The behavioural and personality correlates of transactional and transformational leadership.
- Authors: Huysamen, Christina Alida
- Date: 2007-10-23T09:03:04Z
- Subjects: leadership , executive ability , creative ability in business
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11206 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/107
- Description: The thesis argues that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between a leadership style and creativity. There is a higher statistically significant positive relation between Transformational Leadership style and creativity than between creativity and the other leadership styles. Creativity (fluency and originality of thought), can be accounted for by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. To demonstrate this, the research in this study firstly uses the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to identify leadership style, and secondly three measuring instruments that measure creativity. The argument is substantiated by the results of a statistical analysis of leadership style and creativity. A discussion of the areas that were researched, leadership style and associational/ideational fluency of thought and originality, as elements of creativity, provide the context in which the research should be viewed. A detailed discussion of the method, which was employed and the measuring instruments used to establish whether there is a statistical correlation between leadership style and creativity, precedes the experimental results. A critical discussion of the results obtained from the statistical analysis and the literature on leadership style and creativity provides a foundation for recommendations for organisations on how to use the results of this study. The dissertation recommends that, in order to improve on research of leadership and creativity, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) could be considered as a starting point. It would also be worthwhile pursuing means of improving the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as creativity could be accounted for by the MLQ. This measuring instrument could be recommended as a test during the selection process. It is recommended that the manager of the person also completes the instrument and rates the person from his/her perspective when similar research is done in future. Although scoring seems to be a difficulty characteristic of any measurement that involves divergent thinking, it would be of value to pursue means of further improving the Remote Associates Test (RAT) for future research purposes in the South African context. Objectivity in the scoring of divergent thinking tests seem to be difficult to achieve. In order to score fluency and originality of thought objectively, use can be made of experts, who have the knowledge and skills required, to provide such evaluations. The findings in this research are valuable because of a lack of previous research on the relationship between creativity and leadership style. , Dr. J. Zaaiman
- Full Text:
An empirical evaluation of competency requirements for first-line managers to deal with resistance to change.
- Authors: Lombard, Christoffel Nicolaas
- Date: 2007-10-24T13:39:50Z
- Subjects: organizational change management , executive ability
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11775 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/114
- Description: The point of departure of this study is that first-line managers play a pivotal role in the facilitation of change initiatives in organisations world-wide. Resistance to change is one of the primary reasons why change interventions fail or why success is not achieved in the change process. More specific, the inability of first-line managers to deal with resistance to change has been cited as a primary cause for change projects to fail. There is no evidence that any research has been conducted on the competence requirements for first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. The identification of these competencies can enable organisations world-wide to deal with resistance to change at the organisational level that is primarily responsible for products and services. In this literature study the researcher defines first-line managers as those managers responsible for achieving results through and with operational employees to ensure that market needs are met and/or exceeded. The research suggested that first-line managers can be described through a broad spectrum of people and that the nature of organisations in this modern era will place higher demands on first-line managers as the complexity and diversity of tasks to be performed by operational employees will increase. Considering the complexity and diversity of tasks and the importance of first-line managers in ensuring results through and with other people, it is suggested that the appointment of first-line managers be based on careful consideration of the required competencies which will enable the first-line manager to manage those areas where the business is measured on a daily basis. The role of the first-line manager in change is becoming increasingly important. Organisations will benefit from acknowledging the role of first-line managers in change and investing in their development in order to prepare them for the important role that they have to play during change efforts. Research on the competencies required by first-line managers to manage change effectively proved that the ability of first-line managers to deal with resistance to change is of critical importance. Organisation-specific competencies can be used as dynamic factors mediating between the potential capacity of the individual and the requirements of the job in a stable and dynamic environment. Organisation-specific competencies can also be used effectively to develop first-line managers dealing with resistance to change. Change manifests itself in various forms in organisations. Whatever the type of change, first-line managers have a critical role to play in the successful facilitation of change in their respective areas of responsibility. The most difficult aspect of the change effort lies in changing the people. Change invariably leads to resistance. In order to facilitate successful change, first-line managers should be able to deal with resistance to change in an effective and efficient manner. First-line managers should be able to make use of an integrated approach to manage change on their levels. They should also be able to cascade organisational change strategies to their areas of responsibility. This disproves the traditional views that first-line managers are not able to operate on a strategic level in the organisation. Although various models of change management can be used in organisations, there is not one single change model which is necessarily better than another. The researcher favours change management models which recognise the emotions that people experience during change as well as the fact that change objectives need to be achieved. The research highlighted seventeen requirements for successful change. It was evident from each discussion that the first-line manager can perform an integral role in the facilitation of successful change. This suggests that first-line managers can potentially fulfil an integral role in supporting organisational growth and sustainability, with the outcome of roles that impact beyond the traditional roles of first-line managers. Considering the potential roles that first-line managers can perform in facilitating successful organisational change, it can be argued that the selection criteria and competencies required for first-line managers as currently suggested in literature needs to be reviewed. Focusing on the purpose of this research, competent first-line managers can perform an integral role in minimising resistance to change. The primary objective of this research is to determine which specific units of competence will enable first-line managers to deal proactively with resistance to change. To reach the research objective the units of competence dealing with resistance to change, identified by Lombard & Crafford (2003), will be tested empirically. For this study a census group consisting of all first-line managers in Unilever Channel Management, Smollan Sales and Marketing and Tiger Diversified Food Services were used. The total census comprised 194 participants from an organisation in the service industry. The majority of the respondents are white, male with an even distribution of participants younger and older than thirty years. The researcher developed a questionnaire for the purposes of this research. The questionnaire was based on the units of competence formulated by Lombard & Crafford (2003, pp. 46-51). These units of competence formed part of the suggested competence framework required by first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. These competencies were obtained by means of a literature study and the applications of a functional analysis as suggested by Fletcher (1997). The rationale for this approach was to obtain as much as possible data from secondary, documented historical sources. (Burton, 2000, pp. 343 – 345). The questionnaire contained the biographical data required for the research, the instructions to complete the questionnaire, as well as 15 competencies that were simplified into 38 singular questions making use of a Likert-type, 5-point scale. The data set was built from data gathered from the three major business units of Smollan Holdings. The information was gathered by means of supervised groups and through the administration of electronic mail. The information was gathered to determine how important the units of competence are to first-line managers to deal with resistance to change in their work environment and also to what extent each unit of competence will contribute to their personal effectiveness in dealing with resistance to change in the work environment. The particular statistical procedures were selected for their suitability to test the research hypotheses of the study. These procedures include factor analysis, analysis of variance paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and multiple comparisons (Post Hoc tests). In respect of factor analysis a procedure developed by Schepers (1992) was followed. This procedure includes first as well as second level factor analysis. The Statistical Consultation Service of Rand Afrikaans University conducted the analyses. All calculations were done by means of the SPSS-Windows programme of SPSS – International. One of the central premises of this research was that first-line managers leading others through their resistance to change do not merely require a singular competence of dealing with resistance to change. Resistance to change requires a holistic and integrated approach. The results of the empirical research clearly support this assertion. The analysis of the results of the samples t-tests indicate that the respondents were of the opinion that all the units of competence are important in enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. The empirical research proved that none of the units of competence of Lombard & Crafford are of limited importance or of no importance in enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. It could be inferred that the units of competence identified by Lombard & Crafford (2003) reflect an integrated and holistic approach to enabling first-line managers to deal with resistance to change. First-line managers who are able to demonstrate the behaviours associated with the fifteen units of competence would be recognised by subordinates, peers and superiors as good role models and effective managers of resistance to change. The secondary objective of the empirical research is to determine whether the units of competence could contribute to the personal effectiveness levels to deal with resistance to change. The outcome of the analysis proved that all the units of competence are important for contributing to the personal competence levels of first-line managers to be able to deal with resistance to change. It can be inferred that not one of the units of competence is viewed as of limited importance or of no importance in contributing to the personal competence levels of first-line managers. The research proved that there is a correlation between the units of competence identified by Lombard and Crafford (2003) and the contribution of the units of competence to the personal competence levels of first-line managers. From a theoretical perspective it is recommended that further research be carried out in the identification of specific elements of competence (for example skills and knowledge) for each unit of competence, the entrepreneurial roles of first-line managers in organisations, and the profile of the modern first-line manager. From a practical perspective it is recommended that an assessment instrument be designed with measurable standards to determine individual development needs of first-line managers for dealing with resistance to change. From a methodological perspective it is suggested that a seven-point Likert-type scale with more specific options of selection on the important and non-important scales to facilitate a more exact reflection of mean scores is designed. It is further suggested that qualitative approaches and methods, including the facilitation of focus groups and interviews should also be included to supplement questionnaire surveys. , Dr. J. Zaaiman
- Full Text:
Transformation of managerial skills of engineers.
- Authors: Visser, Hercules
- Date: 2007-11-15T08:56:02Z
- Subjects: organizational change , Eskom (firm) , executive ability , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11972 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/116
- Description: Every year, more and more management positions are being filled by engineers and other technical personnel in spite of dual or parallel path systems for promotions in many companies. In spite of the centrality of engineers and management in industrial organizations and modern society, engineers are generally viewed to be unsuccessful in management roles due to the following shortcoming of skills: inadequate managerial education during engineering studies, administrative skills, interpersonal skills, personality and career orientation, management knowledge. This research argues that there is a difference in leadership style between experienced and inexperienced engineers in South Africa. It was found that experienced engineers in Eskom are more transformational and more transactional compared to inexperienced post-graduated engineering students at the Rand Afrikaans University. To demonstrate this in the study, the researcher used the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to identify leadership style. The argument is substantiated by the results of a statistical analysis of leadership style for experienced and inexperienced engineers. The findings of this research indicate the theory that successful managers tend to grow into their jobs over an extended period (Bennett, 1996 and Sedge, 1985). The findings also support the arguments of O’Connor (1994) and Badaway (1995) that engineers have no typical career path to prepare them for the management role. It is therefore imperative that inexperienced engineers prepares themselves for management and obtain knowledge about management and development management skills during their formal studies. , Dr. L. Naude
- Full Text:
Identifying a national leadership skills training and development strategy for leaders within sector education training authorities (SETAs).
- Authors: Prinsloo, Florus
- Date: 2007-12-06T05:51:13Z
- Subjects: training of employees , executive ability , SETA , Sector Education and Training Authority , leadership
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13939 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/142
- Description: The South African Government launched a skills development initiative in February 2001 to be led by leaders of twenty five Sector Education Training Authorities (SETAs). This study identifies a strategy and the transformational leadership competencies to be included in the strategy to develop the SETA leaders. , Dr. A. Lategan
- Full Text: