Chemical analysis of medicinal and poisonous plants of forensic importance in South Africa.
- Authors: Steenkamp, P.A.
- Date: 2005
- Subjects: forensic chemistry , extraction (chemistry) , South Africa , poisonous plants , medicinal plants , botanical chemistry
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1898 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/425
- Description: The Forensic Chemistry Laboratory of Johannesburg (FCL JHB) is tasked with the chemical analysis of a variety of samples to assist in determining the cause of death where unnatural cause is suspected. Some of the samples submitted to the laboratory have a herbal or muti connotation, but a large portion of these cases turn out to have no herbal components present as only pharmaceutical or agricultural products are detected in these samples. This study combined, for the first time, forensic investigation, chemistry and botany to create a unique platform needed for the identification of poisonous plants and their components in forensic exhibits and viscera. The research was focussed on the poisonous plants previously detected at the laboratory, as well as the requests received for the analysis of muti/toxic plant components. The selection of plants included Nicotiana glauca, Datura stramonium / Datura ferox, Callilepis laureola, Boophone disticha / Ammocharis coranica, Abrus precatorius, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander / Thevetia peruviana and Bowiea volubilis. All these species are known to have caused fatalities, hence their choice. Nicotiana glauca has been implicated in the deaths of at least 15 people since 2001. It was previously detected by GC-MS (EI) in plant exhibits, but could not be detected in a viscera matrix. A selective extraction method for alkaloids was used to extract botanical and viscera samples. Anabasine was successfully detected on the HPLC-MS (EI) system but this detection technique was not considered sensitive enough. A very sensitive HPLC-MS method was developed on the ZMD detector by using electrospray technology. This method outperformed both electron impact detectors (GC and HPLC) and could detect 1ng/ml anabasine with relative ease in full scan mode. Datura stramonium and D. ferox have not been previously positively linked to any human poisoning or death due to exposure to botanically derived products at the FCL JHB. Atropine and scopolamine were successfully ionised in ESI positive mode and could be detected at 10 pg/ml and 100 pg/ml level respectively. The identities of the compounds were confirmed by characteristic ISCID fragmentation patterns. The developed method was successfully applied to a suspected heart attack case. The results proved conclusively that the deceased was given D. ferox seeds as part of his meal and an overdose of atropine and scopolamine contributed to his death. Callilepis laureola is reputed to be one of the more commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa, and although its use has been indicated by the specific mention of a possible nephrotoxin and/or hepatotoxin as causative agent, it has not been detected in any of the forensic chemistry laboratories in South Africa. This was mainly due to the absence of a reliable method for the analysis of the main toxic component of C. laureola, atractyloside, by mass spectrometry. A sensitive and very selective HPLC-ESI-MS method was developed that could detect atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside and their monodesulfated analogues in botanical and viscera matrices. The method was successfully applied to a variety of forensic samples and proved that C. laureola may play an important role in herbal poisonings. In a selection of suspected herbal poisonings where the cause of poisoning was unknown, 30% of the samples tested positive for the presence of atractyloside, carboxyatractyloside or their monodesulfated analogues. The bulbs of Boophone disticha are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids and some of the alkaloids were detected by GC-EI-MS and LC-EI-MS, but the detection of these alkaloids in viscera samples was not successful. A routine method used for the screening for drugs of abuse in forensic samples, were successfully used for the analysis of the bulb extracts of B. disticha and the bulb scales of A. coranica. The chromatographic profile of these two plants appeared very similar at a first glance, but a closer evaluation of the mass spectra highlighted significant differences between the two plants. Six alkaloids from B. disticha were isolated and characterised by LC-MS and NMR and these compounds were detected in suspected herbal poisoning cases. It has been shown that B. disticha is one of the commonly used plants to “clean the system” but frequently results in the death of the patient. Abrus precatorius contains one of the most toxic compounds known to mankind, namely abrin that collectively refers to a group of glycoproteins. The seeds of A. precatorius also contain two indole alkaloids, abrine and hypaphorine. The two alkaloids were fractionated and characterised by LC-MS and NMR. Due to the fact that the instrumentation of the FCL JHB is not suited to the detection of proteins, an LC-ESI-MS method was developed for the detection of the two alkaloids in plant and viscera matrix as markers for A. precatorius. The presence of these two alkaloids was indicated on the TMD system (EI spectra) in a suspected herbal poisoning case. The LC-ESI-MS method was applied to the analysis of the samples and the absence of abrine and hypaphorine were proven in the samples. Ricinus communis is similar to A. precatorius in that it also contains a group of extremely poisonous glycoproteins, collectively refered to as ricin. The analysis of R. communis seeds encountered the same problems as the analysis of A. precatorius seeds, and the analysis was again focused on the detection of the minor piperidine alkaloid ricinine. The LC-ESI-MS method developed for abrine was modified to detect ricinine and functioned well in botanical and viscera matrices. This method will enable the forensic analyst to detect ricinine in very low levels when the presence of ricinoleic acid in samples indicates the use of a R. communis-based product. Nerium oleander is a common decorative garden plant that is used medicinally. The plant is rich in cardenolides with oleandrin the main compound. A reversed-phase chromatographic method with ESI mass spectral detection was developed to separate and detect 11 cardiac glycosides. The compounds were adequately separated to allow unambiguous identification, and displayed very stable cationisation with sodium. An extraction method was developed to extract the cardiac glycosides from the leaves of N. oleander and Thevetia peruviana and was also evaluated in a viscera matrix. The extraction method functioned well and extracted a variety of compounds that produced unique chromatographic fingerprints, allowing for the easy differentiation between the two plants. The method is ideally suited for the detection of oleandrin in high