An empirical evaluation of competency requirements for first-line managers to deal with resistance to change.
- Authors: Lombard, Christoffel Nicolaas
- Date: 2007-10-24T13:39:50Z
- Subjects: organizational change management , executive ability
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11775 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/114
- Description: The point of departure of this study is that first-line managers play a pivotal role in the facilitation of change initiatives in organisations world-wide. Resistance to change is one of the primary reasons why change interventions fail or why success is not achieved in the change process. More specific, the inability of first-line managers to deal with resistance to change has been cited as a primary cause for change projects to fail. There is no evidence that any research has been conducted on the competence requirements for first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. The identification of these competencies can enable organisations world-wide to deal with resistance to change at the organisational level that is primarily responsible for products and services. In this literature study the researcher defines first-line managers as those managers responsible for achieving results through and with operational employees to ensure that market needs are met and/or exceeded. The research suggested that first-line managers can be described through a broad spectrum of people and that the nature of organisations in this modern era will place higher demands on first-line managers as the complexity and diversity of tasks to be performed by operational employees will increase. Considering the complexity and diversity of tasks and the importance of first-line managers in ensuring results through and with other people, it is suggested that the appointment of first-line managers be based on careful consideration of the required competencies which will enable the first-line manager to manage those areas where the business is measured on a daily basis. The role of the first-line manager in change is becoming increasingly important. Organisations will benefit from acknowledging the role of first-line managers in change and investing in their development in order to prepare them for the important role that they have to play during change efforts. Research on the competencies required by first-line managers to manage change effectively proved that the ability of first-line managers to deal with resistance to change is of critical importance. Organisation-specific competencies can be used as dynamic factors mediating between the potential capacity of the individual and the requirements of the job in a stable and dynamic environment. Organisation-specific competencies can also be used effectively to develop first-line managers dealing with resistance to change. Change manifests itself in various forms in organisations. Whatever the type of change, first-line managers have a critical role to play in the successful facilitation of change in their respective areas of responsibility. The most difficult aspect of the change effort lies in changing the people. Change invariably leads to resistance. In order to facilitate successful change, first-line managers should be able to deal with resistance to change in an effective and efficient manner. First-line managers should be able to make use of an integrated approach to manage change on their levels. They should also be able to cascade organisational change strategies to their areas of responsibility. This disproves the traditional views that first-line managers are not able to operate on a strategic level in the organisation. Although various models of change management can be used in organisations, there is not one single change model which is necessarily better than another. The researcher favours change management models which recognise the emotions that people experience during change as well as the fact that change objectives need to be achieved. The research highlighted seventeen requirements for successful change. It was evident from each discussion that the first-line manager can perform an integral role in the facilitation of successful change. This suggests that first-line managers can potentially fulfil an integral role in supporting organisational growth and sustainability, with the outcome of roles that impact beyond the traditional roles of first-line managers. Considering the potential roles that first-line managers can perform in facilitating successful organisational change, it can be argued that the selection criteria and competencies required for first-line managers as currently suggested in literature needs to be reviewed. Focusing on the purpose of this research, competent first-line managers can perform an integral role in minimising resistance to change. The primary objective of this research is to determine which specific units of competence will enable first-line managers to deal proactively with resistance to change. To reach the research objective the units of competence dealing with resistance to change, identified by Lombard & Crafford (2003), will be tested empirically. For this study a census group consisting of all first-line managers in Unilever Channel Management, Smollan Sales and Marketing and Tiger Diversified Food Services were used. The total census comprised 194 participants from an organisation in the service industry. The majority of the respondents are white, male with an even distribution of participants younger and older than thirty years. The researcher developed a questionnaire for the purposes of this research. The questionnaire was based on the units of competence formulated by Lombard & Crafford (2003, pp. 46-51). These units of competence formed part of the suggested competence framework required by first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. These competencies were obtained by means of a literature study and the applications of a functional analysis as suggested by Fletcher (1997). The rationale for this approach was to obtain as much as possible data from secondary, documented historical sources. (Burton, 2000, pp. 343 – 345). The questionnaire contained the biographical data required for the research, the instructions to complete the questionnaire, as well as 15 competencies that were simplified into 38 singular questions making use of a Likert-type, 5-point scale. The data set was built from data gathered from the three major business units of Smollan Holdings. The information was gathered by means of