Characterization of functionally graded commercially pure titanium (CPTI) and titanium carbide (TiC) powders
- Authors: Akinlabi, Esther Titilayo , Akinlabi, Stephen A.
- Date: 2015-07-01
- Subjects: Functional graded materials , Laser metal deposition , Titanium , Titanium carbide
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5136 , ISBN 9789881404701 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/14102
- Description: Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) are advanced materials fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques. It belongs to a class of advanced material characterization in which the properties of the material composition is varied. The resulting property of the composite is always different from the properties of the individual material employed in the formation of the composite. They are known to also exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties and as such, are used for different industrial applications. One of the techniques employed in the fabrication of FGMs is called Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) technique. It uses laser beam to melt powder material on a substrate forming a melt pool that solidifies upon cooling. This paper reports on the material characterization of functionally graded Titanium and Titanium Carbide (TiC) powders deposited on Titanium substrate by laser metal deposition approach. The formed deposits were fabricated by varying the processing parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and the powder flow rate. From the result obtained, the microstructures showed that the laser power has much influence on the grain growth of the material. In addition, with the SEM analysis of the microstructure since the percentages of the titanium and titanium carbide were varied, it was observed that the sharp boundaries of the Titanium Carbide were reduced greatly and this resulting effect can be attributed to the thermal effect of the laser. The microstructures further revealed that as the percentage of TiC decreases, it becomes more difficult to see the TiC as a different material in the composite, emphasizing this as one of the best characteristics of functionally graded materials, which is the elimination of sharp interfaces and layers. Furthermore, it was observed that the laser power has great influence on the evolving hardness of the material compared to the TiC content.
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Experimental and numerical analysis of geometrical properties of laser metal deposited titanium
- Authors: Akinlabi, Esther Titilayo , Tayob, Mohammed A. , Pietra, Francesco
- Date: 2016
- Subjects: Ansys , Heat-Affected zone , Laser metal deposition , Microhardness , Microstructure , Porosity , Powder flow rate , Titanium
- Language: English
- Type: Conference proceedings
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/93300 , uj:20330 , Citation: Akinlabi, E.T., Tayob, M.A. & Pietra, F. 2016. Experimental and numerical analysis of geometrical properties of laser metal deposited titanium.
- Description: Abstract: Laser metal deposition (LMD) is a manufacturing process, which can be used to manufacture a complete, fully functional part by building it up layer-by-layer using the data from a Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) file. The layer-by-layer addition can also be used to rebuild worn-out sections of existing parts, as well as to deposit protective coatings to protect parts in surface engineering. The process involves laser heating a substrate, on which a metal powder is deposited. The powder solidifies, when mixed with the substrate, thereby creating a metallurgical bond. In order to produce parts with high geometrical tolerances and desirable material properties, the process parameters have to be carefully controlled. Since the LMD process requires the interaction of parameters, it is not always easy to predict the output geometry. In this paper, the laser metal deposition process was modelled in ANSYS Parametric- Design-Language (APDL), using a transient thermal analysis, in order to determine the geometrical properties of the clad, that is, the width and the height of the resulting clad. The simulated results were then compared experimentally by depositing Commercially Pure (CP) titanium powder onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate, in order to verify the simulation. The varying parameter in the experimental process was the powder flow rate, which was varied between 0.5-2.5g/min. In addition to the geometrical properties, the microstructure, microhardness; and the porosity levels of the deposited clads were also analyzed, in order to better determine the clad quality and integrity. The model showed good agreement in predicting both the height and the width of the clads. Porosity was noticed in all the samples with the exception of the clad deposited at the lowest powder flow rate setting of 0.5 g/min. An increase in the powder flow rate also led to a smaller fusion zone, due to a lower laser-material interaction period, which was the result of the increase in the quantity of powder causing attenuation of the beam, and less laser power being absorbed by the substrate. The smaller fusion zone meant that the clads could not bond to the substrate properly, which led to the clad in the sample produced with the highest powder flow rate falling off the substrate. There was a significant increase in the microhardness of the clad zone, which was due to a combination of alloying with Ti- 6Al-4V and a change in the microstructure to an acicular alpha martensite microstructure; while the Heat-Affected-Zone (HAZ) in the substrate only showed a slight increase in microhardness.
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