concentrations (full scan mode), low concentrations (selected masses) or trace levels (SIM analysis of ion clusters). The method is able to distinguish between extracts derived from N. oleander and T. peruviana and was able to detect and confirm neriifolin, odoroside and neritaloside in N. oleander leaf extracts. Analysis of forensic case exhibits were also successfully done with this method and performed well with liquid and solid matrices. With the new method oleandrin could be detected at trace levels in viscera samples that did not produce positive results in the past. Bowiea volubilis is widely used as a medicinal plant, but is also an extremely toxic plant. It is freely available at traditional healer markets, and is one of the most highly traded plants on the Durban market. Despite the high usage of the plant, it has not been detected by any of the forensic laboratories in South Africa. Bovoside A, a bufadienolide, is reported to be the main cardiac glycoside in the bulb of B. volubilis. The cardiac glycoside method was successfully applied to the analysis of the bulb extract of B. volubilis and bovoside A was identified as the main bufadienolide present in the bulb. Bovoside A was fractionated and characterised by LC-MS. Four extracts of botanical origin could be successfully distinguished from each other by monitoring the main masses of bovoside A, oleandrin and thevetin A and thevetin B. These marker compounds were well separated from each other and made the identification of the botanical extracts quite easy, and the identity of each extract was confirmed by the mass spectrum of each peak. , Prof. F.R van Heerden
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Price setting in the South African coffin industry.
- Authors: Baur, P.W.
- Date: 2007-10-02T06:50:20Z
- Subjects: coffin prices , coffin industry , burial , burial finance , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6869 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/32
- Description: The aim of this study is to analyze the price setting in the South African coffin industry which is affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Consumer behavior and decision making, producer and retailer response, as well as the overall effects that this industry may have within the realm of the South African economy is analyzed. The central focus however, is the price determination governing the supply and demand relationship, and the influence that this relationship has on the market mechanism, which is important in regulating the functioning of the South Africa coffin industry. Chapter One introduces the problem statement by highlighting the purpose of the study in light of the effects of HIV/AIDS. The link between the coffin industry and the economy is the increase in mortality rates caused by HIV/AIDS. Sub-Sahara is the worst affected global region, and within South Africa over four million people have been affected by the pandemic. The effects on the economy can be observed on several fronts for example, the weakening of South Africa’s social structure, increasing costs to the state by putting pressure on the limited medical facilities and other social institutions, reducing the skill base, reducing national economic growth rates, etc. Due to the high levels of unemployment experienced in South Africa, several problems become relevant, especially in rural areas. Such problems can be highlighted in terms of an increase in the financial burden placed on those paying for burials. This is also extended to those organizations supplying financial aid to help cover the costs, such as societies and funeral policies. Due to the low levels of income experienced by many in urban centers, this puts a great deal of pressure on government to assist in the burial of those whom are not in a position to afford the funeral costs. Due to the upward pressure on demand for coffins, prices for coffins may increase, which will be transferred onto the rural population, which characteristically experience a greater degree of low incomes, putting additional financial pressure on these people. The increased rate of burials increase the demand on limited burial space, causing costs to rise, putting additional pressure on household savings. This becomes increasingly important, as the levels of household savings in South Africa are relatively low. Chapter Two focuses on the theoretical aspects of price determination. Price setting behavior is not only a method of profit maximization, but is also an extension of marketing strategies used to generate and establish a larger share of any target market. This chapter is based on a literary survey and applies a theoretical approach to price determination, analyzing and comparing market structures. Pricing strategies, nominal and real price rigidities and modern pricing methodologies under the influence of Internet and global markets are explored. Chapter Three takes a close anthropological review of traditional South African cultures and religions, and illustrates how these traditional beliefs and religions influence the decision making of the consumer and the undertaker. Within the context of these cultural perspectives, the issue of cremation as an alternative to the burial is explored. An analysis of the consumer demand is achieved by using the data collected for the consumer and the undertaker surveys. The costs and the consumer decision making regarding burial practices and the financing thereof is highlighted. Burial policies and funeral societies are discussed, and the overall effect that they have on consumer spending patterns, the misallocation of resources as well as the negative tradeoff effects of this misallocation has on the employer, the household, the government and the overall economy. The financing of funerals is also an important issue as the high rates of unemployment and the huge social demands that it places on consumers are forcing the majority to search for funding from other sectors of the economy that already feels the strain of a global slowdown. Economically, this chapter challenges the traditional customs and the redirection of scarce resources that are been greatly misallocated into inappropriate sectors. Chapter Four investigates the influence of HIV/AIDS on the economy, and the influence that HIV/AIDS has on the South African coffin industry. This chapter highlights the spread of the HIV/AIDS virus and the influence that this virus has on society. The role woman play in the South African economy, and the effect of HIV/AIDS on the labor force. The discussion then focuses on HIV/AIDS and the workings of the coffin industry and the near perfectly competitive market structure that functions within the South African coffin industry. Pricing strategies highlighting the role of religion, HIV/AIDS and income are considered and the role of the undertaker in society. The research was predominantly based on the information generated in the undertaker and the consumer surveys as well as a literary survey. However, the undertaker does not operate independently. There are many related