Individual facilitation: a personal and professional leadership perspective.
- Authors: Du Toit, Christina Susanna
- Date: 2007-10-22T10:59:27Z
- Subjects: mentoring in business , counseling of employees , training of employees , personal coaching , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:10792 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/102
- Description: The hypothesis of this research was that Personal and Professional Leadership Individual Facilitation (PPLIF) could help people with problems or who are in difficult situations to deal with the problems they are experiencing. The main aim and objective of this research was to describe the nature and importance of PPLIF and suggest the possible contribution, it could make as a new concept in the Personal and Professional Leadership (PPL) field. The qualitative research methodology used in the research includes general, hermeneutic and descriptive strategies. The research methods used include a word and concept analysis, a literature study, and problem defining and critical analysis in order to clarify concepts central to the research. Case studies were also made to clarify the application of PPLIF to the problems experienced by participants from diverse backgrounds. PPLIF can be defined as a holistic leadership guide that helps an individual to grow in order to achieve his full potential. PPLIF is a facilitative approach. It presents a radical new method for addressing an individual's problems by obtaining information, developing new perspectives and therefore resolving problems that are deep-rooted in a person. PPLIF aims at a positive outcome and works with the here and now to change the future for the better. PPLIF is a structured conversation that is more facilitative than prescriptive and involves the support and encouragement of the client. PPLIF does not “solve” but tries to help to review options or choices. It uses informal facilitation to keep the client focused on the objectives of the session to clarify misunderstandings and support the person to solve problems themselves by achieving their goals. PPLIF consist of four stages: connecting, understanding, deciding and executing. These stages are designed and developed to increase personal, xiii interpersonal and professional growth strategies, which could lead to progressively higher forms of responsible independence and effective decision making. PPLIF aims to align the client with his/her goals. The PPLIF practitioner systematically develops the skills and leadership abilities of the client and helps the client realise where he wants to go. A PPLIF practitioner surveys the problem or situation by asking questions. The PPLIF practitioner tries to equip clients with the tools, knowledge and opportunities they need to develop themselves and to become successful. PPLIF’s clients are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning outcomes. PPLIF focuses on personal development and mastery, and could guide and support a client in situations where, for example, they have to cope with change, set goals, develop action plans, progress in careers, enhance self-esteem and restore a holistic life balance. PPLIF could thus enable people to gain greater control over their lives, which in turn will create a sense of meaning. The research concludes by indicating that PPLIF can make a valuable contribution to supporting people with problems in their lives. , Prof. DPJ Smith
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The behavioural and personality correlates of transactional and transformational leadership.
- Authors: Huysamen, Christina Alida
- Date: 2007-10-23T09:03:04Z
- Subjects: leadership , executive ability , creative ability in business
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11206 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/107
- Description: The thesis argues that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between a leadership style and creativity. There is a higher statistically significant positive relation between Transformational Leadership style and creativity than between creativity and the other leadership styles. Creativity (fluency and originality of thought), can be accounted for by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. To demonstrate this, the research in this study firstly uses the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to identify leadership style, and secondly three measuring instruments that measure creativity. The argument is substantiated by the results of a statistical analysis of leadership style and creativity. A discussion of the areas that were researched, leadership style and associational/ideational fluency of thought and originality, as elements of creativity, provide the context in which the research should be viewed. A detailed discussion of the method, which was employed and the measuring instruments used to establish whether there is a statistical correlation between leadership style and creativity, precedes the experimental results. A critical discussion of the results obtained from the statistical analysis and the literature on leadership style and creativity provides a foundation for recommendations for organisations on how to use the results of this study. The dissertation recommends that, in order to improve on research of leadership and creativity, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) could be considered as a starting point. It would also be worthwhile pursuing means of improving the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as creativity could be accounted for by the MLQ. This measuring instrument could be recommended as a test during the selection process. It is recommended that the manager of the person also completes the instrument and rates the person from his/her perspective when similar research is done in future. Although scoring seems to be a difficulty characteristic of any measurement that involves divergent thinking, it would be of value to pursue means of further improving the Remote Associates Test (RAT) for future research purposes in the South African context. Objectivity in the scoring of divergent thinking tests seem to be difficult to achieve. In order to score fluency and originality of thought objectively, use can be made of experts, who have the knowledge and skills required, to provide such evaluations. The findings in this research are valuable because of a lack of previous research on the relationship between creativity and leadership style. , Dr. J. Zaaiman
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Transformation of managerial skills of engineers.
