A cost efficiency application of the South African recurrent coronary prevention project.
- Authors: Maclennan, Nicole
- Date: 2012-08-14
- Subjects: Heart - Diseases - Psychological aspects , Personality - Physiological aspects , Type A behavior , Coronary heart disease - Prevention
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9254 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5700
- Description: Ph.D. , It has become an accepted fact that Coronary Heart Disease is an epidemic of modern civilisation. Coronary Heart Disease is responsible for approximately a third of all deaths in the Western world (Fullard, 1990) and South Africa is no exception. Several risk factors contributing to the development of heart disease have been identified but the extent and exact nature of their contribution is not fully understood. Traditionally accepted risk factors that play a role in the development of Coronary Heart Disease include diet, hypertension, hypercholestrolaemia, smoking, physical inactivity, age, sex and genetic disposition. However the strongest combination of these factors has been unable to predict the majority of heart disease cases. In this regard psychological factors are steadily gaining acceptance as risk factors, one of the most important of these being the Type A behaviour pattern. The far reaching consequences of Coronary Heart Disease have necessitated investigations into methods of decreasing contact with risk factors, particularly psychological ones. The substantial success of the Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project (Friedman et al), coupled with the promising results from other intervention studies, suggests that behaviour change is a viable goal in the prevention of heart disease. Following on from the Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project, Venter (1993) and Viljoen (1993) adapted it for the South African population. Although relatively successful, it did have its flaws. Thus the motivation for redesigning this intervention addressing its shortcomings The revised intervention was administered to a group of 25 Coronary Heart Disease patients. A second group of 22 patients were subjected to the intervention utilised in the original South African Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project. A third group of 18 patients served as a waiting list control group. The results indicated that although the revised intervention produced larger changes in Type A behaviour than the original South African Recurrent Prevention Project intervention, these differences were not significant. Possible reasons for this were the measures utilised, the sample sizes and the nature of the groups themselves. However, the revised version of the SARCPP was found to be more effective in the reduction of the hostility and anger components of the behaviour pattern than the original version. In conclusion it was found that before any further research in this area be conducted, the measures utilised should be modified and the mechanisms of treatment effect be examined.
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Chronic fatigue syndrome : personality types and coping
- Authors: Mostert, Karen
- Date: 2012-08-20
- Subjects: Chronic fatigue syndrome - South Africa , Personality , Type A behavior
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2768 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6209
- Description: Ph.D. , Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a disabling and poorly understood multisystem illness. The illness is characterised by the principal symptom of persistent or intermittent unexplained fatigue, and has physical, psychological, social and community implications. Since CFS remains unexplained by a conventional biomedical diagnosis, confusion and controversy surround the illness. The confusing and controversial issues are the diagnosis, etiology, psychiatric states and the role of psychosocial factors. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the role of certain psychosocial factors, namely personality preferences or type, coping resources, locus of control and Type A behaviour pattern (TABP), in CFS. The total sample consisted of 70 subjects from four samples, namely the CFS patient sample (n = 21), coronary heart disease (CHD) patient sample (n = 14), depression patient sample (n = 15) and healthy sample (n = 20). The CHD patient, depression patient and healthy samples were included for comparative value. The broad hypothesis was that specific personality preferences or types as well as specific coping resources, locus of control and TABP would be characteristic of the CFS patient sample. The second hypothesis was that the CFS patient sample would significantly differ from the comparative samples on these psychosocial factors. Finally, it was hypothesised that the psychosocial factors would be correlated and hence have predictive value for the development and maintenance of CFS. On the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator' s (MBTI®), the CFS patient sample was found to have an over-representation of the introversion (61.9 %), intuition (52.4 %), feeling (66.7 %) and judging (76.2 %) preferences. An analysis of the type distribution and frequencies resulted in two whole types, namely ISFJ and INFJ. A normative interpretation of the Coping Resources Inventory° (CRI©) profile revealed that the CFS patient sample's coping resources in the various domains of cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical, physical and total resources were below the mean. The results of the Locus of Control (LOC) Questionnaire revealed that the CFS patient sample primarily utilises an internal locus of control. However, the sample was also found to have a low state of self-regulation. In comparison to the healthy sample, the CFS patient sample had a significantly higher external locus of control. These findings lead to the hypothesis that during stressful situations (such as illness), the CFS patient sample's low state of self-regulation may result in them utilising an external locus of control. The CFS patient sample was found to have a higher mean TABP score than the mean TABP score of the total sample. This sample was also found to have a significantly higher mean TABP score than the healthy sample. Hence, it was concluded that the CFS patient sample exhibited a TABP. The Mann-Whitney U tests were utilised to determine the differences between the CFS patient sample and the various comparative samples. Various of the assessed psychosocial factors were found to differ significantly. However, most of the differences were found between the coping resources of the various samples. Correlations were drawn between the various assessed dimensions to determine whether the psychosocial factors have predictive value. On the MBTI®, a preference for sensing was associated with an external locus of control whereas a preference for judging was associated with a high TABP. A high TABP was associated with a high external locus of control. An external locus of control and TABP have been identified in previous studies on chronic illnesses as predisposing and maintenance factors. Hence, it was hypothesised that a preference for sensing and for judging respectively may be personality preferences that play a role in the development and maintenance of CFS. Subsequently, a high external locus of control and a high TABP respectively were also hypothesised to be predisposing and maintenance factors. The findings of the correlations also lead to the hypothesis that CFS patients with an extraversion and a thinking preference respectively have the ability to cope more effectively with their illness and may even recover quicker. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients with a high internal locus of control and a high state of self-regulation were also hypothesised to have a better overall ability to cope with their illness and may hence recover quicker. The final conclusion of the study's findings was that personality preferences and type, coping resources, locus of control and TABP interact within a complex matrix of socio-behavioural and biological factors in the development and maintenance of CFS. The value of the study is the identification of individuals at risk for the development of CFS and the psychosocial factors involved in the development and maintenance of CFS. In addition to this value, the MBTI ® results can be used to alert psychologists to the issues frequently associated with each MBTI® preference and can hence assist psychologists in the psychotherapeutic treatment of CFS patients. The results of the coping resources' deficits can also assist psychologists in the design and development of stress management programmes for CFS patients.
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Coronary heart disease prevention in healthy coronary-prone individuals
- Authors: Webster, Sharon
- Date: 2012-08-23
- Subjects: Coronary heart disease -- Patients -- Psychology , Type A behavior , Coronary heart disease -- Prevention , Cardiovascular system -- Diseases , Heart -- Diseases , Behavior therapy , Cognitive therapy , Angina pectoris , Myocardial infarction , Heart failure , Lifestyles , Stress (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3128 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6548
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , This research investigated the effectiveness of the treatment programme used by the South African Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project (SARCPP) in reducing the risk of not only recurrent heart disease, but also of original occurrence of heart disease. Heart disease can often be attributed to lifestyle factors such as obesity, high fat content diets and smoking (Friedman & Ulmer, 1995 and Richards & Baker, 1988). Another lifestyle risk factor of heart disease is Type A behaviour, as first discovered by Rosenman and Friedman (1959). Type A behaviour is made up of various components, such as hostility, time urgency and insecurity. The SARCPP has effectively reduced Type A behaviour in past studies (Venter, 1993; Viljoen, 1993; MacLennan, 1994 and Webster, 1994) and it has been found that reducing Type A behaviour through this programme increases high density lipoproteins and decreases total triglycerides, thus decreasing physiological risk factors of heart disease (Wolff, Thoresen, Viljoen, & Venter, 1994). The SARCPP thus far had only been used with Type A persons who had already suffered a form of heart disease, such as myocardial infarction and angina pectoris (here called "unhealthy" Type As). Other interventions have been used to decrease Type A behaviour in subjects who had not yet suffered heart disease (or "healthy" Type As). A leading researcher in this field is Ethel Roskies (1979-1990). Due to ineffective measurement and ineffective treatment programmes, her attempts were not successful, though. This research study applied the treatment used in the SARCPP to both "healthy" and "unhealthy" Type As and it was found that it was as successful in reducing Type A behaviour in both the "healthy" subjects as in the "unhealthy" subjects. Not only was global Type A behaviour as measured by the Videotaped Structured Interview decreased in the treatment groups, but so were the components of Hostility, Time Urgency and Insecurity (although Insecurity was not decreased in the "unhealthy" subjects). The tendency by the subjects to repress angry feelings was reduced in both "unhealthy" and "healthy" subjects, as was cynical hostility in the "healthy" subjects. It was found that the "unhealthy" subjects had significantly more State and Trait anxiety before the treatment took place than the "healthy" subjects and that the treatment reduced that anxiety in the "unhealthy" subjects significantly. Depression was decreased in both "healthy" and "unhealthy" subjects. Thus, the treatment programme of the SARCPP was effective in reducing coronary-prone behavioural factors and can be used as both prevention in recurrence and prevention in original occurrence of heart disease.
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Development of an organisational type a behaviour pattern measure
- Authors: Smeragliuolo, Angelo
- Date: 2021
- Subjects: Type A behavior , Organizational behavior
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/485517 , uj:44134
- Description: Abstract: This study set out to develop a new Type A Behavioural Pattern Measure for the Organisational Context (OTABPM) because of the psychometric limitations and noncontextualisation of currently available Type-A Behaviour Pattern measures. To develop this measure, I started by writing 180 items for three dimensions of Type A, those being Achievement Striving, Hostility, and Time Urgency. These items were sent to 12 experts to review, which led to 96 items. Responses to these 96 items were obtained from 239 participants located primarily in the United States and South Africa. Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (the Graded Response Model) was used to analyse the data. The results showed that the items mostly had satisfactory psychometric properties and that the scale scores had good reliability. Some items were found to be problematic and were labelled as potential candidates for removal in future studies. These results hold promise for the revival of Type A research in organisations because the OTABPM appears to has satisfactory psychometric properties. Future research should investigate the item functioning of the measure on different samples in order to replicate the results obtained in this study and better understand which items should be removed. Further implications for research and practice are presented. , M.Com. (Industrial Psychology)
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Locus of control and coronary-prone behaviour
Self-efficacy as mediating factor in the stress response
- Authors: Caldeira, Fatima
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Self-efficacy , Stress (Psychology) , Locus of control , Type A behavior , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2015 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4368
- Description: M.A. , Over the years it has become clear that self-efficacy beliefs play a significant role in various domains of human functioning. According to Bandura (1986) individuals possess a self-system that enables them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings and actions. This implies that the construct of self-efficacy has a pervasive influence on human functioning as it is seen to influence the way in which people feel, think and act. The literature has also shown that the physiological dimension of the self also stands to be affected by efficacy beliefs. One of the goal's of this research was to investigate the role of self-effiCacy as a mediating factor in the stress response, and how the various facets of self are affected by and affect an individual's perception of and response to a stressful situation. The stressful condition refers to the semester tests and how the students predicted their academic perfonnance under these conditions of stress. The design of the study was quantitative, and the sample comprised of 49 undergraduate psychology students. They completed a series of questionnaires a week before the first condition of stress, and their blood pressure was also measured at this time. Their blood pressure was also measured pretest and posttest at both conditions of stress. By means of a cluster analysis the group was divided into two homogeneous groups (high self-efficacy group, N=27) and (a low self-efficacy group, N=22) and this was followed by a detailed statistical analysis. The results revealed that the high self-efficacy group showed a bigger decline in diastolic and systolic blood pressure than the low self-efficacy group once the stressful condition had passed. Therefore the high self-efficacy group made a quicker physical recovery than the low self-efficacy group. It thus appears that the stress response of the more efficacious group may have been mediated by their beliefs of coping efficacy. Furthennore, the high self-efficacy group was more accurate in predicting their academic perfonnance than the low self-efficacy group. Even though the more efficacious group did not perfonn as well as the less efficacious group, they showed more optimism, and their prediction suggests that they are able to realistically appraise what they are capable of, since the test result was similar to what they had predicted. This ability to predict perfonnance is vital, as a major function of thought is to predict events and to exercise control over these events. This sense of control can be regarded as a self-confident view of an individual's capability to deal with certain life stressors (Schwarzer, 1997). Even though this study has highlighted some interesting trends relating to selfefficacy and the stress response, further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of this dynamic relationship.
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The effect of a self-directed lifestyle change programme on cardiac patients
- Authors: Venter, Hendrik J.
- Date: 2014-02-11
- Subjects: Coronary heart disease - Patients - Rehabilitation , Heart - Diseases - Patients - Rehabilitation , Type A behavior , Myocardial infarction
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3753 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/9130
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. (Psychology) , Over the past four decades we have witnessed the emergence of amazingly sophisticated means of cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy. For the first time in many years, some Western countries could report a decline in cardiovascular deaths. During this same span of years we have witnessed the remarkable development of an array of technological achievements that include the means for invasive diagnostic procedure such as cardiac catherization, and non-invasive methods of echocardiography, magnetic, radio-isotopic and positron imagery which provide detailed diagnostic and prognostic information. This innovations along with synthetic grafts have permitted surgical interventions that would not have been conceivable at the outset of this cardiovascular odyssey. Another major advance has been the appearance of new pharmacological modalities; the diuretics, the beta-adrenergic receptors and angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors, the calcium antagonists and other anti-hypersensitive agents, a spectrum of antiarrhythmic compounds, anticoagulants and fibrinolytic therapy, and the promise of still more innovative and novel modes of therapy which will appear via genetic engineering. Over the past years there has been equally significant development in the area of cardiovascular epidemiology. These advances include the demonstration of validity and the efficacy of various therapeutic programmes by the unique development of complex multi-center trials, as well as long-term population-based studies. Through this endeavours specific risk factors that impart independent risk ofpremature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been identified. Some of these risk factors are clearly not modifiable such as advancing years, male gender and race. Others are at least partly modifiable: predisposition to diabetes myelitis and increased body mass. By virtue of multi-center trials we have clear evidence that cigarette smoking, rising systolic and diastolic arterial pressures, serum cholesterol levels, and diabetes are modifiable. It is a known fact that not all individuals with coronary artery disease are cured by medication or by means of a surgical intervention. In addition to this, the reduction of traditional biomedical risk factors have been shown to be insufficient in averting the reocclusion and the further occlusion of coronary arteries in patient populations.
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Type A behaviour and daily stress in Black South African adolescents
- Authors: Matla, Hendrick Thabo
- Date: 2014-11-19
- Subjects: Type A behavior , Youth - South Africa - Attitudes , Adolescent psychology - Research - South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:12958 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/12848
- Description: M.Sc. (Psychology) , It is an accepted fact that The Type A behaviour pattern is deemed to be an accurate predictor for the propensity for the development of coronary heart disease. It is also an estabished fact that this behaviour pattern is already in existence from adolescence. Type A behaviour, in the context of stress-related CHD, is often described as the behavioral pattern in which individuals create their own stress by means of hostile attitudes, uncertainty and time urgency. It thus seems likely that these individuals are already, at adolescence experiencing a higher daily frequency of stressors in this manner. In order to test this hypothesis a sample of 20 high index Type A adolescents were chosen as well as 20 low index adolescents. These two groups were then compared with one another on measures of the frequency of daily stressors, the intensity of these daily stressors and their capacity to deal with. The results obtained indicate that students with the high index Type A behaviour do in fact manifest significantly higher cardiovascular reactivity to stressors than do students with a Low Type A index. The former group were also found to exhibit a higher degree of time urgency and work related stressors than do the latter group. There was no significant difference in the experience of the intensity of stressors. There was also no differences in their abilities to deal with the perceived stressors. these stressors they were also compared with regard to their cardiovascular reactivity.
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Type A behaviour, values and coronary heart disease
- Authors: Webster, Sharon
- Date: 2015-08-25
- Subjects: Type A behavior , Cardiovascular system - Diseases - Psychological aspects , Coronary heart disease - Patients - Psychology
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13952 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/14318
- Description: M.A. , Please refer to full text to view abstract
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