Die spanningsveld tussen die department van onderwys en skoolbeheerliggame van openbare skole in die Vrystaat wat Afrikaans as onderrigmedium aanbied met spesifieke verwysing na die beleid van godsdiensonderrig en- beoefening in skole.
- Authors: Clase, Pieter Fourie
- Date: 2008-06-24T07:48:33Z
- Subjects: school boards , language and education , Free State (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3599 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/697
- Description: The existence of a field of tension between the Department of Education and school governing bodies of public schools in South-Africa is of great concern to all partners in the education system, especially taking into consideration that these parents’ bodies were established by the government of the day as equal partners in the management of their children’s schools. Although there will always be differences amongst role-players regarding the running of schools, it can be harmful and to the disadvantage of the learners if these differences are not handled in a professional and transparent way. Against this background, the aim of this research was to investigate the existence of a possible field of tension between the Department of Education and school governing bodies of public schools in the Free State where Afrikaans is being offered as medium of instruction. The purpose of the study was to identify the origin of the field of tension in an effort to describe and analyze different aspects thereof. Special emphasis was also placed on the revised policy on religion in education as an example of possible tension. The introductory chapters explain the background of the empirical investigation. In these chapters attention was given to: • The Department of Education as instrument of the state and its responsibilities towards governing bodies. • The role of the school governing body as partner of the Department of Education in a democratic educational dispensation. Special reference was made to the duties and responsibilities of school governing bodies according to the South-African Schools’ Act. • The manifestation of the field of tension between the Department of Education and school governing bodies in real life situations. A variety of recently documented examples were looked at. • The application of the revised policy regarding religion in education on school level was evaluated. An empirical investigation was undertaken on the basis of the theoretical framework mentioned. The views of respondents from school governing bodies and the Department of Education were tested by making use of a structured empirical-quantitative questionnaire. The aim with the questionnaire was to determine whether there is indeed a field of tension, and if so, what the nature and scope of such a field of tension entails. A further aim with the questionnaire was to identify additional fields of tension which were not necessarily found in the literature previously studied. The respondents eventually confirmed the existence of a field of tension between school governing bodies and the Department of Education in an overwhelming way, which only emphasized to the researcher the necessity to intervene in an effort to defuse this dangerous situation. The validity and reliability of the empirical component of the research was ensured by making use of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Test, the Bartlet Test as well as the Cronbach ∞ - coeffisient. A factor analysis was also done on the data to ensure that the findings were as reliable as possible. An evaluation of the findings, reveals the following core problems between school governing bodies and the Department of Education in the Free Sate that have to be dealt with before a sound mutual relationship between these two partners can again be developed: • Mutual mistrust in one another’s motives, • A lack of knowledge regarding the content and regulations of SASA, • A lack of communication and misinterpretation of education policy, • A lack of transparency and irresponsible action taken by the Department of Education, • A lack of support to school governing bodies, • Applications of educational policy in practice that do not comply with the regulations of SASA, • School governing bodies fearing the department’s infringement in their powers; • Refusal by school governing bodies to adapt to changes in the educational system. Recommendations for defusing the unhealthy field of tension between two of the most important partners in the education system includes the organizing of a provincial indaba on the initiative of the education department as soon as possible. It was found that the single most important factor that leads to a field of tension between school governing bodies and the Department of Education is a mutual feeling of mistrust between the two partners. On such an indaba the partners will have to assure one another of their support, good faith and willingness to work together towards a common goal. It will also be necessary to agree on the application of the regulations of SASA in practice. It is important that the Free State Department of Education would consider the establishment of a functional Directorate: School governance and –management or a PCF (Provincial Consultative Forum) on provincial level to ensure a body that is visible on school level and which can communicate with school governing bodies to advise them on matters of mutual interest. It is of the utmost importance that all members of school governing bodies as well as School Management Developers should undergo compulsory training by professional facilitators about the content and regulations of SASA and the application thereof in practice. Such training should be of a very high standard and should allow for the differentiation between groups of parents on the grounds of differences in language, skills, knowledge, experience, etc. It is also advised that departmental officials should be trained together with the school governing bodies under their control. It is also of critical importance to emphasize to school governing bodies the necessity to review the different ways of communication between themselves and the parent communities they represent. They owe it to them as their representatives and it will assist them in defusing potential fields of tension that might occur. If both partners are willing to take ownership of these recommendations in good faith and put in an honest effort to make them work, it will lead to the defusion of potential unhealthy problem areas. Only in this way will these role-players be able to create a mutual understanding and respect for one another’s point of view in the interest of the most important partner in the education process - the learner. , Prof. J.C. Kok
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Effective school budgeting for the optimum utilization of physical resources.