- Authors: Visser, Hercules
- Date: 2007-11-15T08:56:02Z
- Subjects: organizational change , Eskom (firm) , executive ability , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11972 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/116
- Description: Every year, more and more management positions are being filled by engineers and other technical personnel in spite of dual or parallel path systems for promotions in many companies. In spite of the centrality of engineers and management in industrial organizations and modern society, engineers are generally viewed to be unsuccessful in management roles due to the following shortcoming of skills: inadequate managerial education during engineering studies, administrative skills, interpersonal skills, personality and career orientation, management knowledge. This research argues that there is a difference in leadership style between experienced and inexperienced engineers in South Africa. It was found that experienced engineers in Eskom are more transformational and more transactional compared to inexperienced post-graduated engineering students at the Rand Afrikaans University. To demonstrate this in the study, the researcher used the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to identify leadership style. The argument is substantiated by the results of a statistical analysis of leadership style for experienced and inexperienced engineers. The findings of this research indicate the theory that successful managers tend to grow into their jobs over an extended period (Bennett, 1996 and Sedge, 1985). The findings also support the arguments of O’Connor (1994) and Badaway (1995) that engineers have no typical career path to prepare them for the management role. It is therefore imperative that inexperienced engineers prepares themselves for management and obtain knowledge about management and development management skills during their formal studies. , Dr. L. Naude
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The influence of leadership role competencies on organisation change outcome in the manufacturing industry in south Africa.
- Authors: Smit, Hermanus Bernardus
- Date: 2007-11-21T09:25:54Z
- Subjects: organizational change management , leadership , manufacturing industries management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13170 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/131
- Description: Recent authors identified a lack in leadership competencies to deal with organisation change within the South African organisation context as a burning issue (Tizard, 2001; Kriek, 2002; Fontyn, 2001; Msomi, 2001 and Rossow and Bews, 2002). This has resulted in a lack of employee initiative, adjustment, empowerment and a high turnover rate. With this research the author examined the influence of role utilisation, according to leaders’ competence, on the outcome of organisation change. The aim of this research was to contribute towards finding solutions for the perceived lack in leadership competence in managing change. The design used was quasi-experimental ex post facto: post-test/observation only. Three organisations in the manufacturing industry were selected because they were busy with the implementation of major organisation change initiatives. Two phases were identified for this research. Phase I investigated the utilisation of leaders in specific leadership change roles and Phase II investigated the influence of leaders’ change role competence on change outcome. Hypotheses were formulated for each phase. Phase I Leaders’ utilisation in change roles was investigated. This entailed the extent to which they were utilised in roles for which they received their highest average competence ratings. A literature study was done on leadership competencies. From the literature study, four leadership change roles (Initiator, Shaper, Monitor, and Assessor) were identified. A questionnaire measuring the level of competence for each role was designed. The respondent organisations’ management teams were asked to identify the leaders they utilised and for which roles they were utilised. These leaders were rated by means of a 360-degree assessment. The respective leaders were assessed by themselves, their managers, a peer and a subordinate. Competence was determined by means of the average ratings received on all four competence clusters . The results obtained from Phase I were expressed in terms of role congruence. Role congruence referred to situations where leaders were utilised in roles for which they received their highest average competence ratings. The hypotheses for Phase I were: H0: There is no statistical difference between the average competence scores leaders received on the different roles. H1: The average competence scores for the roles leaders were utilised in, are higher than for those they were not utilised in. Phase II Phase II investigated the influence of the congruence results on change outcome. A questionnaire measuring the “soft” dimensions of organisation change was developed. Random samples of all the literate employees in the respondent organisations were used to complete this questionnaire (Change Outcome Questionnaire). The hypotheses for Phase II were: H0: There is no statistical difference in terms of change outcome for roles where congruence was obtained and roles for which congruence was not obtained. H1: For roles where congruence was obtained, there will be higher levels of success (change outcome). Both questionnaires (Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire & Change Outcome Questionnaire) were validated in terms of content validity. A Cronbach alpha was determined for both questionnaires. Only the Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire was initially found to be reliable. To resolve the reliability dilemma on the Change Outcome Questionnaire, the constructs and their items were factor analysed to determine the underlying validity of constructs, resulting in construct validity for this questionnaire. A Cronbach alpha was again administered to this questionnaire (after the factor analysis) and it was found to be reliable. Phase I Results: Role Congruence The extent to which leaders were utilised in roles for which they achieved their highest average ratings (expressed in terms of role congruence) was determined through the application of a correspondence analysis. The results for Phase I were: • Two roles (Initiator and Assessor) achieved potential congruence. • The other two roles (Shaper and Monitor) did not achieve congruence. • A relationship between both the Shaper and Monitor roles was identified. The competencies for these two roles were linked to the items that measured Resistance to Change. • For Phase I the null hypothesis was rejected. There was a difference between the average competence scores leaders received on the different roles. Phase II Results: The Influence of Role Congruence on Change Outcome The change outcome results were determined through the Change Outcome Questionnaire. The results for Phase II were: • The factor analysis done on the Change Outcome Questionnaire (discussed on p. iii) resulted in the extraction of three factors. One factor represented only one item and was therefore excluded resulting in the analysis of only two factors (Change Buy-In and Support & Resistance to Change); • The results obtained from the Change Outcome Questionnaire indicated a successful outcome for the Change Buy-In and Support factor and an unsuccessful outcome for the Resistance to Change factor; • The similarity of the results for the three organisations obtained for Phase I (correspondence analysis on congruence between role utilisation and role competence) and for Phase II (ANOVA on Change Outcome results) allowed for the comparison of their results. No significant statistical differences existed. Statistical evidence was therefore not conclusive to either reject or accept the null hypothesis for Phase II (there is no difference between roles with high congruence and roles with low congruence on change outcome); and • Although the null hypothesis for Phase II could neither be accepted nor rejected, the indications are that role congruence appears to have had a positive influence on change outcome and that a lack of congruence appears to have had a negative influence on change outcome. From the results of this study it was concluded that the research goals had been satisfactorily addressed. , Dr. Louis Carstens
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The relationship between personality type and leadership focus.
- Authors: Sieff, Grant Benjamin
- Date: 2007-11-21T09:26:09Z
- Subjects: personality , leadership , Jungian psychology , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , personality and occupation
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6438 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/132
- Description: The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the relationship between personality type and leadership focus. Personality type is studied from the perspective of Jungian Theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, and leadership focus is explored through the development and application of a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. South African executives form the target population for this research. The overall research problem concerns how best to address the challenges of optimising focus and managing risk that is inherent in strategic leadership. Both functionalist and interpretive approaches were applied to produce a rounded understanding of what constitutes leadership focus. The application of a functionalist approach resulted in three primary theoretical hypotheses being derived from the literature, namely, that leadership focus is a function of (1) optimising the balance of focus between external and internal priorities, (2) the fit between the leadership personality type and the organisation type, and (3) the capacity to manage a multiple focus. The interpretation of the responses from the sample of executives participating in the research study yielded a related set of first and second order factors relating to leadership focus that revolve around the level of comfort experienced by executives in managing focus in the leadership role. The approach to this research was one of methodological triangulation. A survey-based methodology was employed, containing both quantitative and qualitative questions. The results of the quantitative analysis of the relationship between personality type and leadership focus were contrasted and extended by a qualitative content analysis of the qualitative survey responses. The propositions were tested on a sample of South African executives attending management development programmes run by Wits Business School, University of Witwatersrand, in both Johannesburg and Cape Town. The findings show that Extraverted personality types are more comfortable with the challenges of focus in the leadership role than are Introverted types. In addition, Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging types experience a greater degree of fit with their organisations than do Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving types. The implications are that in a business environment of ongoing change, market innovation and increasing stakeholder expectations, organisation leaders of all personality types need to develop a greater consciousness of their preferred and less preferred behaviours, and a greater ability to complement their preferred leadership behaviours with less preferred behaviours when necessary, to optimise their leadership focus over time. , Dr. Loius Carstens
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The role of leadership in enhancing service delivery in local government.
Effective transformational leadership behaviours for managing change.
