Die ontwikkeling en validering van die loopbaanvoorkeurvraelys (LVV)
- Authors: Du Toit, Renette
- Date: 2008-10-31T09:15:07Z
- Subjects: Career development , Vocational guidance , Questionnaires design , Questionnaires evaluation
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13974 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1434
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The main aim of this study was to compile a career interest inventory – the Career Preference Inventory (CPI) – that would succeed in identifying the career preferences or vocational interests of learners from Grades 9 to 12. The specific objectives of the study involved an empirical examination of the content validity, construct validity, as well as reliability of the inventory. A study was also made of the structure of vocational interests of the test groups that formed part of the study. The study entailed two empirical investigations. When the inventory was administered for the first time, additional items were added to the SAVII and the test group was made up of a representative sample of 1385 Grade 9 and 12 learners in the North West Province. As a result of the item analysis that was based on this sample, 54 of the items in the questionnaire were either changed or replaced. The reliability coefficients of the subfields of the SAVII for the population involved in the first administration were acceptable and ranged between 0,747 and 0,901. After an analysis of the items in the SAVII and the selection of the most suitable items, the questionnaire – by now known as the Career Preference Inventory (CPI) – was administered once again. The reason for the second administration was to establish whether the amended items met the statistical requirements that had been set. Convenience sampling was used in this part of the study, since it was not possible to draw a representative sample of the population. The sample consisted of 1271 Afrikaans first language speakers, 2699 English second language speakers and 306 English first language speakers. Item analysis revealed that all the items were acceptable. The reliability coefficients of the fields of the CPI were also acceptable and varied between 0,714 and 0,860 for the particular test group. Test-retest reliability coefficients could be calculated for a group of 197 English second language speakers only and varied between 0,689 and 0,863. A factor analysis was made to determine the constructs or factors that emerged with regard to the CPI. Initially six factors were specified, but since the fields for Clerical-Administrative, Business, and Management manifested within a single factor, seven factors were subsequently withdrawn to establish whether the two latter-mentioned components could indeed function independently. The following fields or dimensions eventually realised: 1) Human-Communication; 2) Medical and related; 3) Technical-Scientific; 4) Practical-Handcraft; 5) Artistic; 6) Business and Management; and 7) Clerical-Administrative. The final questionnaire contains 18 fields that are described individually and that are not categorised into 6 main fields. The questionnaire is also supposed to disclose the vocational information in Career Mentor in an ordered and structured manner. The 18 fields are therefore linked to more than 500 occupations and the CPI results serve as a search strategy that unlocks the mentioned occupational database according to specific vocational preferences.
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The effects of test interpretation styles and the status of tests in career counselling
- Authors: Frade, Nelia
- Date: 2008-11-03T06:48:29Z
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Psychological tests
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14034 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1442
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , Career counselling is an activity that influences a wide range of people, from adolescents to adults. Contemporary writers on the subject, for example Brown and Brooks (1996) and Gysbers (1998), are increasingly emphasising the view that career development is a life span issue and that it affects other life roles. Given this, these writers advocate that career counselling should equip the client with the necessary skills to make career decisions. They contend that individuals can only make sensible career decisions when career counsellors facilitate conditions that enable clients to gain self-knowledge and career knowledge (Sharf, 1997). To this end, career counsellors frequently use psychological tests. A fundamental consideration in using psychological tests is that the tests be of high technical status. This implies that the tests are (a) reliable and valid, (b) item content and norms are appropriate, and (c) test instructions and interpretation methods are clear (Foxcroft, 2001). Numerous guidelines exist for the construction and application of psychological tests. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for the dissemination of test results to facilitate appropriate interpretation (Zytowski, 1999). The above factors illustrate the importance of career counselling. The purpose of this study is therefore to attempt to fill a perceived gap in the literature, and provide more information on the social influence of career counsellors and psychological tests. Since there is presently no specific overview of the standing and status of test interpretation styles and the status of tests in career counselling, this study will attempt to broaden the knowledge base pertaining to the best practice for career counselling. A theoretical overview of career counselling models is presented as a means of introducing those career counselling models that have been instrumental in guiding the practice of career counselling. The literature shows that the career counselling approach adopted by counsellors is based on their theoretical orientation. From the above discussion it is evident that the use of psychological tests is pertinent to the career counselling process. Consensus has been reached as to the appropriateness and status of psychometric tests and but not as to the most appropriate means of disseminating test results. This study alludes to the importance of involving clients in the interpretation of test results. As such this study hypothesises that test interpretation styles that involve clients will be deemed more valuable by the client. This implies that the