exchange , Dual listed companies
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11438 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/11134
- Description: M.Com. (Financial Management) , In 1995, the South African government needed to address the widening poverty gap. The manner in which they would do so was through the process of financial market liberalisation of the JSE. The intention behind the process of financial liberalisation on the JSE was to increase the liquidity of the JSE. The significance of this study is that it would provide regulators of financial markets, policy makers and academics information on the effectiveness of the liberalisation of the JSE on dual listed companies’ ability to grow in a sustainable manner. Previous literature has found the risk sharing benefit associated with financial market liberalisation. With the increased number of participants in market would increase the chance of successful trades. Previous studies have found that there is a positive correlation with financial market liberalisation and market liquidity. Exchange controls have been put in place to prevent capital flight in sudden economic down turns. Certain studies have found that financial market liberalisation on has had minimal impact on the market capitalisation This study investigates the effects the financial liberalisation on the JSE had on dual listed companies’ sustainable growth rates. A purposive sampling technique was used in this study and a sample of 28 dual listed companies was selected. The approach to this study was an explanatory approach and the research paradigm was archival. The statistical tools which were utilised in the study were broken into two components, namely, the descriptive statistics and the inferential statistics. The data that were used in the study were secondary data collected from I-Net Bridge. The results of this study indicated that the financial liberalisation of the JSE did have an impact on the sustainable growth rates of dual listed companies on the JSE. Recommendations were made in this study for the dual listed companies to improve their net profit margins. The methods in which the dual listed companies are able to improve their net profit margins are by finding competitive sustainable advantages. It was further recommended that the Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 needs to be amended to create a conducive economic environment for the dual listed companies to grow sustainably. It was further recommended that the dual listed companies on the JSE invest in human capital in order to improve their sustainable growth rate.
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The impact of economic integration on trade growth in Africa: a critical analysis of the East African Community
- Authors: Otieno, Grace Awuoth
- Date: 2014-06-11
- Subjects: East African Community , Africa, East - Economic integration , Africa, East - Commerce , Economic development , Trade growth - East African Community
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11522 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/11217
- Description: M.Com. (Economics) , The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of economic integration on trade growth in the East African Community (EAC). The EAC created in June 2001, is the regional umbrella organisation overseeing a pan-nation, an inter-governmental trade bloc for the Republics of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. The objectives of the organisation are to create an environment where free movement of people, goods and labour can occur, spurring economic growth and well-being of the region’s citizens. The concept of economic integration emerged post the Second World War (WWII), as an avenue for creating a protected large free-trade area in which gradually capital movements could be liberalised. It has been adopted in different regions with varying degrees of success. It is in this context that the EAC was examined. The study uses two models to analyse the impact of economic integration on trade growth; the institutional integration index and the augmented gravity model. The first model is important in the analysis of economic integration in that it provides evidence of the impact that deeper and wider integration has on trade growth. The second model, the augmented gravity model is an “augmentation” of the traditional gravity model with additional variables that cater for the effects of the second, third and fourth stages of integration. The study applies panel data analysis on a 10 year data set and empirically assesses the impact of economic integration on trade growth. Based on the results of the two models, it is found that economic integration does lead to trade growth, however because the EAC has only attained the first stage of integration i.e. Customs union and is currently pursuing the second stage i.e. Common markets, factors that come into play in the latter stages of integration i.e. monetary union and political federation, have no significant impact on trade.
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A comparison between the mental models of entrepreneurs involved in successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurial activity
- Authors: Le Roux, Suzette Johanna
- Date: 2015
- Subjects: Entrepreneurship , Organizational change , Economic development , Businesspeople , Success in business
- Language: English
- Type: Doctoral (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/374712 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/82617 , uj:18980
- Description: Abstract:Orientation As an entrepreneur/mentor, I am fascinated by the issue of why some start-up businesses flourish and others struggle to survive. In line with this and in order to increase understanding of entrepreneurial success, there is, as Bakker, Curşeu, and Vermeulen (2007) state, a need for empirical research to be conducted into the thought processes of entrepreneurs during strategic decision-making. In this study I endeavoured to discover why so many businesses fail and, subsequently, find a way to improve the success rate of novice entrepreneurs by exploring the mental models that support their decision-making. Research question The research question that guided the study investigated the differences between the mental models of entrepreneurs involved in successful businesses and those involved in unsuccessful entrepreneurial activity. Research aim and objectives The aim of the study was to explore and describe the concrete experiences and mental models of a small group of entrepreneurs, of which I was one. The following key objectives were identified for the study: To identify the critical elements of the mental models of entrepreneurs involved in successful entrepreneurial activity To ascertain the way in which the mental models of entrepreneurs involved in successful entrepreneurial activity differ from those involved in unsuccessful entrepreneurial activity To suggest interventions that would be appropriate for altering the mental models of entrepreneurs involved in unsuccessful activity so that they resemble the mental models of those involved in successful entrepreneurial activity... , D.Phil.
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