supervised groups and through the administration of electronic mail. The information was gathered to determine how important the units of competence are to first-line managers to deal with resistance to change in their work environment and also to what extent each unit of competence will contribute to their personal effectiveness in dealing with resistance to change in the work environment. The particular statistical procedures were selected for their suitability to test the research hypotheses of the study. These procedures include factor analysis, analysis of variance paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and multiple comparisons (Post Hoc tests). In respect of factor analysis a procedure developed by Schepers (1992) was followed. This procedure includes first as well as second level factor analysis. The Statistical Consultation Service of Rand Afrikaans University conducted the analyses. All calculations were done by means of the SPSS-Windows programme of SPSS – International. One of the central premises of this research was that first-line managers leading others through their resistance to change do not merely require a singular competence of dealing with resistance to change. Resistance to change requires a holistic and integrated approach. The results of the empirical research clearly support this assertion. The analysis of the results of the samples t-tests indicate that the respondents were of the opinion that all the units of competence are important in enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. The empirical research proved that none of the units of competence of Lombard & Crafford are of limited importance or of no importance in enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. It could be inferred that the units of competence identified by Lombard & Crafford (2003) reflect an integrated and holistic approach to enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. First-line managers who are able to demonstrate the behaviours associated with the fifteen units of competence would be recognised by subordinates, peers and superiors as good role models and effective managers of resistance to change. The secondary objective of the empirical research is to determine whether the units of competence could contribute to the personal effectiveness levels to deal with resistance to change. The outcome of the analysis proved that all the units of competence are important for contributing to the personal competence levels of first-line managers to be able to deal with resistance to change. It can be inferred that not one of the units of competence is viewed as of limited importance or of no importance in contributing to the personal competence levels of first-line managers. The research proved that there is a correlation between the units of competence identified by Lombard and Crafford (2003) and the contribution of the units of competence to the personal competence levels of first-line managers. From a theoretical perspective it is recommended that further research be carried out in the identification of specific elements of competence (for example skills and knowledge) for each unit of competence, the entrepreneurial roles of first-line managers in organisations, and the profile of the modern first-line manager. From a practical perspective it is recommended that an assessment instrument be designed with measurable standards to determine individual development needs of first-line managers for dealing with resistance to change. From a methodological perspective it is suggested that a seven-point Likert-type scale with more specific options of selection on the important and non-important scales to facilitate a more exact reflection of mean scores is designed. It is further suggested that qualitative approaches and methods, including the facilitation of focus groups and interviews should also be included to supplement questionnaire surveys. , Dr. J. Zaaiman
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The influence of leadership role competencies on organisation change outcome in the manufacturing industry in south Africa.
- Authors: Smit, Hermanus Bernardus
- Date: 2007-11-21T09:25:54Z
- Subjects: organizational change management , leadership , manufacturing industries management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13170 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/131
- Description: Recent authors identified a lack in leadership competencies to deal with organisation change within the South African organisation context as a burning issue (Tizard, 2001; Kriek, 2002; Fontyn, 2001; Msomi, 2001 and Rossow and Bews, 2002). This has resulted in a lack of employee initiative, adjustment, empowerment and a high turnover rate. With this research the author examined the influence of role utilisation, according to leaders’ competence, on the outcome of organisation change. The aim of this research was to contribute towards finding solutions for the perceived lack in leadership competence in managing change. The design used was quasi-experimental ex post facto: post-test/observation only. Three organisations in the manufacturing industry were selected because they were busy with the implementation of major organisation change initiatives. Two phases were identified for this research. Phase I investigated the utilisation of leaders in specific leadership change roles and Phase II investigated the influence of leaders’ change role competence on change outcome. Hypotheses were formulated for each phase. Phase I Leaders’ utilisation in change roles was investigated. This entailed the extent to which they were utilised in roles for which they received their highest average competence ratings. A literature study was done on leadership competencies. From the literature study, four leadership change roles (Initiator, Shaper, Monitor, and Assessor) were identified. A questionnaire measuring the level of competence for each role was designed. The respondent organisations’ management teams were asked to identify the leaders they utilised and for which roles they were utilised. These leaders were rated by means of a 360-degree assessment. The respective leaders were assessed by themselves, their managers, a peer and a subordinate. Competence was determined by means of the average ratings received on all four competence clusters . The results obtained from Phase I were expressed in terms of role congruence. Role congruence referred to situations where leaders were utilised in roles for which they received their highest average competence ratings. The hypotheses for Phase I were: H0: There is no statistical difference between the average competence scores leaders received on the different roles. H1: The average competence scores for the roles leaders were utilised in, are higher than for those they were not utilised in. Phase II Phase II investigated the influence of the congruence results on change outcome. A questionnaire measuring the “soft” dimensions of organisation change was developed. Random samples of all the literate employees in the respondent organisations were used to complete this questionnaire (Change Outcome Questionnaire). The hypotheses for Phase II were: H0: There is no statistical difference in terms of change outcome for roles where congruence was obtained and roles for which congruence was not obtained. H1: For roles where congruence was obtained, there will be higher levels of success (change outcome). Both questionnaires (Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire & Change Outcome Questionnaire) were validated in terms of content validity. A Cronbach alpha was determined for both questionnaires. Only the Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire was initially found to be reliable. To resolve the reliability dilemma on the Change Outcome Questionnaire, the constructs and their items were factor analysed to determine the underlying validity of constructs, resulting in construct validity for this questionnaire. A Cronbach alpha was again administered to this questionnaire (after the factor analysis) and it was found to be reliable. Phase I Results: Role Congruence The extent to which leaders were utilised in roles for which they achieved their highest average ratings (expressed in terms of role congruence) was determined through the application of a correspondence analysis. The results for Phase I were: • Two roles (Initiator and Assessor) achieved potential congruence. • The other two roles (Shaper and Monitor) did not achieve congruence. • A relationship between both the Shaper and Monitor roles was identified. The competencies for these two roles were linked to the items that measured Resistance to Change. • For Phase I the null hypothesis was rejected. There was a difference between the average competence scores leaders received on the different roles. Phase II Results: The Influence of Role Congruence on Change Outcome The change outcome results were determined through the Change Outcome Questionnaire. The results for Phase II were: • The factor analysis done on the Change Outcome Questionnaire (discussed on p. iii) resulted in the extraction of three factors. One factor represented only one item and was therefore excluded resulting in the analysis of only two factors (Change Buy-In and Support & Resistance to Change); • The results obtained from the Change Outcome Questionnaire indicated a successful outcome for the Change Buy-In and Support factor and an unsuccessful outcome for the Resistance to Change factor; • The similarity of the results for the three organisations obtained for Phase I (correspondence analysis on congruence between role utilisation and role competence) and for Phase II (ANOVA on Change Outcome results) allowed for the comparison of their results. No significant statistical differences existed. Statistical evidence was therefore not conclusive to either reject or accept the null hypothesis for Phase II (there is no difference between roles with high congruence and roles with low congruence on change outcome); and • Although the null hypothesis for Phase II could neither be accepted nor rejected, the indications are that role congruence appears to have had a positive influence on change outcome and that a lack of congruence appears to have had a negative influence on change outcome. From the results of this study it was concluded that the research goals had been satisfactorily addressed. , Dr. Louis Carstens
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Effective transformational leadership behaviours for managing change.
- Authors: Vinger, Metsu Jacob
- Date: 2007-12-06T05:50:53Z
- Subjects: leadership , organizational change management , higher education management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13734 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/139
- Description: The research investigated the problem of the apparent lack of leadership among leaders in the higher education (HE) sector in South Africa (SA). In particular, the research investigated the perception that there is a lack of transformational leadership among leaders in the public institutions of higher learning. This will compromise the leaders’ ability to manage change successfully. This problem was therefore viewed from the perspective of the changing HE landscape in SA in which institutions of higher learning are being merged or incorporated. One of the potential consequences of these mergers and incorporations is that the newly formed institutions may be challenged by a lack of appropriate leadership. The view that a lack of appropriate leadership is one of the root causes of institutions finding themselves in a precarious situation is widely supported by scholars and role players in the HE sector. The aim of this research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours, as well as to ascertain the level of transformational leadership among leaders in the HE sector. Transformational leaders are, by definition, change agents. Therefore, the research was premised on the assumption that if leaders exhibit transformational leadership and its behaviours frequently, if not always, and if their level of transformational leadership is high, then they will necessarily be able to manage change successfully. The Full Range of Leadership Styles (FRL) was adopted in that in addition to transformational leadership, the transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles were also measured. Fundamental to the FRL model is that every leader exhibits each style to some extent and that the model represents how frequently a leader exhibits a particular style of leadership. The findings of the empirical study generally indicated that the picture painted by scholars and role players in the HE sector about leadership in that sector is not as bleak as they claim, although some improvements in developing transformational leadership still have to be made. , Prof. Frans Cilliers
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Transformational leadership and its relationship with personality preferences in South African organisations.