clients will perceive the session as having more depth, smoothness, positivity and arousal. In addition, this study contends that clients who are involved in the test interpretation process will perceive their counsellors as more influential on the social influence dimensions of expertness, attractiveness and trustworthiness (Hanson et al., 1997). Furthermore, this study speculates that psychological tests need to be of high technical status or else clients will be less willing to accept the test results (Walsh & Betz, 1995). From this perspective, this study hypothesises that clients who are actively involved in the interpretation of test results and are aware of the status of the test, namely that it is of high status, will be more inclined to accept test results as being valid. Similarly, these clients will perceive the counsellor as being more expert, trustworthy and attractive. In an attempt to confirm these hypotheses, thirty-two postgraduate students in psychology at the Rand Afrikaans University (RAU) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. These conditions consisted of high or low test status and a test interpretation style that either encouraged collaboration or discouraged collaboration. The former test interpretation style was termed the non-delivered test interpretation style, whilst the latter was known as the delivered test interpretation style. The measurement instruments included the Counselor Rating Form-Short Version (CRF-S) and the SEQ. The CRF-S was used to elicit scores pertaining to counsellor characteristics of expertness, trustworthiness and attractiveness. The SEQ was employed to obtain a measure of session impact, where impact is measured in terms of session depth, smoothness, positivity and arousal. The results of this study were attained using a 2 „e 2 factorial design. MANCOVAs, ANCOVAs and t-tests were used to elicit statistical results. The statistical results showed that counsellors employing a non-delivered test interpretation style were more influential on the dimensions of attractiveness and trustworthiness. These results attest to the fact that counsellors who use non-delivered test interpretation styles are perceived by their clients as being similar to them and as having positive regard for them. Similarly, non-delivered counsellors are perceived as having their client¡¦s best interests at heart. These are essential components of any counselling situation. The results refuted the hypothesis that non-delivered test interpretation styles would have more impact than delivered test interpretation styles, where impact is measured in terms of session depth, smoothness, positivity and arousal. The implications of this finding indicate that, in general and irrespective of the style used by the counsellor, counselling sessions should provide the client with session depth, smoothness, positivity and arousal. The challenge facing counsellors is to provide the style of interpretation that meets the needs of the client. Lastly, this research can allow one to infer that the consumers of psychological tests continue to assume that psychological tests are of high technical status. Given this, it is the responsibility of those who construct tests and those who use tests to ensure that tests continue to be of high technical status. This research has confirmed that test interpretations, as interventions, affect the counselling process in clinically meaningful and measurable ways.
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Holland's SDS classification system and temperament: a comparative study with estate agents
- Authors: Graf, Nicolette
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:23:33Z
- Subjects: Personality , Temperament , Real estate agents , Vocational guidance
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14588 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1511
- Description: M.A. , Since personality plays a very important role in the choice of career, it was decided to undertake a study whereby the personality traits of individuals of a particular career, namely that of estate agent was explored. The purpose of the study therefore, is to determine whether there are statistically significant differences in certain personality dimensions between estate agents who according to Holland (1997) fit the estate agents category and estate agents who according to Holland (1997) do not fit the estate agents category. Career counselling is discussed on the basis of the current literature on the topic. Career counselling entails matching an individual’s interests and abilities to a suitable career. The viewpoints regarding career counselling that are discussed in this study are the Trait and Factor theory, the career developmental approach of Super (1953) and Holland’s (1997) occupational interest theory. Holland’s (1997) theory is conceptualised in depth as his theory plays a large role in the current study. Furthermore, because personality plays a large role in an individual’s decision of career, various temperament and personality theories are discussed. The factors differentiating temperament from personality have also been included. Finally the relationship between personality and work is explained. The sample group consisted of 44 estate agents who work at one of three branches of the same real estate agency in Johannesburg. Holland’s (1994b) Self Directed Search (SDS) was used to establish the specific occupational three letter code of each of the participating estate agents. This code was compared to the code found in the Occupations Finder (1994a) which specifies the code established by Holland (1994a) as the suitable code for estate agents, (namely ESI). Based on their SDS codes, the participants were divided into two groups. Group one consisted of estate agents who have either ‘ES’ or ‘SE’ as the first two letters of their occupational code, in other words the estate agents closely resembling Holland’s (1994a) code and therefore those that fit the estate agents category according to Holland (1994a). Group two consisted of estate agents whose first two letters of their occupational code were neither ‘ES’ or ‘SE’, in other words the estate agents who do not closely resemble Holland’s (1994a) code and therefore those who do not fit the estate agents category according to Holland (1994a).
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A factor analytic study of adult career concerns, career status and career resilience
- Authors: Lew, Charlene C.