industries, which are discussed, and the relationship between them is highlighted. The growth of the complementary industries, similarly, must not be underestimated, as the coffin industry provides them with a springboard from which they may enter the market. Chapter Five constructs a model to show how the influence of HIV/AIDS affects the price setting behavior of coffins. Thereafter, the model introduces the concept of competition, showing how the growing rate of competition, in conjunction with HIV/AIDS, is a more suitable model in determining the influence on price setting behavior. The model is based on the Ordinary Leased Squared (OLS) method, and the model is tested on economic a priori, Statistical evaluation and econometric tests, for example, Autocorrelation, Heteroscedasticity and Multicollinearity. Using Theils Inequality Coefficient, the model is proven sound for forecasting purposes. The combination of HIV/AIDS and competition using the SIC and AIC test proves that this combination is a better-forecast model than if HIV/AIDS was used as a determinant on its own. In chapter Six, the construction, distribution and analysis of the Consumer and the Undertaker surveys are discussed. For the purpose of the study, it became obvious that within the South African coffin industry, there is a gap between available literature on the industry and what was required for the compellation of this research. A detailed discussion on the methodology, purpose, the target sample, limitations and format of the surveys is discussed. The data collected proved very useful on two fronts: Firstly it provided detailed information that was required in order to complete the study. Secondly, the data collected introduced new questions and opened new doors to further investigation. The data provided sufficient information to show the relationship between the economy and the coffin industry. In chapter Seven, the main findings of the study are highlighted by the overwhelming influence of HIV/AIDS which has affected both the nature of the market, as well as price setting behavior. However, it has led to a large degree to the misallocation of resources, that are required in other spheres of the economy. The motivation behind funeral policies is an area of concern, and requires additional research into the social and economic influence of such structures. The influence of the rapid growth of competition has a large role to play in the coffin industry. Furthermore, the traditional beliefs of the consumer need to be protected and the role of the undertaker in this regard is a major concern. The final chapter highlights areas of further research, makes note of shortcomings in the available literature and highlights the role of policy makers with respect to the South African coffin industry.
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Micro-investment behavioural model for an emerging economy: the South African economy as a case study.
- Authors: Baur, Peter Walther
- Date: 2007-10-02T09:37:31Z
- Subjects: international business enterprises , economic policy , foreign investments , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6994 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/34
- Description: Foreign direct investment is a topic that currently ranks highly on the agenda of most countries, forming the basis of policy design and development on both a microeconomic and macroeconomic level. From a microeconomic perspective, business strategies are undergoing radical shifts in order to compete in an ever-competitive global climate. Businesses therefore need to diversify their operations across borders as this is essential for ensuring survival. Yet, the motivation and desire of business are not necessarily beneficial to the country, region or market that a particular business plans to enter. Some types of foreign direct investment are positive, enabling a useful and efficient flow of technology, ideas and capital and this, as highlighted in conventional literature, is the key determinant of underlining macroeconomic policy regarding foreign direct investment. Governments attempt to capture such flows. They design efficient policy tools to attract foreign investors into their regions, so that their countries may benefit from these flows in the form of job creation and receiving capital inflows from the induced investments and exports, which aid to offset balance of payment deficits. Countries may enjoy the positive spill-over of such investment that may help local business become more competitive within the international arena. Certain business interests may have strong negative effects such as abusing supplies of natural resources and the abundance of low-skilled labour that exists within developing countries, as few policies are in place to protect these often weaker economies. This may cause conflict between business and government, challenging policy makers to implement protective measures such as trade restrictions, capital market regulation and the development of organised labour policies which may seem only to encourage the flow of negative investment. The gains of such investment become ambiguous, cheering the antiglobalisation movements and discouraging the flows of foreign direct investment that may actually induce positive developments within the economies concerned. The battlefields of such fixed investment movements often establish themselves on emerging market territory, where economies are prone to both helpful and hostile attacks of foreign direct investment. The emerging economies are ever increasing in global importance on the international trade arenas. These countries, many with sound macroeconomic policy, often display rapid economic growth, developed markets and an abundant supply of cheap skilled and unskilled labour, consequently absorbing an ever-increasing share of foreign direct investment. However, the direction of foreign direct investment is difficult to determine, especially when using common constraints, such as economic, political, social and geographic factors. The focus of attention needs to be shifted to those people who are responsible for the decisions to invest. These decision-makers are not to be grouped into a singular globular mass of uniformity; neither should they be treated as a single variable in the equation attempting to explain fixed investment. They make decisions regarding foreign direct investment and are extremely complex beings, cognitively weighting certain factors that determine the decision to invest over other factors. This is an ever-changing process, and seldom will any two investors act in exactly the same way. Consequently, there is a need to explain the decision-making process of foreign direct investors in a model that is fluid, not static and that allows for the flexibility required for the survival of businesses within an ever-changing emerging market economy. This can only be explored by analysing the psychological and cognitive structure of the decisionmaking process that is not totally dependent on the macroeconomic or microeconomic forces present in policy design or company structure respectively. By understanding the process underlying decision-making, it is possible to construct a decision-making model applicable to the unique cognitive workings of the foreign investor.Clear-cut factors need to be identified which map decision-making prior to the act of investment. Therefore, the decision-making model should be constructed using an intentional bias. By using an intentional bias, the decision to act may not yet be consciously considered, but a need to act exists. If the decision-maker is presented by an opportunity, the intent may become the action. By highlighting decision-makers with a positive attitude towards an action, i.e. investment, it is possible to map the factors relevant in the decision-making process. This allows for the construction of a model mapping the intention to act, thereby creating a decision-making model. For the purpose of this thesis a survey was designed and presented to the key decisionmakers within established companies. They included senior business executives, company CEOs, managing directors, owners of businesses and others that play an executive decisionmaking role within their businesses. From these responses key factors were identified from which a behavioural model was constructed by using suitable statistical tools and constraints. This behavioural model is independent, yet influenced by factors such as economic freedom, political instability and corruption, labour market regulation and the existence of development zones within host countries. The identified factors that become relevant to the behavioural model of decision-making are attitude, level and extent of other related or competitive companies within the host country, risk type and ability to overcome such risk, the vision of the company and the social fulfilment experienced by the decision-makers. The necessity for a decision-making model regarding foreign direct investment in the emerging economies is one that cannot be underestimated. This model is designed to contribute towards the current literature on foreign direct investment, with the aim and intent of improving this body of knowledge and assisting towards streamlining policy formation.
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Mainstreaming the informal economy in South Africa: a gender perspective of trade union policy responses(1994-2001).
- Authors: Dlamini, Armstrong
- Date: 2007-10-22T10:52:42Z
- Subjects: Informal sector , labor unions , labor market , South Africa , women labor union members
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6291 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/101
- Description: The study examined the policy responses of organised labour towards the informal sector. It is based on a qualitative survey of trade unions in the textile, clothing and footwear sectors. The dualistic, Marxist structuralist, feminist and growth theories of the informal sector were used to evaluate policy responses towards the informal sector. The investigation of the dynamic relationship of trade unions with workers in the informal sector was informed by the transformation of the nature of work that is characterised by informalisation and the increased employment of contingent workers, the majority of whom are women. Informalisation was found to manifest itself through the use of homeworkers and ‘independent’ contractors. The study further showed that the formal and informal sectors were interdependent. This makes a compelling case for trade unions to organise vulnerable workers and to pursue the mainstreaming of the informal sector. However a rigid gender discourse was found to militate against the development of solidarity with the informal sector. The findings of the study suggest that gender mainstreaming within trade unions is a prerequisite for effectively mainstreaming the informal sector and that organising the informal sector is a gender issue. , Prof. G. Verhoef
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Employee participation in post-apartheid South Africa as a tool for global competitiveness.
- Authors: Isabirye, Anthony
- Date: 2007-10-23T09:09:14Z
- Subjects: international competition , employee empowerment and participation , management , South Africa , industrial relations
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6345 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/108
- Description: This research focused on employee participation in South African organisations as a tool for global competitiveness. Chapter one outlines the background to the study, its aims, statement of the problem and the research methodology. World wide socio -political and political changes were discussed. It emerged that such changes have revolutionalised and democratised countries and their organizations. Despite being recognised as a democratic country now, many of South Africa’s organisations are not yet fully democratic. Such organisations face the danger of being out-performed globally by those organisations that have already democratised themselves, as dictated by global trends. Using a theoretical exploration of relevant literature, the research was designed to determine the extent to which organisations in South Africa have positioned themselves to compete globally through the use of employee participation at the workplace. A theoretically-oriented method was utilised since the concepts of Global Competitiveness, or being “World-Class”, and that of Employee Participatio n are relatively new in South Africa. It is argued that the method contributes, inter alia, to the uncovering of generalisations that could be investigated by future researchers using more accurate and complex designs. At the same time, a broader understanding of the concepts of Global Competitiveness and “World-Class” is gained. From a detailed discussion of the concept “World-Class” it is evident that “world-class” organisations design their strategies, structures and leadership processes in such a way that customers’ needs are continuously met. To ensure that customers are provided with high quality products, globally competitive organisations continuously benchmark their systems, processes and results against those of the best organisation in the world . It is argued that Employment Relations Management as a sub-system of the wider organisational system has to be designed and managed in a way that ensures the satisfaction of the organisation’s employees and external clients. It also has to be benchmarked to ensure that it continues to deliver optimally. This necessitates a paradigm shift in the management of Employment Relations, from the typically Unitarist approach that characterised the work-place prior to the country’s democratisation in April 1994, to an integrated approach that takes cognisance of the interests, values and needs of all stakeholders. Such an approach would, no , Prof. J.A. Slabbert
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Developing core capabilities in a financial services firm: an intellectual capital perspective.
- Authors: Ungerer, Marius
- Date: 2007-12-06T05:51:06Z
- Subjects: intellectual capital , financial services industry , organizational change , knowledge management , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13867 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/141
- Description: One of the basic assumptions associated with the theoretical model as described in this article is that an organisation (a system) can acquire capabilities through intentional strategic and operational initiatives. This intentional capability-building process also implies that the organisation intends to use these capabilities in a constructive way to increase competitive advantage for the firm. The creation of conducive and attractive conditions for enhancing a firm’s capability-building process is central to the theoretical model as described in this article. The key building blocks that create favourable conditions for the development of organisational capabilities from an Intellectual Capital perspective are defined in the theoretical model and consist of the following five constructs: - A Strategic Architecture that provides guidance on the strategic intent, focus and boundaries of the organisation. - An Intellectual Capital Framework that creates a basis for a normative-, strategic- and operational view to stimulate ideas on how to make intellectual capital a practical reality and to utilise these insights in the development of the organisation’s core capabilities. - A Core Capability Framework that reflects the content and processes related to the identification, description, evaluation and assumptions associated with the firm’s core capabilities. The Core Capability Framework also facilitates the integration of the concepts “core capabilities” and “intellectual capital”. - An Operationalisation Framework to leverage core capabilities from an Intellectual Capital perspective in a pragmatic way to realise tangible competitive benefits not only from individual capabilities, but also through the conscious collective use of bundles of capabilities. - A change enablement process that stimulates knowledge flows between the above key constructs of the conceptual model. This creates the basis for cognitive and emotional leverages to increase the potential of an organisation to successfully implement a strategic approach to the management of core capabilities from an Intellectual Capital perspective. Raising the awareness and capacity of the organisation on the above five constructs creates the basis for an increase in the potential to make positive progress on this strategic journey of discovery to manage the growth of intellectual capital in a holistic way by focusing on core capabilities. , Prof. Koos Uys
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Regional integration: a historical analysis of the RSA's trade relationships with the SADCC member states, 1980-1989.
- Authors: Dikotla, Masennya Phineas
- Date: 2007-12-06T06:19:31Z
- Subjects: Economic integration , Foreign economic relations , South Africa , Southern African Development Coordination Conference , Southern Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14075 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/144
- Description: Die onafhanklike lande van die Suider-Afrikaanse streek het, sedert hul respektiewelike onafhanklikwording, besluit om geen politieke bande of verhoudinge met hul kragtige, suidelike buurman, Suid-Afrika, aan te knoop nie. Al hierdie lande het op politieke gebied daarin geslaag, behalwe Malawi. Op ekonomiese gebied, egter, en veral op die gebied van handelsverhoudinge, was hierdie frontlinie state nie suksesvol nie. In ‘n poging om Suid-Afrika te isoleer, is ‘n ekonomiese blok, die SADCC, op die been gebring. Met die stigting van die SADCC in 1980, het die groep die vermindering van ekonomiese afhanklikheid van die Republiek van Suid-Afrika as hoofdoelwit gestel. Hierdie studie is ‘n poging om die SADCC se suksesse en mislukkings in hierdie verband te evalueer. Verder word probeer om die probleme wat die organisasie ondervind het in hul pogings ter bereiking van hierdie doelwit, binne die Suider-Afrikaanse geo-politieke omgewing, te ondersoek, veral in die lig van Suid-Afrika se vasbeslotenheid om regionale ekonomiese en politieke heerskappy te behou. Terselfdertyd poog die navorser om klem te lê op die deursettingsvermoë van SADCC lede om hul afhanklikheid van die Republiek te verminder – al was die resultaat in meeste gevalle gering. Hierdie studie toon dat die ekonomiese realiteit van die Suider-Afrikaanse streek die politieke retoriek aan beide kante van die politieke spektrum ten volle oorheers het. Die aard van die handelsverhoudinge tussen die RSA en die SADCC ledelande is deurgaans deur strukturele kontraste en weersprekende feite gekompliseer. , Prof. G. Verhoef
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Opposing apartheid through sport: the role of SACOS in South African sport, 1982-1992.
- Authors: Goodall, Noel
- Date: 2007-12-06T07:22:46Z
- Subjects: SACOS ( organization ) , sports , sport politics , racism in sports , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14621 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/153
- Description: This study analyses and evaluates the role of SACOS in South African sport between 1982 and 1992. This analysis reveals that SACOS was marginalised by 1992. Whilst its role is discussed, this study sets out to explain how and why SACOS was marginalised. How did it come about that the vanguard of the sport struggle found itself in this position in 1992? The role of SACOS and its subsequent marginalisation is explained through the discussion of: 1) the prevailing political conditions in South Africa between 1982 and 1992; 2) the prevailing conditions of South African sport between 1982 and 1992; and 3) the position SACOS occupied in South African sport between 1982 and 1992. This study offers a broad historical overview of South African sport before 1982 and the development of SACOS. The purpose of this broad historical overview was to demonstrate that SACOS was a major factor in SA sport before 1992 and to highlight the role it played. The structure, policies, membership and leadership of SACOS were discussed to gain an understanding of the nature of the organisation and the people who drove it. Thereafter the actions and influences of various role players were discussed and the effects of these influences on SACOS. [The major role players identified in this study were the SA government, the international sporting community, SANROC led by Sam Ramsamy, establishment sport, the NSC, the broader liberation movements and big business.] This was followed by a discussion in which SACOS, its policies and its philosophy, was evaluated against the actions of the various role players and the changing political environment. The relationship SACOS had with various role players is described to illustrate how it came to occupy the peripheral position from which it had no influence. The central question that was addressed was whether or not SACOS, through its policies, contrived to marginalise itself. The study reveals that SACOS was in no position to determine the agenda for SA sport, that its principled stance stood no chance in the pragmatic politics of the day and that its marginalisation was effected more by external factors than its hard line policies. , Prof. G. Verhoef
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The official treatment of white, South African, homosexual men and the consequent reaction of gay liberation from the 1960s to 2000.
