Geological and geochemical study of the quartzofeldspathic rocks from the farm Gotha, Limpopo Province, South Africa
- Authors: Barnett, Martina
- Date: 2009-01-27T07:17:45Z
- Subjects: Geology , Geochemistry , Petrology , Mineralogy , Structural geology , Limpopo (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14824 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1949
- Description: M.Sc. , This study has served to expand the geological map of surroundings of the Venetia Mine (Limpopo Province, South Africa) incorporating the area lying south of the kimberlite deposit and bounded in the south by the Dowe-Tokwe fault. The most significant structural conclusion stemming from this mapping project is that the Venetia Synform seems to be tectonically separate from the surrounding area and actually forms a klippe (shallowly dipping thrust) against the Krone Metamorphic terrane and the Gotha Complex. Petrographic descriptions of quartzofeldspathic lithologies found in the Krone Metamorphic Terrane to the west of the Venetia klippe (Mellonig, 2004) are identical suggesting that they belong to the Gotha igneous complex. There are no differences in geochemical compositions of monzogranite to granodiorite, tonalite and quartz diorite from Farms Gotha and Venetia. The rocks are I-type granitoids that generally form in continental magmatic arcs. The amount of U and Th in the igneous rocks of the Farms Gotha and Venetia (contained in minerals found within quartz, plagioclase, amphibole and K-feldspar crystal boundaries and the magmatic zircons of the Farm Gotha samples) and the pattern produced by heat producing elements (Council for Geoscience Radiogenic Map), indicate that that the unexpectedly high concentration of these elements are not the result of regional metamorphism, but is the remnant of the final crystallisation phase of the magma of the area. REE plots of the Venetia Mine samples show negative Eu anomalies, indicating the presence of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the magma source of the Venetia mine samples. The assumption is, that most samples retained their original chemical compositions having experienced only weak deuteric alteration and no dynamic metamorphism.
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Mesoproterozoic volcanism, metallogenesis and tectonic evolution along the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton
- Authors: Bailie, Russell Hope
- Date: 2010-06-07T06:52:22Z
- Subjects: Geology , Volcanism , Geochemistry , Structural geology , Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6866 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3298
- Description: D.Phil. , The western margin of the Archean Kaapvaal Craton, at its contact with the polydeformed and metamorphosed Proterozoic Namaqua Province, is host to four volcanosedimentary successions of Mesoproterozoic age (1.1-1.3 Ga) that occur in close spatial and temporal association to each other. These are the Areachap Group, the Leerkrans Formation of the Wilgenhoutsdrif Group and the two volcanosedimentary successions that comprise the Koras Group. There has been protracted debate as to the exact nature, origin, age and tectonic evolution of these successions, particularly as they occur immediately adjacent to an important crustal suture. A comprehensive whole rock and isotope geochemical study, complemented by zircon-based geochronology where necessary, was thus carried out to characterize and compare the volcanic rocks associated with these four successions. The results are used to assess the role of the four volcanosedimentary successions during the development of the Mesoproterozoic suture between the Kaapvaal Craton and the Namaqua Province during the ~1.2-1.0 Ga Namaquan Orogeny. The geochemical study of the Areachap Group examined a suite of lithologies from different locations along the ~280km long outcrop belt, with the aim of testing the lateral continuity and integrity of this highly metamorphosed and deformed succession. As the bulk of the samples collected were from diamond drill core intersecting volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) Zn-Cu deposits it was only appropriate to extend the investigation to assess the metallogenesis and relation of these deposits to their host rock sequences. This included a survey of the sulphur isotope composition of sulphides and sulphates that comprise the Zn-Cu deposits. Furthermore, the architecture and origin of the world-class Copperton deposit, the largest Zn-Cu deposit of the Areachap Group, was examined. For this purpose, available literature data were collated and complemented by new geochemical and geochronological information. Sm-Nd isotopic systematics and U-Pb zircon ages suggest a coeval origin and close genetic link between the metavolcanic rocks of the Leerkrans Formation of the Wilgenhoutsdrif Group and the Areachap Group. Both successions record the establishment of an eastward-directed subduction zone on the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The Areachap Group represents the highly metamorphosed and deformed remnants of a Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.30-1.24 Ga) volcanic arc that was accreted onto the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton at ~1.22-1.20 Ga, during the early stages of the Namaquan Orogeny. The igneous protoliths within the Areachap Group are low- to medium-K tholeiitic to calc-alkaline in composition ranging in composition from basaltic through to rhyolitic. Tholeiitic basalts, represented by volumetrically minor amphibolites within the succession have Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics indicative of derivation from a depleted mantle source as denoted by their positive Nd(t) values. The lithogeochemical results highlight the fact that, despite differences in lithological architecture on a local scale, the Areachap Group exhibits coherent geochemical characteristics along its entire strike length.
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