- Authors: Vinger, Metsu Jacob
- Date: 2007-12-06T05:50:53Z
- Subjects: leadership , organizational change management , higher education management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13734 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/139
- Description: The research investigated the problem of the apparent lack of leadership among leaders in the higher education (HE) sector in South Africa (SA). In particular, the research investigated the perception that there is a lack of transformational leadership among leaders in the public institutions of higher learning. This will compromise the leaders’ ability to manage change successfully. This problem was therefore viewed from the perspective of the changing HE landscape in SA in which institutions of higher learning are being merged or incorporated. One of the potential consequences of these mergers and incorporations is that the newly formed institutions may be challenged by a lack of appropriate leadership. The view that a lack of appropriate leadership is one of the root causes of institutions finding themselves in a precarious situation is widely supported by scholars and role players in the HE sector. The aim of this research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours, as well as to ascertain the level of transformational leadership among leaders in the HE sector. Transformational leaders are, by definition, change agents. Therefore, the research was premised on the assumption that if leaders exhibit transformational leadership and its behaviours frequently, if not always, and if their level of transformational leadership is high, then they will necessarily be able to manage change successfully. The Full Range of Leadership Styles (FRL) was adopted in that in addition to transformational leadership, the transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles were also measured. Fundamental to the FRL model is that every leader exhibits each style to some extent and that the model represents how frequently a leader exhibits a particular style of leadership. The findings of the empirical study generally indicated that the picture painted by scholars and role players in the HE sector about leadership in that sector is not as bleak as they claim, although some improvements in developing transformational leadership still have to be made. , Prof. Frans Cilliers
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Identifying a national leadership skills training and development strategy for leaders within sector education training authorities (SETAs).
- Authors: Prinsloo, Florus
- Date: 2007-12-06T05:51:13Z
- Subjects: training of employees , executive ability , SETA , Sector Education and Training Authority , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13939 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/142
- Description: The South African Government launched a skills development initiative in February 2001 to be led by leaders of twenty five Sector Education Training Authorities (SETAs). This study identifies a strategy and the transformational leadership competencies to be included in the strategy to develop the SETA leaders. , Dr. A. Lategan
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The influence of Moses' charismatic leadership on the incipient stages of Israel's religion.
- Authors: Govender, Brimadevi
- Date: 2008-01-09T07:07:24Z
- Subjects: Moses (biblical leader) , exodus (bible) , israel , religion , charisma (personality trait) , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14803 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/190
- Description: This study is about Moses, charismatic leadership, and the beginnings of Israel's religion. At a time when traditional and time-honoured customs were revered and preserved, but proved inadequate, Moses, a charismatically endowed leader, arose and overthrew the old order, and in its place proffered the new in the form of mono-Yahwism, which ultimately became the national Israelite religion. This claim is analysed and discussed in four chapters. Chapter 1 is a preliminary to the thesis and deals with the reason for, and aim of this study, methodological considerations, and has a section presenting, very briefly, the debate on the historicity of Moses. Chapter 2 was composed using literary principles and narrative literature in the book of Exodus, to glean a description of the character of Moses. The next two chapters form the main thrust of this study. Chapter 3 examined Weber's typology of leadership, providing the groundwork for the understanding and contextualization of charismatic leadership. The aim of chapter 4 was to show the characteristics of the charismatic leader, Moses, and how they were instrumental in his formulation of mono-Yahwism. The main points discussed were: Moses' personality, and the social context as a source of his charismatic leadership; the recognition of the charismatic leader and his message; the importance of charisma in Moses' achievements; and some factors that drive the charismatic person. The main methodological thrust is socio-religious, within which Max Weber's interpretative framework of charismatic leadership is employed. The work shows that Moses has the traits of a charismatic leader, and that, through the effect of his personality, he influenced the beginnings of Israelite religion. , Prof. J.H. Coetzee
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Entrepreneurial functionality of new venture creation learners.
- Authors: Buys, Philna
- Date: 2008-04-22T06:16:50Z
- Subjects: experiential learning , training of employees , leadership , new business enterprises , entrepreneurship
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/372814 , uj:8469 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/262
- Description: The skills shortage is one of the problems that existed in South Africa as a result of its historic political situation. South Africa was characterized by a white dominant government in an economy which was marked by exclusions of various people of race and gender. In the working environment, the situation reflected job reservation for white males, limited career opportunities for white females with repercussions of isolation, sanctions and global deprivation. The 1994 elections brought a change in leadership and a democratic government had as its primary mission skills development for all. On a macro level, South Africa was marginalized from global participation and on a micro level, many people were not able to enter the workforce because of a lack of skills let alone be active in the economy. The South African government’s resultant Human Resources Development – (HRDS) and National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) were driven by supportive legislation namely the Skills Development Act No 97 of 1998, Employment Equity Act No 55 of 1998, Skills Development Levies Act of 1999 and the South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995. These strategies and legislative measures intended to address the skills shortages through the implementation of learnerships as a national qualification. Following from the high level strategy were the initial over-ambitious targets for people to become qualified learners. The result was a push-through effect of individuals who were not necessarily suited to a particular learnership nor were they able to function on the required standard. Low level evaluations were used to ‘certify’ potential learners in terms of their numeracy and literacy levels only. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the suitability of learners on the New Venture Creation Learnership in terms of their entrepreneurial functionality and leadership qualities. After evaluating a number of models (Carland Entrepreneurial Index, the Bar-on Emotional Intelligence test and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), the Functional ii Intelligence Assessment Tool (FIAT) scientific model was selected because of its holistic approach of the individual and his/her functionality within an environment. The Functional Intelligence Assessment Tool identified and substantiated the suitability or non-suitability of the respondents in terms of entrepreneurial requirements. An additional questionnaire was administered to evaluate leadership qualities which are an essential component of the entrepreneur. The first of three research goals were attained when the respondents who were in the process of completing the New Venture Creation Learnership were successfully assessed in terms of entrepreneurial functionality. The outcome of this research concluded that only three (3) out of nineteen (19) candidates were found to be suitable for the entrepreneurial environment while two of the three had leadership qualities. The analysis of one candidate was such that no accurate analysis in terms of leadership qualities could be obtained. In terms of Functional Tendency, eight (8) candidates showed extrovert tendencies, six (6) showed introvert tendencies while five (5) candidates rendered results that did not give a clear indication of the individual’s functionality. Nine (9) individuals intentionally tried to manipulate their results but were identified through their inconsistent results while candidate 1 manipulated her results unintentionally; Five (5) individuals tried to disguise their results by giving extreme scores thereby hoping to impress with their choice of answers (impression management) while two (2) individuals were in denial about their situation having scored unrealistic results. Two (2) individuals had serious problems with their emotional functioning to the extent that they should consult a professional person (professional intervention). Twelve (12) individuals revealed inconsistent results while the remainder of candidates shows some or an insignificant degree of inconsistency in their results. Only three (3) individuals should be re-assessed due to the extent of their inconsistency. iii The second research goal to give comprehensive feedback to the Services Seta and respondents regarding the outcome of the Functional Intelligence Assessment Tool assessments will only be attained after this thesis but it sets the base for follow-up of the respondents’ progress and to conduct future research. The third research goal is also more medium - to long term - to apply this tool to potential learners and – employees in addition to the initial research performed. This goal will also only be attained after negotiations with SETAs and continuous populating of a central database with the FIAT’s assessments. The holistic approach to assessing the functionality of an individual gives the person a vast number of areas known as super constructs (self perception and emotional functioning; relationships and corporate functioning, personal – and organizational value comparison) that will either highlight a serious situation or spell out how the individual will react and interact in certain situations. Small business is said to drive the economy of a country. It is therefore critical that the entrepreneurs in a country are identified early (through a scientific instrument such as FIAT) and skilled appropriately (through learnerships or other educational routes). It is equally important that individuals that are not entrepreneurs be found their rightful vocation and then everyone can contribute effectively to the economic activity. , Prof. J.J.D. Havenga
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A change navigation-based scenario planning process: an afrocentric, developing country perspective.
- Authors: Geldenhuys, Chris A.
