Hope, psychosocial well-being and socioeconomic status among adolescents
- Authors: Vermaak, Yvonne
- Date: 2011-11-24
- Subjects: Adolescent psychology , Adolescents' mental health , Hope , Well-being
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:1724 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4074
- Description: M.A. , The changing political, social, and economic landscape of South Africa witnessed in the interregnum period between 1990 and 1994 has had widespread consequences for the country’s people. Adolescents have experienced their childhood development alongside the development of South Africa’s democracy since 1994. This setting has determined the socioeconomic disparities experienced by these adolescents. Lower socioeconomic status is associated with the prevalence of mental illness and delayed physical development and increased pathology. The present research has endeavoured to explore aspects of mental health in South African adolescents. More particularly, hope, psychosocial well-being, and socioeconomic status of adolescents were investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and dynamics of hope and psychosocial well-being among South African adolescents (N = 1069). Participants completed the Children’s Hope Scale (CHS), the Mental Health Continuum – Short form for youths (MHC-SF), and a biographical questionnaire including a subjective rating of socioeconomic status. Specific hypotheses were formulated concerning: the prevalence of hope in adolescents, the prevalence of psychosocial well-being, the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being, and socioeconomic status as a moderator in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being. The prevalence of hope and of psychosocial well-being across racial groups was investigated by means of a one-way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicated that adolescents experience relatively high levels of hope across racial groups with no significant effect for race on hope scores for the four groups, F (4, 1168) = 1.431, p > .05. Relatively high levels of psychosocial well-being are experienced by adolescents with no significant effect of race on emotional well-being, F (4, 1112) = .716, p > .05, and no significant effect of race on social well-being, F (4, 1136) = 2.354, p > .05. However, the effect of race was significant for total psychosocial well-being, F (4, 1088) = 3.611, p < .05. Post hoc comparisons with the Tukey HSD test indicated that significant differences existed specifically between the black (M = 43.84, SD = 11.24) and white groups (M = 41.35, SD = 11.93), with the black group yielding higher mean scores of psychosocial well-being. Moreover, there was a significant effect for race on psychological well-being, F (4, 1140) = 5.103, p < .05. Post hoc comparisons with the Tukey HSD test indicated that significant differences existed particularly between the black (M = 21.76, SD = 5.31) and white groups (M = 20.57, SD = 5.72), and coloured (M = 22.38, SD = 5.83) and white groups (M = 20.57, SD = 5.72). Both the black and coloured groups yielded higher mean scores of psychosocial well-being in comparison to the white group.
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Hope and coping self-efficacy as predictors of psychological well-being among adolescents in Gauteng
- Authors: January, Jillian
- Date: 2011-12-08
- Subjects: Adolescent psychology , Hope , Self-efficacy , Well-being
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:1879 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4234
- Description: M.A. , Adolescence is stage of change on a biological, social, physical and psychological level. Whilst some individuals are able to successfully negotiate through this stage and adapt to the various changes in an adequate manner, some adolescents may encounter difficulty during this process (Geldard & Geldard, 2004). Keyes’ (2006a) has highlighted the importance of success on a developmental level during adolescence as it holds important implications for adult development. Whilst research has continually highlighted risk behaviours and negative outcomes stemming from an inadequate adaptation to the period of adolescence, there is limited information regarding the positive aspects that can further support this process of development. In addition to the developmental challenges which the stage of adolescence holds, South African youth are exposed to a unique socio-economic context, which presents challenges such as familial difficulties, lack of parental monitoring, violence, crime and exposure to abuse (Van Schalkwyk, 2009). It is therefore important to identify factors which could facilitate adolescent development in a positive manner. The aim of the current study was therefore to utilize the explanatory framework of positive psychology to understand and identify psychological strengths which could contribute to positive outcomes for adolescents. Two specific psychological strengths were explored namely hope and coping self-efficacy. The broad aim of the study was to explore hope and coping self-efficacy amongst adolescents from different population groups. Further, the study also aimed to examine the relationship between hope, coping self-efficacy and psychosocial well-being. Finally, the study aimed to determine the extent to which hope and coping self-efficacy predicted psychosocial well-being. A total number of 1173 adolescents participated in the study. Participants completed The Children’s Hope Scale (CHS), Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE) and the Mental Health Continuum Short-Form (MHC-SF). Results obtained indicated that the levels of hope among adolescents from different population groups was similar and relatively high (M=24.41-26.01). Results from the CSE indicated that the mean scores for the adolescents from different population groups were in the average range. The mean scores for the different population groups were as follows: Blacks (n=376) M=78.12 SD=20.74, Whites (n=542) M=78.74, SD=20.9, Coloured (n=180) M=77.84, SD=22.98, and Indian (n=69) M=84.17 SD=21.01. In order to examine the relationship between hope, coping self-efficacy and psychosocial well-being, Pearsons’ correlations were utilised. Results indicated that a positive correlation exists between coping self-efficacy and hope (r = .574, p < 0.01 ), between coping self-efficacy and psychosocial well-being (r = .495, p < 0.01), and between hope and psychosocial well-being (r = .567, p < 0.01). Previous research suggesting positive relationships between these constructs were thus confirmed. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis was implemented to determine the extent to which hope and coping self-efficacy predicted psychosocial well-being. Results indicated that hope accounts for a significant variance in psychosocial well-being (R2 = .396, F (1, 1090) = 529.51, P < .05). Results also indicated that coping self-efficacy accounts for 7% of the variance in psychosocial well-being after controlling for hope (R2 = .396, R2 = .069, F (1, 1091, 125.35, p < .05). To conclude, the findings indicate that adolescents from different population groups have similar, relatively high levels of hope. Further, adolescents from different population groups have similar levels of coping self-efficacy. The levels of coping self-efficacy are in the average range, indicating that most adolescents in the study felt that they are able to cope with the various challenges which they need to contend with on a daily basis. A positive relationship was found between the constructs of hope, coping self-efficacy and psychosocial well-being. Coping self-efficacy also uniquely predicted psychosocial well-being after controlling for hope. The results are encouraging, as it demonstrates that despite the contextual challenges faced by many South African adolescents, they are able to cope relatively well, and hold relatively high levels of hope.
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Gratitude and subjective well-being in a group of adolescents
- Authors: Croxford, Sarah-Anne
- Date: 2012-11-06
- Subjects: Gratitude , Well-being , Adolescent psychology , Happiness
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:7368 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8131
- Description: M.A. , Satisfactory psychosocial development during adolescence will equip individuals with intrapersonal and interpersonal resources to facilitate adaptive negotiations of the complex adult world. There has been increasing empirical interest in fostering optimal development in adolescents through enhancing positive attributes and aspects of mental health. Accordingly, researchers have begun investigating the benefits of frequent experiences of gratitude, and have found that gratitude is associated with subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents. The relationship between gratitude and SWB may be particularly important for South African youth, whose development occurs within the context of socio-political difficulties associated with transformation in the post-apartheid era, which could have a negative impact on their SWB. However, there has been no research undertaken to investigate gratitude and SWB among South African adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence of gratitude, and the relationship between gratitude and SWB, among 812 adolescents in Gauteng. Specifically, the prevalence of state gratitude and trait gratitude were determined, and compared across female and male adolescents, and among participants from different population groups. Further, the relationship between state gratitude and SWB, and trait gratitude and SWB, was established and compared across gender and among individuals from various population groups. A quantitative non-experimental design was employed. Data was collected by self-report questionnaires assessing the prevalence of gratitude and SWB. The data was analysed by examining mean scores, conducting one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs), as well as Pearson‟s product moment-correlation coefficients, and a multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up ANOVAs.
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