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:24:09Z
- Subjects: Job satisfaction , Vocational guidance , Vocational interests , Career development , Adult Career Concerns Inventory , Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory , Career Resilience Questionnaire
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14592 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1513
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil. , Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resilience in adult vocational adjustment. In an exploratory factor analysis of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory theoretical considerations suggested the extraction of four factors which explained 74% of the variance in the correlation matrix. The communalities of the variables were determined by means of squared multiple correlations of the subscales. On oblique rotation by means of Promax, a four factor solution was supported, reflecting the underlying dimensions of Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Disengagement. High correlations among the factors suggested the presence of a general factor, which may be termed career concerns. A factor extension analysis indicated the high quality of the test items, and a high level of correspondence between the Maintenance and Establishment factors. Maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory were subsequently performed to test four and three factor measurement models. The estimated standardised factor pattern coefficients of both the models were found to be statistically significant. High correlations between the Maintenance and Establishment factors from the four factor model however favoured the three factor model, which allows for the merging of these two latent dimensions. In an exploratory factor analysis of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory use were made of constructed item parcels. Theoretical considerations suggested the extraction of nine factors, which accounted for 54% of the variance in the correlation matrix. The squared multiple correlations of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory item parcels were used to determine the initial communalities, and the nine factors were obliquely rotated by means of Promax. With the exception of two of the parcels, the factor pattern coefficients indicated that all the item parcels could be explained by nine factors that correspond with the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory subscales, namely Job Satisfaction, Career Worries, Family Commitment, Interpersonal Abuse, Skill Development, Geographical Barriers, Risk-taking Style, Work Involvement, and Dominant Style. The relative independence of these factors were inferred from the interfactor correlation matrix. A factor extension analysis indicated the overall high quality of the test items. A maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory at item parcel-level was based on a measurement model in accordance with the nine factors mentioned above. This analysis supported the nine factor model and revealed interesting relations among the dimensions of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory. An exploratory factor analysis of the Career Resilience Questionnaire at item-level was also performed. Although the Kaiser criterion suggested the extraction of as many as 15 factors, and the MAP values suggested six factors, the initial communalities based on the squared multiple correlations were also considered. The initial communalities were reiterated twice, and the residual four factors accounted for 27% of the variance. An oblique rotation of the factors by means of Promax resulted in the tentative labelling of four latent dimensions, namely Leadership, Sense of Security in One’s Career, Acceptance of Uncertainty, and Values. These factors had satisfactory reliability coefficients, but no significant intercorrelations. Due to the theoretical inadequacies of this analysis, an oblique multiple groups factor analysis of the Career Resilience Questionnaire was performed in an attempt to cross-validate the factor solution reported by Fourie and Van Vuuren (1998). Low reliability coefficients of the factors were however obtained, an the postulated measurement model could not be supported. In an interbattery factor analysis of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory and the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory both theory and reliability coefficients of various factor solutions were considered, which resulted in the extraction of six factors. The factors were rotated obliquely by means of Direct Quartimin. The resultant factor solution met theoretical expectations by indicating several shared dimensions of the two instruments. Implementation, Advancing, Holding and Updating were grouped with Career Worries and Risk-taking Style. Job Satisfaction related negatively in a shared dimension with Crystallisation, Specification, Implementation, Retirement Planning and Retirement Living. Innovation was associated with Work Involvement, Skill Development and Dominant Style. Stabilisation, Risk-Taking Style and Geographical Barriers formed a shared dimension. Deceleration and Interpersonal Abuse were likewise associated. Lastly, Family Commitment and Updating shared a negative relation within another dimension. In essence, these factor analyses support the construct validity, theoretical generalisability, and usefulness of both the Adult Career Concerns Inventory and the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory, but fails to support the construct validity of the Career Resilience Questionnaire. Moreover, a foundation has been laid for the theoretical integration of the constructs of career concerns and career status.
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The effect of a career guidance training programme on volunteer trainees
- Authors: Molefe, M. J.
- Date: 2008-11-11T06:45:52Z
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Career development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14632 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1586
- Description: M.A. , There is a serious need for effective career guidance programmes in schools. Most of the research point out that the need is more evident in African schools. This can be linked to the high school dropout rate, resulting in unemployment and a low quality of life in some sectors of the population. Other factors like poverty and parents’ socio -economic status plays a part. This study sees the school as the most important setting and environment that is responsible for developing and promoting quality career development programmes that will produce learners that are going to be self-reliant in life. For such programmes to address the needs of the learners, they should be developmental in nature. Some of the characteristics of a developmental career development programme are that it takes all children in the school into consideration. It also has a preventative emphasis. The study raises concerns about the nature of career development in schools and whether their programmes are developmental in nature. The training of the guidance counsellors, as they are responsible for programme development, is also an issue. The study therefore describes at length a developmental career guidance programme, its characteristics, principles on which it is based and implementation. The psycho-education model is seen as a proper vehicle for training and for enhancing the skills of the guidance counsellors. A training manual in career development was developed as an intervention process in this study. Ten teachers who were firstly interviewed to assess their level of knowledge and training on career development were trained using this manual. The teachers were then interviewed, and gave a descriptive account of the knowledge acquired from the training. The results are discussed with reference to the theory and literature that are put forward in this study. The evaluation of the intervention of the study, which was the training manual, was positive. The teachers described it as helpful and easy to apply.
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The protean career attitude, emotional intelligence and career adjustment
- Authors: Buchner, Morné
- Date: 2009-03-31T09:38:20Z
- Subjects: Career development , Vocational guidance , Emotional intelligence
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8267 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2377
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The rampant and unpredictable changes in the world of work have recently become a particular point of concern. Organisations worldwide require career agents who are more adaptable to respond appropriately to these challenges. The study aimed to firstly assemble a viable empirical career adjustment model to address these challenges. Secondly, the study differentiated and profiled four career agent groups which utilise this model in different and dynamic ways. These career agent profiles provided an exploratory and contextual platform for the third aim, to uncover a narrative of the adaptable career in the South African context. A convenience sample (n = 427) mostly representing engineers (38%), financial professions (22%) and technicians (15%) responded to three instruments which operationalised the dimensions of the proposed career adjustment model. The dimensions included in the model were the (i) Protean and Boundaryless career attitude, (ii) Emotional Intelligence and (iii) Work-Stressor experience. These dimensions were operationalised by (i) the Protean (Self-Directed Career Management and Values Driven scale) and Boundaryless (Organisationally Mobile and Boundaryless Mindset scale) career attitude scales, (ii) the BarOn EQ-i composite scales (Intrapersonal EQ, Interpersonal EQ, Adaptability, Stress Management and General Mood) and (iii) selected scales from the Sources of Work Stress Inventory (Lack of Autonomy and Workload). These instruments were tested for reliability and validity which provided acceptable results in terms of Cronbach alphas and EFA. The Protean and Boundaryless career attitude (PBca) instrument showed less reliable results with the Values Driven scale (α = .65). The SDCM scale produced more reliable results (α = .74). The BM and OM scales rendered the most reliable results (α = .86 and α = .87 respectively). The other instruments reflect excellent alpha iii coefficients ranging from α = .80 to α = .92 for the SWSI and from α = .81 to α = .96 for the BarOn EQ-i composite scales. The EFA of the PBca was primarily guided by the theoretical structure to extract four factors. A similar process followed for the SWSI rendered excellent factor loadings for General Work Stress (GWS), LA and WL. In the empirical construction of the career adjustment model both the use of correlations and hierarchical multiple regression rendered statistically significant results for the intercorrelations between the proposed dimensions of the model. The correlation results (within and between the dimensions) were as expected except for Organisational Mobility and Self-Directed Career Management which did not correlate significantly. Together the three dimensions predicted approximately 32% to 33% of the explained variance in GWS (i.e. the dependent variable chosen to represent a subjective experience of career adjustment). Overall, the findings supported the proposition that the model could be utilised as a viable career adjustment model. The non-hierarchical clustering analysis provided four significantly different clusters based on the PBca scales which were labelled the Protean (P), the Non- Protean (NP), the Organisationally Mobile Protean (OMp) and the Boundaryless Minded Protean (BMp). The Protean clusters all shared the Self-Directed Career Management and Values-Driven scale. These clusters were distinctly different after considering their attributes which originated from the BarOn EQ-i composites and SWSI scales. The most significant factors (attributes) revealed after conducting Descriptive Discriminant Analysis (DDA) where AD, RA, SM, GM and LA. The DDA procedure rendered Lack of Autonomy (SWSI) and Adaptability (EQ-i) as the most significant discriminators. This lead to the profiling of career agent types, namely the Protean Career Architect, the Conglomerate Citizen (study specific), the Solid Citizen and the Traditionalist. With these career agent profiles as basis an attempt was made to explore how their careers can unfold in the South African context.
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Opvoeding en die beroepslewe
- Authors: Van Zyl, P.
- Date: 2009-05-07T07:11:43Z
- Subjects: Education and work , Vocational guidance
- Type: Inaugural
- Identifier: uj:15004 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2486
- Description: Inaugural lecture--Faculty of Education, Rand Afrikaans University, 16 October 1968 , Education and work are two fundamental structures of human life. Education implies assistance given to a non-adult en route to adulthood. Work is one of the primordial means by which man creates and maintains a human world. The child should be brought up to be a worker, a co-worker, in a human world. Work forms the basis of various occupational fields, typical of the adult world. In his vocational life man expresses his convictions as regards the meaning of life. Vocational orientation is an important pedagogical affair which may not be neglected until puberty or adolescence. An attitude of personal responsibility to contribute something meaningful to life should be awakened from early childhood. This is done by the example of adulthood as being presented by grown-ups fulfilling their daily tasks. The choice of a vocation is a personal choice which cannot be made for young people on account of the results of psychometric tests only. In a complex occupational structure young people need assistance to decide responsibly. This responsibility must be faced by educator and educand. It is the responsibility of the community to provide a setting in which becoming an adult with faith in a meaningful future is possible. Modern trends in vocational life cause some educational problems. These should not necessarily be regarded to be pathological. They are-opportunities appealing to educators to find new ways and means to educate the generation of the emerging age for their human task.
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An assessment package for a life counselling model
Evaluering van ‘n loopbaanberadingsintervensie met behulp van die loopbaanportefeulje-aktiwiteitswerkboek
Die validering van 'n loopbaankeuse vir sosio-ekonomiese benadeelde leerders
- Authors: Alexander, Dinah Lydia Magdalena
- Date: 2011-11-10
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Career development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7273 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3948
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil. , The empirical aim of this study is the validation of a career guidance intervention, i.e. the SNUG-guide to career choices. Scheepers (1996) developed this guide for socio-economic deprived learners. An investigation will also be undertaken to ascertain whether the SNUG corresponds at a structural level with the SDS. If this assumption is validated, then the SNUG can replace the SDS as a measuring instrument in South Africa. The learners in the sample come from disadvantaged, socio-economic deprived backgrounds, and therefore Chapter One contained a discussion about the problems that face such communities in the career decision-making realm. The necessity of program development and validation to address these challenges was highlighted. It was determined that the focus should be on empowerment, in order to facilitate sustainability and to ensure that the community can regain control over their lives and future. The theoretical base was formed on Super (1990) and Bandura's assumptions and principles. The intervention was based on Holland's (1985) structural-inter-active model -just like the SDS. To meet the empirical aim of the study, a research method, namely the developmental research method, was utilized. The focus was on the evaluation phase, as this study focused on the validation of an intervention. Due to rationalization and other after-effects of the Apartheid era, there is a shortage of trained guidance personnel in disadvantaged communities. Applying the SNUG-guide can fill this gap, because both facilitators and learners can easily understand it. It was found that the SNUG-guide corresponded with the SDS on a structural level. The results of the research also revealed that most learners like their parents, still preferred Social and Conventional career fields. There is a welcome inclination towards the Investigative careers, which should be encouraged, because few disadvantaged people were historically represented in these careers. There was an absence of interest in the Enterprising fields, which should be investigated further. Learners also indicated that they have an aversion to Realistic careers, because of its historic negative connotation. The learners seemed to view the Artistic field as an extra-mural activity, rather as a career field. In the evaluation, most learners indicated that they had found the program beneficial and that they would be able to make and implement a career decision, due to the help that they have received. An empowerment program, like the SNUG - guide, proved to be a powerful tool to uplift and empower socio-economic deprived communities. It enhances their self-efficacy and leads to feelings of being in control of their lives. With the implementation of the SNUG-guide in this study, the intervention was validated as being an adequate tool to address the career decision-making difficulties of disadvantaged learners, and to empower the community.
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The relationship between personality traits and perceived career barriers amongst young adults in South Africa
- Authors: Yates, Duncan
- Date: 2012-02-28
- Subjects: Personality , Vocational guidance , Career development , Young adults conduct of life , Young adults life skills guide , Young adults employment
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2089 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4435
- Description: M.A. , Young adults who are entering the world of work are facing increasing challenges, resulting in elevated levels of employment uncertainty and anxiety. Many of these challenges are due to the continuously changing work environment, which is buffeted by the socio-political and economic climate - both in and outside South Africa. Other challenges could be related to factors such as lack of confidence, decision making difficulties, dissatisfaction with career choice and difficulties with social networking. As a result of such challenges young adults may perceive career barriers that would have an impact on their career development. These challenges could be influenced by an individual’s personality traits. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the career barriers most perceived by young adults. The study also aimed to assess whether any relationship exists between personality traits and perceived career barriers. The sample consisted of 193 participants from two universities in South Africa. Each participant completed a biographical data questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory- Short Form and the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised. The three highest standardised mean scores for the perceived career barrier scales were Racial Discrimination (M = 4.90), Dissatisfaction with Career (M = 4.56) and Sex Discrimination (M = 4.49). Examination of the individual personality traits in relation to perceived career barriers was done through the use of Pearson’s product-moment correlations. Extroversion yielded statistically significant negative correlations with the following perceived career barriers: Decision–Making Difficulties (r = -0.241; p < 0.01) and Inadequate Preparation (r = -0.149; p < 0.05). Conscientiousness showed a statistically significant positive relationship with Sex Discrimination (r = 0.274; p < 0.01). The results also indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between Agreeableness and Job Market Constraints (r = 0.166; p < 0.05). This study has implications for career guidance counsellors in their endeavours to provide a comprehensive service to young adults who have difficulties overcoming perceived career barriers.
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Entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial role models' influence on career choice
- Authors: Muofhe, Nnditsheni John
- Date: 2012-06-04
- Subjects: Entrepreneurship - Study and teaching , Vocational guidance , Industrial psychology
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2352 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4808
- Description: M.Comm. , A point of departure is that most of the universities in South Africa and Africa at large have realised that it is important to introduce entrepreneurship as either a minor or major course in their curricula. The reality is that the countries in Africa are characterized by poverty, high levels of unemployment, and slow economic growth. South Africa is no exception. It is assumed that the teaching of entrepreneurship education to the youth at institutions of higher learning can help address these problems as more people would be encouraged to develop a more positive attitude towards the creation of businesses. This can be achieved if students are taught not just about entrepreneurship, but also how to act entrepreneurially. Furthermore, good and ef-fective entrepreneurship education programmes must be developed, designed, and implemented. The exposure of students to entrepreneurial role models would also yield positive results in terms of stimulating entrepreneurial intentions to start businesses.
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Personality traits, self-directed learning and career decidedness of undergraduate students in a large South African metropolitan university
- Authors: Hirson, Romy
- Date: 2012-06-04
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Personality , Self-directed learning , Career desision making
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2321 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4779
- Description: M.A. , Although there has been a wealth of research and development in the field of vocational psychology students continue to experience difficulties in making career decisions and remain either uncertain about career decisions that have been made, or undecided over career options (Stead & Watson, 2006). An improved understanding of the factors influencing career decision-making and the degree of their influence is needed to identify interventions for students struggling to make a vocational choice. Although multiple variables influence the decision making process, two constructs of interest that may be considered and which may have important implications for career guidance practices are personality and self-directed learning. Personality has been shown to be related to a myriad of psychological constructs. The present study adopted the Five Factor Model for its inquiry, making use of the Basic Traits Inventory (Taylor & De Bruin, 2006). Self-directed learning can be conceptualised as a set of skills, the manner in which students carry out learning projects, or as a character trait of the person (Brockett & Hiemstra, 1991). Because of their ability to learn autonomously self-directed learners may have more highly developed skills, necessary to make effective decisions. The present study aimed to examine the relationships between personality, self-directed learning and career decision. Specifically, the study intended to determine whether personality and self-directed learning predicted career decision certainty or career indecision. Pearson‟s product-moment correlation was used to determine the relationships between the constructs. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the predictive effect of these relationships. Some of the five factors of personality were related to career decision. Extraversion had a significant positive relationship with CDS Certainty (r = 0.226) and a significant negative relationship with CDs Indecision (r = 0.150). Neuroticism did not have a significant relationship with career certainty, but was significantly positively related to CDS Indecision (r = 0.220). Conscientiousness had a significant positive relation with CDS Certainty (r = 0.308) and a significant negative relationship with CDS Indecision (r = 0.210). Openness to Experience had a significant positive relationship with CDS Certainty (r = 0.201) but was not significantly related to CDS Indecision. Agreeableness had a significant positive relationship with CDS Certainty (r = 0.273) and although it was not statistically significant, Agreeableness was negatively related to CDS indecision. Self-directed learning was positively and significantly related to CDS Certainty (r = 0.451) and had a significant negative relationship to CDS Indecision (r = -0.257).
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An investigation of the perceptions of the influence of parents or significant others on the career decisions made by South African first-year students at the University of Johannesburg
- Authors: Mantsena, Mikateko Adolphina
- Date: 2012-06-08
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Vocational interests , Personality and occupation , Career development , Black students
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:8736 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5089
- Description: M.Ed. , Career decision-making has always been a complicated process for South African African students. They often do not receive enough information about career implications of the courses that they are about to choose which may lead to many South African African students making a career choice on a trial and error basis . In addition, they lack the skills of integrating career and self-knowledge and are likely to lack realistic understanding of the world of work and opportunities available for them. The influence of parents or significant others is one of the many factors that influence career decisions. Many African South African students are the first generation students in Higher Education due to the restrictions of the Apartheid era before 1994 and the socio-economic status resulting from that in the decade after 1994. This study focuses on the first year South African students who entered Higher Education in 2008. The investigation is about the perceptions of these first generation students about the influence of significant people on their career decisions. The inquiry utilized a qualitative approach due to its exploratory, descriptive and contextual nature. Furthermore, qualitative research provides information on how the first year students at the University of Johannesburg have made their career decisions. The data collection methods included semi-structured interviews with eighteen participants which permitted the participants to express themselves in ways that are not constrained and dictated by the researcher. Data obtained was analyzed using content analysis to determine the common themes that emerged and to offer a model for systematic qualitative analysis with clear procedures for checking the quality of analysis conducted. The findings revealed that there are no significant differences between the first generation rural and urban students. The role models (parents, teachers, cousins, siblings, uncles, social workers) of both rural and urban students provided support with regard to career information, emotional support in the form of acknowledgement and faith in the participants. The influence is broad and covers all the aspects relating to career decision making such as self-knowledge, reality check, remuneration, career planning, career and self exploration. Career counseling should receive renewed attention on school and HE level and all stakeholders in the school and business community should be involved. Parents should be involved in all instances.
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The impact of the South African post-matric programmes on career maturity and self-efficacy.
- Authors: MacKenzie, Suzanne Janine
- Date: 2012-08-14
- Subjects: Self-efficacy , Vocational guidance , Postsecondary education , Self-efficacy - South Africa , Vocational guidance - South Africa , Postsecondary education - South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9278 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5722
- Description: M.A. , The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the South African post-matric programmes on career maturity and self-efficacy. The research design employed in order to measure this impact was a non-equivalent three group, pre-posttest design within a quasi-experiment. Post-matric students in the experimental group were taken from nine independent schools in South Africa. Two control groups were used, one consisting of matriculation students and the other of first year university students. Post-matric is an additional year of schooling aimed at bridging the gap between school and university. The difficulties experienced by young people during this school to work transition and the main reasons for students partaking in post-matric programmes are presented. In order to comprehensively outline the construct career maturity, the theories of three authors, namely, Donald Super, John Crites and Ronelle Langley, are discussed. The construct self-efficacy is also fully outlined with a theoretical exposition of the work of Albert Bandura, John Krumboltz and Nancy Betz. Measurement instruments used in this study are a biographical questionnaire, the Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ) and the Career Decision-Making Self- Efficacy Scale (CDMSES). Various hypotheses were formulated and Hotelling's T 2- tests, Students t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe test were used to test the hypotheses. Results of these statistical tests showed that the three groups of participants started off unequally with regard to the measures of career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy, but the two school groups improved to such an extent that their mean scores on all scale variables compared favourably with those of the university group at the end of the study. It is especially the career maturity and career decisionmaking self-efficacy of the post-matric students that improved significantly within the nine month period during which the post-matric programmes were implemented. This finding reflects positively on the impact of the post-matric programmes. As the CDMSES is an overseas research instrument being used extensively in South Africa for the first time in this research, certain statistical procedures were carried out in order to highlight its psychometric properties. Of particular interest is the finding that in South Africa the CDMSES measured only one factor which can be named as Forethought with regard to Career Knowledge. In conclusion it is recommended that full use be made in educational institutions of the measurement instruments used in this study as diagnostic aids to enhance the effectiveness of career counselling. It is also recommended that further research in this topic be carried out on the broader community in South Africa.
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Die impak van 'n loopbaanontwikkelingsprogram vir studente uit ontwikkelende gemeenskappe
- Authors: Mouton, Christelle
- Date: 2012-08-17
- Subjects: Career development -- South Africa , Career development -- Research -- South Africa , Career education -- Research -- South Africa , Questionnaires , Vocational guidance , Occupations , Developmental psychology -- Research -- South Africa , Reconstruction and Development Programme (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2658 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6102
- Description: M.A. , The prospective and observed changes in South-Africa, with respect to the mobilisation of human skills, bring unique challenges to the fore where the career development of the individual is concerned. Scheepers (1996) and Quinn (1994) state that psycho-educational programmes can be implemented to foster the successful transfer of career development skills. A number of career development programmes were therefore designed and developed. However, the necessity of further development and extension of such programmes are crucial and in accordance with the experienced rapid changes of the target group's needs. In the light of the above mentioned statements, a study was conducted to evaluate the impact of an existing career development programme, by using standard programme development requirements. A further objective of the study was to make an existing programme more goal orientated and user friendly, by ensuring a more effective transfer of the skills contained in the programme. The method used was the developmental research model as introduced by Rothman and Thomas (1994). The choice of this model presents various advantages to the researcher, through the generation of both qualitative and quantitative results. The quantitative measure instruments that were used in this study are the Career Development Questionnaire of Langley and the Career information Questionnaire of Heidema. The qualitative evaluation made by direct observation and also the feedback of the tests. It was endeavoured to establish a theoretical foundation for the identified problem by using the theories of important career development researchers. The structural-interactive model of Holland was mainly focused upon in this regard. A career workbook, namely the SNUG was presented at various intervals to a group RAUCALL students during this research. Three groups were chosen at random and this ensured the progressive development of the programme. The first group was introduced to the original SNUG and owing to observation certain useful amendments were made to the presentation. This tentative improvements were presented to the second group whereafter further amendments were brought forth. The third and last group were exposed to the resultant improved SNUG. The focus of the improvements that were implemented fell on the visual changes and was not based on the contents. Statistical significant differences between the three groups in terms of the five sub tests of the Career Development Questionnaire were reported and no significant differences with reference to the results of the Career Information Questionnaire were noted. However the scores still refer to inefficient career development skills when a realistic career decision is to be made. A correlation between the third sub test of the Career Development Questionnaire namely Career Information and the Career Information Questionnaire of Heidema was noted.
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Exploring card sorting as an intervention to facilitate career exploration and assessment
- Authors: Claassen, Lauren
- Date: 2012-08-27
- Subjects: Card games , Vocational interests - Testing , Vocational guidance , Vocational education
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:3157 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6574
- Description: M.Ed. , This study explores how card sorting facilitates career exploration and assessment within the context of career development and with an emphasis on the career constructivist theory. This study focuses on the experience of an adolescent in a secondary school environment and how card sorting facilitated his process of career exploration and assessment. The research design was relied on a case study format, in which a career intervention with the aid of a card sorting technique in collaboration with a story book was explored. One adolescent participant and one care-giver participant were selected for this study. The adolescent participant was selected purposively. The data was collected by means of semi-structured and unstructured interviews, observations and the researcher’s reflections. Data was analysed through means of content analysis. A constructivist paradigm allowed the researcher to construct the self-concept and identity as the main themes in response to the research question and five sub-themes: (1) identity formation, (2) gaining insight into self, (3) uncertainty and conflict with self, (4) self-knowledge, and (5) self-acceptance. It was found that the intervention in career counselling with the aid of card sorting can be used to facilitate career exploration and assessments as it allowed for the participant to engage actively in the process of meaning-making. This allowed for the participant to gain a deeper understanding of personal strengths and assets, which he was able to utilise within his process of career development.
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An exploration of career planning challenges of third year BA students at a university in Gauteng
- Authors: Patel, Fatimah Ebrahim
- Date: 2013-05-06
- Subjects: Career development , College students - Vocational guidance , Vocational guidance
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:7520 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8377
- Description: M.Ed. (Educational Psychology) , The world of work is changing in ways we could not have imagined, with technological developments creating brand new industries and jobs. We are also a part of an uncertain and unpredictable job market, where one has to not only make due to career planning, but also exhaustive career research before making a career choice. Since the career landscape has changed, it is no longer only the task of school leavers and entry level students to consider future study, but also a pertinent one for final year university students who have to decide on their future career plans. With this in mind, the objective of this study was to explore the level of depression and the career planning challenges of the third year BA students at the University in Gauteng. These challenges were analyzed with reference to career and personal counselling themes. From here, suitable recommendations for student counselling at the University were made. A mixed method study was conducted with third year BA students who were a part of a non-career orientated degree/course and who had Sociology as a common subject. The reason for this was, according to researchers, those students especially in the ‘general subject’ (i.e. sociology, psychology, anthropology, history, etc) degrees, are suddenly confronted during their third year with difficult decisions about their future and career planning. Data was obtained quantitatively in the form of the Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ), in order to assess the student’s state of career maturity which is important in the process of career guidance and planning. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) was utilized for this research purpose as it could depict the level of depression that the third year BA students currently feel over there career planning for 2011. This data was qualitatively analyzed. Data was also obtained qualitatively in the form of in-depth interviews held with the students in order to explore what are their career planning challenges once they have completed their degree. The raw data was reduced according to the mixed method research data reduction process and consolidated and interpreted within boundaries of a theoretical framework.
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