- Authors: Sinclair, Rebecca
- Date: 2007-12-06T07:58:28Z
- Subjects: South Africa , gay liberation movement , gay rights , gays , government policy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14667 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/163
- Description: This dissertation is the product of research into white, South African masculinities. It is concerned with the official treatment of white, gay men in this country by the governments of the day from the 1960s to 2000 and the government’s control of hegemonic masculinity in order to maintain power. By looking at gay masculinities the threat to hegemonic masculinity was ascertained as well as the different versions of heterosexual masculinities. This thesis also analyses the degree of change in the toleration or acceptance of white homosexuality in South Africa from churches, society, and elements within the SAP and the SADF as well as within gay organisations. Legislative achievements in the Constitutional Court show the most extreme changes in the perceptions of gay masculinities. This dissertation primarily begins in the 1960s, looking at why it was necessary to set up the 1968 Select Committee. This committee investigated criminalising all male homosexual acts, including those in private and also aimed to dictate societal norms and maintain white, privileged, hegemonic masculinity established and defined by the NP government. The state had always repressed homosexuality through law; even colonial legislation proved this. It was the creation and maintenance of hegemonic masculinity that advocated such legislation. 1966 was the focal year where white homosexuality became a recognisable problem. A gay party was held at a Johannesburg residence, which made white homosexuality visible and alerted the police to this alternative masculinity. The Select Committee, however, did not fulfil its initial aims. Once elements within the SAP were faced with the visibility of white homosexuality, their power thereby being challenged, Major van Zyl set about requesting stricter legislation by proposing amendments to the Minister of Justice regarding the 1957 Immorality Act and submitting evidence to the Select Committee. However, numerous submissions to and interviews by the Select Committee proved that it was unnecessary and illogical to criminalise private homosexuality. Such submissions showed white homosexuality was no societal threat and that some in white society recognised gay masculinities and challenged hegemonic masculinity. Consequently the Select Committee did not propose stricter legislation regarding homosexuality. Furthermore, repressive official treatment of white, male homosexuals was evident in the SADF in the 1970 and 1980s. Through a military perception of masculinity, that is, aggressive masculinity, most in the SADF were intent on conforming its white soldiers to the traditional definition of masculinity, the NP government’s definition of white masculinity, which did not include homosexual men. Dr Levine used electro-shock therapy to ‘cure’ gay conscripts at 1 Military Hospital. This extreme practice of ensuring conformity was no longer utilised by the 1980s and there was also some unofficial acceptance of white homosexuality within the SADF by some white commanders and soldiers. There was no gay liberation movement to speak of until the 1980s. GASA, a white gay organisation, led the movement but it was to be unsuccessful in that it supported the NP government, that is, it benefited from hegemonic masculinity because GASA’s membership was predominantly white men. Because of this GASA was seen to support the government’s policy of apartheid and there ensued the consequent debate between gay essentialism and gay rights as part of the broader struggle. GASA was purely reactionary, because in effect it did not really want change and was therefore ineffective. The gay movement grew but it did not unify. This failure to unify meant the gay liberation movement, as a movement had failed, even though, later, liberation and much change was achieved, mainly through the work of the NCGLE. Like the 1968 Select Committee, the President’s Council was set up in 1985 to once again investigate stricter penalties against homosexuality. The ANC was still very quiet on the issue of gay rights, supporting heterosexist hegemony and not recognising gay masculinities. The President’s Council did not recommend stricter legislation against homosexual men but the 1988 Sexual Offences Act retained the penalties against homosexuality as stipulated by the 1969 Immorality Amendment Act. Gay essentialism damaged any headway regarding gay rights, especially when it came to gaining the support of progressive organisation in the broader political struggle because there was so much in-fighting regarding defining gay masculinities. Race could not be discounted in this equation and the RGO, a black gay organisation, challenged GASA’s support of the NP government. New gay organisations only contributed to the failure of the gay liberation movement because again there was no unity. In 1989 Albie Sachs of the ANC met with a liberal gay organisation, OGLA, and finally gay rights were beginning to be taken seriously, culminating in the protection of gay rights in the 1996 Constitution. This was due to individual members of the ANC and Kevan Botha, the lawyer hired by the NCGLE to represent gay rights at CODESA. Once sexual orientation was retained in the equality clause of the Constitution it was left to the NCGLE to fight for the legal practice of equality for gay men and lesbians. There was also greater toleration and even acceptance of homosexuality by the South African society at large, both black and white, the churches, and the SAP, especially officially. Hence, although the gay liberation movement had failed, gay rights had been entrenched and change allowed for potential equality, the last of which would be legal gay marriage, which remains to be seen. , Prof. L. Grundlingh
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- Authors: Marais, Salome
- Date: 2007-12-07T07:42:48Z
- Subjects: teenager language , afrikaans language , slang , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14708 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/169
