A community education intervention for promoting and sustaining entrepreneurial behaviour in a women's group.
- Authors: Hlatshwayo, Gladys Sissy
- Date: 2008-08-21T12:48:50Z
- Subjects: community education , adult education of women , businesswomen , entrepreneurship , Johannesburg ( South Africa )
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8036 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/896
- Description: The focus of this research essay was to provide a rich description and an analysis of the role that a community education intervention played in initiating and supporting sustainable entrepreneurship among a group of women in the Daveyton community, Johannesburg, South Africa. The transformation of the education system in South Africa is crucial, given the legacy of apartheid, which has left a vast number of black people without decent education. It has thus become essential for the government to put into place policies aimed at maximising participation in Adult and Community Education programmes, particularly for those groups who were deprived of basic education, the majority of whom were black women. Most of these women are still unable to interact with the mainstream economy, whether as business-owners or employees. Without access to the outside market, they are confined to meagre wages in the townships, either as domestic workers or child-minders. A community education programme should provide such individuals with education associated with the joy of self-improvement and the development of the individual, factors that can make it possible for the establishment of sustainable livelihoods. This inquiry is premised on the view that community education is crucial in enabling disadvantaged groups to fully participate in programmes that enable them to take control of their lives and exploit the opportunities presented to them. This research study is grounded within an interpretive paradigm, using qualitative research methods, to seek, discover and understand the role played by a community education intervention for promoting and sustaining entrepreneurial behaviour in a women’s group. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews and observation with six black women and two black males, from Daveyton township in the East Rand. I used the constant comparative method for data analysis, and in searching for recurring themes and patterns. The findings of this research have revealed that the group of black South African women from Daveyton township were able to sustain entrepreneurship through a community education intervention by Eskom Development Foundation. Firstly, the programme aided them to recognise and combine available resources among themselves. Secondly, the programme opened up avenues for the establishment and development of the enterprise ‘Leratong Bakery’. In addition, the women were also able to use skills that they acquired from the programme in order to conform to standard norms of business. Furthermore, they went through a process of critical awareness, which resulted in a ‘change of mindset’. This change in turn enhanced their creativity and resulted in the growth and sustenance of the business for the duration of this study. The study concludes with a few recommendations that can possibly be used by all stakeholders involved in formulating community education programme policy. , Mrs. N. F. Petersen
- Full Text:
Entrepreneurial functionality of new venture creation learners.
- Authors: Buys, Philna
- Date: 2008-04-22T06:16:50Z
- Subjects: experiential learning , training of employees , leadership , new business enterprises , entrepreneurship
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/372814 , uj:8469 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/262
- Description: The skills shortage is one of the problems that existed in South Africa as a result of its historic political situation. South Africa was characterized by a white dominant government in an economy which was marked by exclusions of various people of race and gender. In the working environment, the situation reflected job reservation for white males, limited career opportunities for white females with repercussions of isolation, sanctions and global deprivation. The 1994 elections brought a change in leadership and a democratic government had as its primary mission skills development for all. On a macro level, South Africa was marginalized from global participation and on a micro level, many people were not able to enter the workforce because of a lack of skills let alone be active in the economy. The South African government’s resultant Human Resources Development – (HRDS) and National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) were driven by supportive legislation namely the Skills Development Act No 97 of 1998, Employment Equity Act No 55 of 1998, Skills Development Levies Act of 1999 and the South African Qualifications Authority Act No 58 of 1995. These strategies and legislative measures intended to address the skills shortages through the implementation of learnerships as a national qualification. Following from the high level strategy were the initial over-ambitious targets for people to become qualified learners. The result was a push-through effect of individuals who were not necessarily suited to a particular learnership nor were they able to function on the required standard. Low level evaluations were used to ‘certify’ potential learners in terms of their numeracy and literacy levels only. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the suitability of learners on the New Venture Creation Learnership in terms of their entrepreneurial functionality and leadership qualities. After evaluating a number of models (Carland Entrepreneurial Index, the Bar-on Emotional Intelligence test and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), the Functional ii Intelligence Assessment Tool (FIAT) scientific model was selected because of its holistic approach of the individual and his/her functionality within an environment. The Functional Intelligence Assessment Tool identified and substantiated the suitability or non-suitability of the respondents in terms of entrepreneurial requirements. An additional questionnaire was administered to evaluate leadership qualities which are an essential component of the entrepreneur. The first of three research goals were attained when the respondents who were in the process of completing the New Venture Creation Learnership were successfully assessed in terms of entrepreneurial functionality. The outcome of this research concluded that only three (3) out of nineteen (19) candidates were found to be suitable for the entrepreneurial environment while two of the three had leadership qualities. The analysis of one candidate was such that no accurate analysis in terms of leadership qualities could be obtained. In terms of Functional Tendency, eight (8) candidates showed extrovert tendencies, six (6) showed introvert tendencies while five (5) candidates rendered results that did not give a clear indication of the individual’s functionality. Nine (9) individuals intentionally tried to manipulate their results but were identified through their inconsistent results while candidate 1 manipulated her results unintentionally; Five (5) individuals tried to disguise their results by giving extreme scores thereby hoping to impress with their choice of answers (impression management) while two (2) individuals were in denial about their situation having scored unrealistic results. Two (2) individuals had serious problems with their emotional functioning to the extent that they should consult a professional person (professional intervention). Twelve (12) individuals revealed inconsistent results while the remainder of candidates shows some or an insignificant degree of inconsistency in their results. Only three (3) individuals should be re-assessed due to the extent of their inconsistency. iii The second research goal to give comprehensive feedback to the Services Seta and respondents regarding the outcome of the Functional Intelligence Assessment Tool assessments will only be attained after this thesis but it sets the base for follow-up of the respondents’ progress and to conduct future research. The third research goal is also more medium - to long term - to apply this tool to potential learners and – employees in addition to the initial research performed. This goal will also only be attained after negotiations with SETAs and continuous populating of a central database with the FIAT’s assessments. The holistic approach to assessing the functionality of an individual gives the person a vast number of areas known as super constructs (self perception and emotional functioning; relationships and corporate functioning, personal – and organizational value comparison) that will either highlight a serious situation or spell out how the individual will react and interact in certain situations. Small business is said to drive the economy of a country. It is therefore critical that the entrepreneurs in a country are identified early (through a scientific instrument such as FIAT) and skilled appropriately (through learnerships or other educational routes). It is equally important that individuals that are not entrepreneurs be found their rightful vocation and then everyone can contribute effectively to the economic activity. , Prof. J.J.D. Havenga
- Full Text: