Characterization of rice hull ash and its performance in turbidity removal from water
- Authors: Adams, F. V. , Ikotun, B. D. , Patrick, D. O. , Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.
- Date: 2014
- Subjects: Rice hull ash , Turbidity removal
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:4790 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/12041
- Description: This study characterizes the locally obtained samples of rice hull ash and investigates its performance on turbidity removal from water. Four samples of this material were studied, namely, unwashed parboiled rice hull ash (UPRHA), washed parboiled rice hull ash (WPRHA), unwashed unparboiled rice hull ash (UUPRHA), and washed unparboiled rice hull ash (WUPRHA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were carried out to characterize these samples. A filtration process was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the rice hull ash medium in removing water turbidity. The XRD results showed the silica, which is present in the ashes, to be cristobalite, quartz, and tridymite. The silica contents of the UUPRHA and WUPRHA were observed to be 77.10% and 98.24%, respectively, while those of UPRHA and WPRHA were 79.07% and 94.97%, respectively. The SEM images showed agglomeration of ash particles after the ashes were washed. The washed RHA samples showed improved pH, a good percentage of turbidity removal (<5 NTU) from water sample. Washing RHA with distilled water increased the efficiency of RHA in turbidity removal from water and regulated water pH to an acceptable range.
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Turbidity removal at twenty-one South African water treatment plants
- Authors: Van Staden, S. J. , Amod, A. , Ceronio, A. D. , Haarhoff, J.
- Date: 2002
- Subjects: Water treatment plants , Turbidity removal
- Language: English
- Type: Conference proceedings
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/16583 , uj:15787 , Citation: Van Staden, S.J. et al. 2002. Turbidity removal at twenty-one South African water treatment plants. 8th Biennial Conference of the Water Institute of Southern Africa, 19-23 May 2002, ICC, Durban, WISA 198, 10p.
- Description: Abstract: The Water Research Group at the Rand Afrikaans University undertook an ambitious sampling and monitoring programme at twenty-one South African water treatment plants during 2000 and 2001. At some of these plants, there were parallel but different treatment trains due to plant extensions being made at different times. A total of 25 full or partial treatment trains could therefore be monitored. A total of 115 plant visits were made over a period of fifteen months, with samples taken throughout the plant, covering the complete treatment train from raw to final water. Amongst other parameters, the turbidity of each sample was determined on site immediately upon sampling. This paper will summarise and interpret the resulting data set of approximately 1300 turbidity values. The paper will firstly characterise the raw and final waters respectively. In other words, how does typical raw water vary, and how good is the typical final water produced? The second part will summarise the typical performance of each of the treatment processes. In other words, what reduction in turbidity is typically achieved during settling, dissolved air flotation and filtration? The paper will make a practical contribution in providing a benchmark to all operators of treatment plants by: · being able to immediately "position" themselves within a typical range of raw water values. · judging their final water quality against what is generally achieved, and · evaluating and troubleshooting their individual process units against what is generally achieved.
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