- Description: It is a well-known fact that the speech of young people is in many respects different from the speech of older speakers. This also applies to Afrikaans as spoken by the younger generation. The difference in speech is recognized to such an extent that the media and literature aimed at teenagers make use of the same words and phrases. That creates the impression that these publications are making use of a specific variety of Afrikaans. In the present study the researcher has endeavoured to describe the specific nature of teenage language as spoken by Afrikaans teenagers in a bid to establish whether Tienerafrikaans could be considered a variety of Afrikaans. The dissertation first looks at the linguistic research on teenage language in countries like Germany,England and the Scandinavian countries as the existing sociolinguistic descriptions of the speech of teenagers in South Africa are inadequate while no study has yet been carried out on Afrikaans teenage speech. The characteristics of teenage language, such as the use of slang, the use of English words by non-English speakers and the use of pragmatic markers, as observed by researchers such as Androutsopoulos, Andersen and Stenström, served as a starting point for this study. Other characteristics of teenage speech that were emphasised, were the function of socialisation and that teenagers use speech to set them apart from adults and to indicate their membership of the peer group. In an attempt to describe the non-standard forms used in media and literature aimed at teenagers, an in-depth study was made of language forms that appear in Tienerafrikaans. The data for the study came from lists of words supplied by teenagers, questionnaires, letters to Jip, a teenage supplement to Beeld, and interviews with teenagers. The results indicated the following: • Tienerafrikaans is an informal register of Afrikaans making use of certain linguistic phenomena, like slang, code switching, borrowing and calque. • The wide range of non-Afrikaans lexical items that are used by Afrikaans teenagers are mostly derived from English. • Afrikaans teenagers are capable of creating new words and slang expressions in Afrikaans. The study also indicated that the claim by critics that authors made use of teenage language in books aimed at teenage readers, is justified. To a certain extent authors made use of the same lexical items and informal style that was identified from the data.The conclusion drawn is that the term Tienerafrikaans could be applied to the mixed language spoken by a significant number of Afrikaans teenagers and that Tienerafrikaans is a variety of Afrikaans. , Prof. A.E. Coetzee
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An assessment of the level of maturity of the competitive intelligence function within a South African retail bank.
- Authors: Heppes, David Wayne
- Date: 2008-04-22T06:16:35Z
- Subjects: South Africa , competition , banks and banking , business intelligence
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8447 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/260
- Description: This research is a study of the level of maturity of the Competitive Intelligence (CI) function within a South African retail bank. In particular it focussed on the level of maturity of the CI function as evidenced in the various elements of its CI function, namely the key information needs of CI users, CI deliverables and capabilities, analytical products, relationship with management, sources of information, personnel their skills and training as well as the period of time the CI function has been operational. The results indicated that the CI function as a whole was at a Mid-Level of maturity, with the underlying elements of the CI functions surveyed and the literature review being supportive of this finding. , Prof. A.S.A. du Toit
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A holistic framework for successful sponsoring IT projects from an IT governance persepective
- Authors: Letchtman, Elazar
- Date: 2008-04-23T10:39:40Z
- Subjects: Information technology , South Africa , ICT governance , Information communications technology
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8588 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/284
- Description: Over the past decade, research conducted for the benefit of IT project management has pointed to numerous factors that contribute to organisational project success. Support from executives and top management is often cited as an imperative factor, whilst having clear business objectives for conducting projects follows closely behind. The linchpin between the executive leadership team and project managers is the project sponsor, who is in a position to directly contribute to the two aforementioned project success factors. The precise responsibilities of the sponsor, however, remain relatively poorly defined. As a result, it is important to focus on this very important role and provide those who are in this position with a set of activities that would facilitate greater project success. Further to this, the corporate governance scandals of the past few years and the consequent publication of relevant acts of legislation and governance standards has forced top management to become more interested in the conduct of their organisation’s portfolio of projects. This research study therefore addresses both the formal and informal aspects of the role of the project sponsor and has provided guidance to organisations and professional associations in defining the role and responsibilities of the project sponsor within a corporate governance framework. The first goal was therefore to establish a holistic corporate governance framework that encompasses the roles of IT and project management in the organisation. By doing so, executives are given a road map that aligns all IT projects with organisational strategy and a means to facilitate greater internal control over all IT project-related activities. This was developed by identifying the relevance and implications that recent corporate scandals around the world have had on IT and project management in general. This then led to combining COBIT (which is an IT governance Abstract ii framework) and a new project governance framework (known as the PG framework) to form a corporate governance framework. This is followed by the development of a generic project sponsorship competency framework that provides organisations with a benchmark that assesses whether an individual is appropriately suited for the role of sponsoring an IT project. Both frameworks provide a means to facilitate better strategic alignment and internal control of all IT project-related activities, and thus contribute to the improvement of IT project management capability within the organisation. , Labuschagne, L., Prof.