- Authors: Choonara, Mohamed Afzel
- Date: 2008-06-24T07:50:16Z
- Subjects: school budgets , school boards , educational finance , school management and organization , school improvement programs
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9653 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/706
- Description: The Schools Act 84 of 1996 has given governing bodies (SGBs) the responsibility of managing school finances. The Act prescribes that the SGB must prepare a budget annually. A school’s budget is an important financial management tool, which ensures that adequate resources are procured in a cost-effective manner in order to enhance teaching and learning. However, schools are grappling with diminishing financial resources and this factor reduces the school’s capacity to respond to the changing needs of learners. Furthermore, SGBs lack the necessary skills and competence to manage funds. The general aim of this research was to determine whether schools prepare budgets effectively, resulting in the optimum utilization of physical resources which will improve the quality of teaching and learning. A literature study was undertaken relating to effective budgeting for the optimum utilisation of physical resources for effective teaching and learning to take place. It outlined school finances in other countries and the impact that budgets have on effective school management. It also gave a detailed account of the process of budgeting and more importantly it outlined in detail the effect of physical resources on school improvement. A quantitative study was made through a structured questionnaire developed from a literature survey. A discussion of the respondents sampled, their biographical details in the form of graphs and the return-rate of questionnaires were also discussed. The questionnaire was discussed as well as the mean scores of various items. Some pertinent questions relating to effective budgeting was also discussed. Educators regard financial management as an important component of school management. They also regard the optimum utilization of resources as key to effective teaching and learning in the classroom. The data was analysed. The Pearson’s Chi Square value as well as Cramer’s V value was discussed using cross-tabulations. Pertinent questions were analysed using these techniques and possible explanations were given to empirical findings. Taking it from school to school or using cross-tabulation on whether educators are SGB members or not, reveals a similar trend that budgets are being drawn up through very little input from all stakeholders. This is a cause for concern. Few educators agree that the DoE provides schools with the necessary physical resources for teaching. This implies that schools have to provide the necessary resources for effective teaching to take place, which further impacts on the budgetary process. Schools have to levy fees on its learners or embark on fundraising projects to supplement the monies from the state. Finally findings from the literature as well important empirical findings were discussed, together with recommendations. Although some SGB training was provided, it has not been focused and thorough, or it has been done by incompetent trainers. Workshops should be conducted by accountants and financial experts with careful monitoring at each stage. There should be regular feedback and evaluation. SGBs should co-opt financial experts from their communities to assist in this delicate task. The SGB should ensure that they involve all stakeholders when initiating the budget process. In this regard, schools could make use of programme budgeting so that all learning areas are catered for and all educators, parents and the community at large are involved. Effective budgeting will go a long way towards achieving the educational goals of schools by ensuring that all physical resources are utilized optimally. , Prof. R. Mestry
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Financial management as the function of the school governing body.
- Authors: Gubuza, Sibongile Faith
- Date: 2008-08-20T09:44:08Z
- Subjects: school management and organization , financial management , school boards , school budgets , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7970 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/888
- Description: A financial function is one of the aspects of a business enterprise and a department that is involved with finances of the business is known as a financial department. Financial management, as a discipline, is interlinked with other activities that occur within a business organization such as production, marketing, purchasing, personnel functions, et cetera (Cronje, et. al. 1991:16,22). In a school organization there are different departments and committees, which are dependent on the financial committee of the institution for their survival. The finance committee focuses on making decisions with regard to the finances of the school and the generation of extra income, through alternative sources to add value to the organization, for the reason that schools cannot operate successfully with school fund only. Berkhout and Berkhout (1992:4) outline sources of finance that can assist the committee to generate more funds. For a school to operate and perform, the financial management function effectively, it is necessary for one to understand the internal and external environmental factors, which can affect the smooth running of the school. , Dr. P.J. du Plessis
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The role of the governing body in macro planning on LSEN public hospital schools.
- Authors: Lowane, Velaphi Elizabeth
- Date: 2008-08-26T09:15:11Z
- Subjects: school boards , parent participation in education , special education , curriculum planning , hospital schools , Johannesburg ( South Africa )
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:4092 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/943
- Description: This study is an investigation on the role of the School Governing Body (SGB) in macro planning of LSEN Hospital Schools. The literature review revealed that much has not yet been done pertaining to the involvement of parents in macro planning at the school level. For this research, qualitative research was conducted on educators, principals and parents who are members of the SGB at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital School and Johannesburg Hospital School. The researcher used interviews, notes taking and observation to collect data. The findings disclosed that most of the SGB members had no knowledge about section 20 status as laid down by SASA. They are not aware of their rights and limitations due to lack of professional training. The stakeholders involved in these schools, when doing macro planning, are the internal stakeholders only (the principals and educators). Based on the findings of this study, recommendations and guidelines have been provided to improve the involvement of parents in the school macro planning and management. , Prof. J.R. Debeila
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The role of the school governing body in managing fundraising for public primary schools in disadvantaged communities.
- Authors: Maruma, Matsatsi Annah
- Date: 2008-10-14T07:06:03Z
- Subjects: school boards , school management and organization , primary education finance , educational fundraising , Gauteng ( South Africa )
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11796 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1151
- Description: M.Ed. , Since the first democratic election in South Africa in 1994, there has been significant change and development in all spheres of our lives. Democracy and the implementation of a new Constitution have brought about changes, even in the education system. The democratic system of education is characterised by the new Act that is, the South African Schools Act (SASA) No. 84 of 1996 (RSA, 1996b). This Act acknowledges the importance of parents as stakeholders in the school governing bodies (SGBs). It also outlines the other important responsibilities of school governing bodies such as taking the responsibility of managing school funds. Section 36 of the South African Schools Act (RSA,1996b) states that “… a governing body of a public school must take all reasonable measures within its means to supplement the resources supplied by the state in order to improve the quality of education provided by the school to all learners at the school.” It is the responsibility of the state to ensure that schools are fully resourced, be it financial, human or physical resources. There is a perception amongst educators and other stakeholders such as parents that resources allocated by the state are inadequate. If the state funds schools fully, more children will receive quality education as the new funding method or formula is applied. Fundraising is necessary to supplement the resources allocated by the state. The lack of funds in disadvantaged communities is the cause of schools being ineffective institutions of teaching and learning. The aim of this research study was to explore the role of the SGB in managing fundraising for public primary schools in disadvantaged communities. This was undertaken in order to formulate guidelines for SGBs to effectively manage fundraising. A qualitative research design that was explorative, descriptive and contextual was employed. The researcher conducted focus group interviews in order to collect data. The data collected was analysed and interpreted and various themes and categories were identified. Quotations from the prescribed interviews were given to substantiate the themes and categories identified through data analysis. According to the literature review and responses from focus group interviews, it is the responsibility of the state to ensure that schools are fully resourced. However, this is not possible and it is for this reason that school governing bodies must supplement funds through fundraising. Since this research study was limited to Tembisa West in Ekurhuleni District (D6) one of the recommendations made by the researcher is that further research should be undertaken on managing fundraising in all Gauteng Province public primary schools. Future research studies on this phenomenon must be broader with special emphasis on the experiences and perceptions of SGBs in disadvantaged communities in the Gauteng Province. , Prof. R. Mestry
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Co-operative governance in schools in Gauteng district 11.
- Authors: Mulibana, Ndivhudzannyi Lancelort
- Date: 2008-10-14T11:26:10Z
- Subjects: school boards , school management teams , school management and organization , Gauteng (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:12116 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1185
- Description: M.Ed. , The need for co-operative governance in schools is reflected in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and also in the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. Although the need for co-operative governance is highlighted in the legislation, it does not mean it is taking place in our schools as advocated. This research provides an analysis and critique of the roles of the stakeholders represented in the SGB in co-operative school governance as elucidated in the literature and also advocated by the legislation. The aim of this research is to probe the perceptions of various members of the SGB’s regarding co-operative school governance as mandated by the legislation, that is the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996. This research starts with the introduction and contextualisation of the problem. The literature study undertaken in chapter two revealed the importance of working together. It was discovered that co-operative governance is important to establish and maintain partnerships and teamwork between the school governors and other stakeholders. Subsequent to the literature review was the method and design of the study. These were undertaken using the qualitative research through the focus group interviews. The study drew responses from respondents who were organised according to categories of parents, principals, educators, learners and non-educator staff members. The interviews were tape-recorded. Transcriptions of tape-recorded interviews are included in this research as appendices. The qualitative data was analysed. The results of the data obtained clearly reflect that there are still many problems that need to be addressed. The important findings were discussed at length and thereafter conclusions and recommendations were made based on the findings. Recommendations and topics of further research were finally given. , Prof. T.C. Bischoff
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The design and effective implementation of a financial school policy for school improvement.
- Authors: Naidoo, Parvathy
- Date: 2008-10-21T12:34:33Z
- Subjects: school boards , school management teams , school management and organization
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13026 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1290
- Description: M.Ed. , The design and implementation of a financial school policy is an important function of the School Governing Body. Although every public school designs a financial school policy, the success of managing the school’s finances effectively and efficiently is dependent on how the policy is implemented. The aim of this research was to investigate the role played by the School Governing Body (SGB) and the School Management Team (SMT) in the design and effective implementation of the financial school policy. The impact of the South African Schools Act together with the Norms and Standards for Funding on state funding, school fees and school fees exemptions were also explored. The functions of the SGB in respect of financial matters and the role played by the finance committee emphasizes the devolution of financial matters from the state to communities. By virtue of the Schools Act the principal is responsible for the professional management of the school and together with the SGB is directly responsible for the effective use of all funds belonging to the school. It is incumbent upon the SGB and the SMT to take accountability for all their financial activities by being transparent and responsible in the management of school funds. The design of a financial school policy and the effective implementation thereof will ensure school funds being managed effectively and efficiently. The quantitative research method was used to elicit the perceptions of SGBs, SMTs and educators with regards to the designing and implementing of the financial school policy. This research study was confined to primary and secondary schools in the district D9, D10, D11 and D12 areas of the Gauteng Province. A structured questionnaire was distributed to members of the SGB, SMT and educators in the above-mentioned districts. The empirical study resulted in mean scores of the thirty-two items ranging between 2,63 and 5,34. An analysis of the data revealed that the financial school policy is central to all financial activities in schools and it must be designed and implemented by all stakeholders. , Prof. R. Mestry
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