- Date: 2008-04-22T06:17:56Z
- Subjects: black executives , leadership , organisational change , culture
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8547 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/272
- Description: This thesis covers the development of a change navigation-based scenario planning process (CNBSPP) applicable to a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context. Life in organisations involves a continual series of disruptive and disorienting changes. Existing theories and practices often become obsolete under hyper-turbulent circumstances. Traditional analytical planning usually takes a linear approach assuming that tomorrow will be similar to today. This approach works well in a stable environment, but fails when discontinuous events throw existing planning models into disarray. Scenario-based planning as a building block for strategic conversations offers great value over other strategic planning processes when uncertainty is high. Companies operating in the midst of a changing business environment require the application of scenario-based planning and organisational change navigation in some form or other. These two disciplines are currently practised independently of each another. The random borrowing of a Developed World planning practice such as scenario-based planning from one context to another without ensuring contextual validity is a high-risk event. An appropriate process integrating scenario-based planning and organisational change navigation, which is embedded in a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context, is currently non-existent. This research promotes a combined approach to scenario-based planning and organisational change navigation, which needs to be applied in a particular context. Stories (or narratives) are naturally occurring phenomena through which people explain their experiences in the world. Stories add a psychological dimension that empirical data lacks, namely meaning. Storytelling (or strategic conversation) is the naturally occurring act of passing on information, values, norms, shared experiences/expectations and culture in the form of a story. This act serves to create understanding and build ownership. Scenario-based planning is a technique setting up a logical and plausible sequence of future environmental situations in order to show how a future state may evolve step by step. Scenarios reassemble a set of stylised narratives connecting a series of interrelated events (both facts and perceptions) about alternative futures. Scenarios describe not only the future end-state, but also what path the present will take to progress to that point. The organisational change navigation action serves to defuse the tension arising from the conversion between the “what is” and the “what should/must be” states in the company. This is known as the “in between state” or the void while moving from the current state to the future state. The primary objective of the research was to construct and empirically validate a blueprint process integrating scenario-based planning and organisational change navigation for application in a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context. The research process consisted of five stages, namely Stage 1: Multidisciplinary literature review and synthesis; Stage 2: Practice views; Stage 3: Process generation; Stage 4: Empirical validation; Stage 5: Discussion and interpretation; and Stage 6: Reflection. The criteria set for the CNBSPP were simplicity (i.e. the process is plain, simple and straightforward); comprehensiveness (i.e. the process embraces the full range of diversity included in the planning cycle); practicality (i.e. the process is concerned with actual use and practical issues); relevancy to context (i.e. the process is sensitive to the correct deployment of sound planning approaches/practices given the particular context); transparency (i.e. the process is open to public scrutiny); cost-effectiveness (i.e. the process appears to deliver a service at equal/lower cost than current practice); robustness (i.e. the process appears to be relatively stable with a minimum of variation in the face of changing circumstances); flexibility (i.e. the process is adaptable as circumstances dictate); involvement (i.e. the process allows for a high level of engagement by participants); completeness (i.e. the process includes all necessary steps to construct scenarios and navigate change properly); reliability (i.e. following the steps suggested in the process will probably yield consistent and dependable results); and validity (i.e. on the face of it, the process appears to be doing the work for which it was built). The scenario-based planning process consists of a number of basic steps, namely setting the scenario-based planning agenda; determining the focal business question; identifying and ranking the key global and local factors; selecting the scenario logics; fleshing out the scenarios; analysing the implications of the scenarios for the company; developing strategies based on the evolving scenarios; selecting the leading indicators to monitor the implementation of scenarios and strategies; and maintaining organisational learning. The organisational change navigation process consists of a few basic steps, namely mobilising dissatisfaction with the status quo; shaping a guiding coalition; diagnosing organisational problems; building organisational capacity; developing a shared vision; developing strategies and generating short-term wins; formalising the change; dismantling temporary transition structures and processes; and ensuring business learning. Afrocentric Leadership is characterised by a deliberate emphasis on people and their dignity, solidarity, participatory democracy and the collective brotherhood of mankind. Storytelling is an important practice in African cultures to transmit values and ethnics. The end-result of the literature survey was a CNBSPP applicable to a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context. The proposed process is similar to a cyclical road map in a complex and unpredictable external environment. The direction of the process is circular and every step is interconnected. The seven stages of the CNBSPP are Stage 1: Awakening and mobilisation; Stage 2: Driving forces identification and ranking; Stage 3: Alternative projections and scenario structuring; Stage 4: Interpretation and strategy crafting; Stage 5: Scenario implementation, capacity building and conversion; Stage 6: Stabilisation; and Stage 7: Performance tracking and review. The CNBSPP includes not only typical steps of scenario-based planning, but also theoretical and practical insights/views of complexity theory, storytelling and stories, organisational change navigation, Developing Worlds and an Afrocentric Leadership context. Key experts in scenario-based planning were offered an opportunity to list those phases/steps normally included in a typical scenario-based planning process, and unique factors that would strongly influence scenario-based planning in a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context. In addition, the experts were requested to critique an abbreviated version of a CNBSPP. The inputs received were used to develop and empirically validate the CNBSPP. It appeared that the steps “conducting an obstacles, negatives, positives and opportunities appraisal” and “building organisational capacity” were not specifically highlighted in interacting with the experts in scenario-based planning. The experts identified no steps in addition to those already ascertained during the literature review for inclusion in a CNBSPP. It appeared that various of the factors influencing scenario-based planning in a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context, which were identified in the literature review, were not emphasised by the experts. These factors were: appealing to the invisible agency forces of the spirits; having a shared vision; an evolutionary, bottom-up, present-into-future, process-based, people-driven and cyclical planning approach; the ubuntu philosophy; valuing the role of woman; democratic/participative leadership; low assertiveness; high entrepreneurship; average uncertainty avoidance; valuing seniority in age; a tendency to deviate from formal agenda items; sharing responsibility; emergent/flexible outcomes; and celebrating accomplishments. Those factors influencing scenario-based planning, which were raised by experts in addition to those identified in the literature review, were: carefully selecting the level of sophistication and use of technology; acknowledging different approaches to strategic planning; employing a practical approach to scenario-based planning; convincing the stakeholders of the need for a scenario-based planning approach; and dealing with the fear of doing strategic planning. The CNBSPP complied to some extent with all the evaluation design criteria set at the outset of the research. The participants were, however, of the opinion that the CNBSPP did not fully satisfy “cost-effectiveness” and “completeness”. Compliance with some of the criteria such as “cost-effectiveness” and “reliability” can be determined/confirmed with accuracy only once the CNBSPP is applied in practice. Maintaining expert participation (i.e. their availability) over the entire research period presented some challenges. The key experts requested to validate the CNBSPP empirically occupy top management positions in their respective companies, thus limiting their professional time available to participate in the research. Some participants indicated difficulty in reviewing an abbreviated version of the CNBSPP because of the limited information provided in the questionnaire. The empirical validation of the CNBSPP was not based on the process’s actual application in practice, i.e. practical compliance with the evaluation design criteria developed at the outset of the research was not established. The value-add of the research revolves around its theoretical, methodological and practical value. The research makes a unique contribution to the current level of knowledge by integrating scenario-based planning and organisational change navigation. The research resulted in producing a contextually aligned and empirically validated CNBSPP applicable to a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context, the practical application of which will enable companies to integrate various insights into different, but equally plausible interpretations about how the future might unfold. The contextually aligned and empirically validated CNBSPP can now be applied in practice. More research, particularly the use of qualitative methodologies, is required to supplement the currently rhetorical research conducted in the field of Afrocentric Leadership. The dominant Developed World management paradigm needs to move in the direction of valuing both the Developed World and Developing World management practices alongside each other as equally important. Developing Worlds should develop their own context/culture-specific strategic planning theories and practices instead of imitating the Developed Worlds. This does not constitute an outright rejection of the intellectual copying of best practices applicable to Developing World cultural realities. The development of effective and robust strategies requires far more than scenarios alone. Additional elements include things such as a vision, clear strategic goals/objectives, competitive analysis, and an assessment of core competencies and available resources. Scenario-based planning processes designed specifically for application in a Developing World and Afrocentric Leadership context should neither be regarded as inferior nor less professional. As long as the process meets the evaluation design criteria suggested in the research, it may be regarded as a “good” technique given the particular context. It is necessary to accept that the results obtained by using such a process are sometimes less reliable. This may to some extent represent limitations in the process itself, but more commonly it reflects the conditions in which it has to be used. There are practical constraints in Developing Worlds that make the attainment of an “ideal” scenario-based planning process difficult. These constraints are the lack of basic requirements such as money, skilled manpower and often inadequate/inaccurate data. , Prof. Theo H. Veldsman
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Transformational leadership and its relationship with personality preferences in South African organisations.
- Authors: Linde, Trudi
- Date: 2008-04-23T10:39:45Z
- Subjects: leadership , organizational change management , personality and occupation , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8599 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/285
- Description: The general purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the relationship between transformational and leadership personality preferences. The aim of the study is therefore to establish an empirical link between transformational leadership and certain aspects of personality preferences in order to verify if these leaders can be distinguished from others by means of their personality preferences. The transformational leaders’ ratings as identified by use of the Multifactor questionnaire are compared with personality preferences indicated on the scales of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator®. Given the research literature an expectation exists that a statistically significant difference will be found between aspects of personality preferences of transformational and non-transformational leaders. Therefore transformational leaders will be identifiable from non-transformational leaders by their personality preferences. The research group was a convenience sample that consisted of 66 leaders chosen from two organisations in the financial and entertainment industries at the level of team leader or in a supervisory capacity. The statistical procedures utilised in the analysis of the data included analysis of frequencies, ttests and cross tabulations. Firstly, the transformational leaders in the selected organisations were identified successfully. As far as determining the personality preferences of the identified transformational leaders and establishing any possible links between the transformational leadership style and chosen personality preferences, the only significant difference was found between the introversion and extroversion preferences. A significant difference between introversion and extroversion in terms of the Intellectual Stimulation rating on the MLQ was found as well as in terms of the Average and Inspirational Motivation ratings. No other statistically significant differences or interdependencies were found between the personality preferences as identified by the MBTI® and any of the ratings on the MLQ. The third objective of determining whether personality preference can be utilised to predict transformational leadership is therefore answered. From the findings of this study it seems as if personality preferences cannot be utilised to predict transformational leadership in for instance a selection process in a company. As this research group was highly selected and not representative of the general population, it is not possible to generalise the findings of this study. Although the research group was not representative, the findings of this study matched with those of other studies, and the deduction is therefore made that if this study was to be repeated, similar results would be found. , Prof. S. Kruger
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The assessment of new economy leadership impact amongst relationship managers in the banking industry.
- Authors: Van der Merwe, Ernest Lodewickus
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:11:11Z
- Subjects: customer relations management , customer services , banks and banking , ABSA bank , relationship marketing , leadership , organizational change
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6775 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/318
- Description: Prof. F. Herbst
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The anthropological presuppositions of personal and professional leadership.
- Authors: Barnard, Haaike
- Date: 2008-06-23T10:55:16Z
- Subjects: leadership , personality , individuality
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3359 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/675
- Description: Man is a meaning-seeking being who continually asks questions about himself and his place in this world, thus man engages in a very personal anthropological reflection. However, Personal and Professional Leadership (PPL), as distinctive discipline, also engages in a scientific anthropological reflection that aids man in his self-questioning. As a result of large-scale societal changes, man, now more than ever, is concerned with himself and the world in which he lives. There is an enormous variety of sources from which anthropological observations can be made in general. However, PPL makes eclectic use of these sources in order to interface with its already-existing anthropological presuppositions. In this sense, there is need for a clarified, enriched and characteristic anthropology in PPL, one that is relevant to PPL. , Prof. D.P.J. Smith
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Die invloed van regstellende aksie op interpersoonlike verhoudings : 'n persoonlike en professionele leierskapsperspektief.
- Authors: Conradie, Neil
- Date: 2008-06-24T07:48:44Z
- Subjects: leadership , interpersonal relations , discrimination , affirmative action programs
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3610 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/698
- Description: Although affirmative action is a beacon of hope for millions of South Africans, it is unfortunately also a source of potential unrest amongst the minority groups, since personal security and integrity in interpersonal relationships between races are being threatened. In light of this it seems as if the government of the day is challenging universal principles by means of their affirmative action policy which may lead to distrust and broken relationships. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of affirmative action on characteristics of interpersonal relationships by means of a Personal and Professional Leadership perspective. In order to accomplish the aim and objective of this study, the following specific goals are set for this research essay: § to identify and describe characteristics of interpersonal relationships by means of a Personal and Professional Leadership perspective; § to identify and describe features of discrimination; § to identify and describe features of affirmative action; § to investigate possible implications of affirmative action for characteristics of interpersonal relationships. , Prof. D.P.J. Smith
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