- Authors: Linde, Trudi
- Date: 2008-04-23T10:39:45Z
- Subjects: leadership , organizational change management , personality and occupation , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8599 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/285
- Description: The general purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the relationship between transformational and leadership personality preferences. The aim of the study is therefore to establish an empirical link between transformational leadership and certain aspects of personality preferences in order to verify if these leaders can be distinguished from others by means of their personality preferences. The transformational leaders’ ratings as identified by use of the Multifactor questionnaire are compared with personality preferences indicated on the scales of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator®. Given the research literature an expectation exists that a statistically significant difference will be found between aspects of personality preferences of transformational and non-transformational leaders. Therefore transformational leaders will be identifiable from non-transformational leaders by their personality preferences. The research group was a convenience sample that consisted of 66 leaders chosen from two organisations in the financial and entertainment industries at the level of team leader or in a supervisory capacity. The statistical procedures utilised in the analysis of the data included analysis of frequencies, ttests and cross tabulations. Firstly, the transformational leaders in the selected organisations were identified successfully. As far as determining the personality preferences of the identified transformational leaders and establishing any possible links between the transformational leadership style and chosen personality preferences, the only significant difference was found between the introversion and extroversion preferences. A significant difference between introversion and extroversion in terms of the Intellectual Stimulation rating on the MLQ was found as well as in terms of the Average and Inspirational Motivation ratings. No other statistically significant differences or interdependencies were found between the personality preferences as identified by the MBTI® and any of the ratings on the MLQ. The third objective of determining whether personality preference can be utilised to predict transformational leadership is therefore answered. From the findings of this study it seems as if personality preferences cannot be utilised to predict transformational leadership in for instance a selection process in a company. As this research group was highly selected and not representative of the general population, it is not possible to generalise the findings of this study. Although the research group was not representative, the findings of this study matched with those of other studies, and the deduction is therefore made that if this study was to be repeated, similar results would be found. , Prof. S. Kruger
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Key determinants in strategic realignment within a digital global business environment.
- Authors: Weeks, Richard Vernon
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:11:46Z
- Subjects: communication and technology , information technology , organizational change management , globalization , strategic planning
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6815 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/324
- Description: Information and communication technology is rapidly transforming the world of business. It in particular has played a significant role in globalisation, the ramifications of which South Africa can ill afford to ignore. A key facet of emerging innovative technologies and globalisation is the environmental uncertainty, complexity and turbulence it has engendered. Traditional strategic management paradigms and practice are largely founded on the assumption of environmental predictability, a reality that is rapidly being eroded. This thesis attempts to determine to what degree strategic management theory still correlates with contemporary strategic management practice. Various levels of environmental uncertainty are defined in order to gain clarity as to strategic management processes that are best suited for dealing therewith. Three key determinants are identified as having a significant impact on the strategic realignment of business institutions within a global business environment, namely information and communication technology, business systems, and change management. A central tenet that emerges from the study is the need for a framework to integrate the first two mentioned determinants at strategic and operational levels, while taking due cognisance of the human resources implications involved. Human emotions, feelings, relationships, fears, values, beliefs and aspirations collectively assume relevance as dimensions that can either inhibit or facilitate the strategic realignment process. These dimensions are analysed with reference to the concepts “emotional intelligence” and “organisational culture” in order to gain a greater understanding of the role they play in strategy formulation and implementation. Leadership is also identified as being business critical in managing strategic realignment. The findings of this study serve as a source of reference for researchers and practitioners who are attempting to formulate and implement strategy within contexts that are best described as being uncertain, complex and subject to discontinuous change. , Prof. N. Lessing
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