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Transformational leadership and its relationship with personality preferences in South African organisations.
- Authors: Linde, Trudi
- Date: 2008-04-23T10:39:45Z
- Subjects: leadership , organizational change management , personality and occupation , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8599 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/285
- Description: The general purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the relationship between transformational and leadership personality preferences. The aim of the study is therefore to establish an empirical link between transformational leadership and certain aspects of personality preferences in order to verify if these leaders can be distinguished from others by means of their personality preferences. The transformational leaders’ ratings as identified by use of the Multifactor questionnaire are compared with personality preferences indicated on the scales of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator®. Given the research literature an expectation exists that a statistically significant difference will be found between aspects of personality preferences of transformational and non-transformational leaders. Therefore transformational leaders will be identifiable from non-transformational leaders by their personality preferences. The research group was a convenience sample that consisted of 66 leaders chosen from two organisations in the financial and entertainment industries at the level of team leader or in a supervisory capacity. The statistical procedures utilised in the analysis of the data included analysis of frequencies, ttests and cross tabulations. Firstly, the transformational leaders in the selected organisations were identified successfully. As far as determining the personality preferences of the identified transformational leaders and establishing any possible links between the transformational leadership style and chosen personality preferences, the only significant difference was found between the introversion and extroversion preferences. A significant difference between introversion and extroversion in terms of the Intellectual Stimulation rating on the MLQ was found as well as in terms of the Average and Inspirational Motivation ratings. No other statistically significant differences or interdependencies were found between the personality preferences as identified by the MBTI® and any of the ratings on the MLQ. The third objective of determining whether personality preference can be utilised to predict transformational leadership is therefore answered. From the findings of this study it seems as if personality preferences cannot be utilised to predict transformational leadership in for instance a selection process in a company. As this research group was highly selected and not representative of the general population, it is not possible to generalise the findings of this study. Although the research group was not representative, the findings of this study matched with those of other studies, and the deduction is therefore made that if this study was to be repeated, similar results would be found. , Prof. S. Kruger
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An analysis of the South African beef supply chain: from farm to fork.
- Authors: Olivier, Gert Cornelius
- Date: 2008-04-24T12:35:25Z
- Subjects: business logistics , beef industry , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8629 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/296
- Description: The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. This will contribute towards a better understanding of the beef supply chain, aiding collaboration, transparency and supply chain strategies to enhance national industry competitiveness. Currently, the industry, and the supply chain is facing pertinent challenges such as globalisation, the declining consumption of beef, the disconnection of the farmer from the supply chain, illegal slaughtering, a lack of quality and inadequate hygiene practises in some lower throughput abattoirs, the rising food safety concerns (BSE, E.coli, and FMD), and the competitiveness of substitute products (chicken, pork, etc.). A simple and systematic approach is used to analyse the South African beef supply chain ‘from farm to fork’. The information has been discussed with industry experts, via interviews and discussion, to ensure the analysis reflects reality. It is evident that the South African beef supply chain is long, complex and involves various handoff points between role-players and industry governing bodies, as well as various permutations of this supply chain. The red meat industry evolved from a highly regulated environment to a totally deregulated one. The deregulation changes the ‘rules of the game’, and the ‘new rules of the game’ result in additional complexity within the current chain. The supply-side issues play a critical role in creating a sustainable competitive advantage, against substitute products. This highlights the importance of having accurate cattle herd numbers to facilitate proper supply chain planning, in an industry with a cyclical nature and a dependence on uncontrollable factors, such as natural forces and biological factors. This is indeed an issue of concern for the industry. Demand-side issues are influenced by the income of consumers, the availability and price of substitute products, consumer taste and preferences, and consumer expectations. In addition, the effect on demand, of price and income elasticity, and per capita expenditure by different population groups, adds to the complexity of the South African beef supply chain operation. viii The beef supply chain cost analysis -- the weaner cost model -- aims to assign cost, and resources, to each role-player to understand how value and margin is added, within the South African beef supply chain. The analysis revealed some interesting facts, regarding the ‘margins’ and ‘mark-up percentages’. This highlights, in simplistic terms, that some sectors are making more money than others, and examined together, with the cyclical nature of the industry, it is a given that supply chain management principles (collaborations, integration, contracting, etc.) will play an ever increasing role in the future of food supply chains. Eight supply chain management strategies are discussed, to initiate and kick-start the change process to transform the local beef supply chain into a leading-class player. The strategies are: (i) Crafting a supply chain vision; (ii) Traceability, transparency and quality assurance; (iii) Knowledge management and the learning supply chain; (iv) Transformation and AGRIBEE; (v) Measuring performance: supply chain metrics and diagnostics; (vi) Concepts of collaboration in food supply chain management; (vii) Synchronising operations and uncovering hidden opportunities; and, (viii) National agribusiness framework and red meat framework. The South African beef supply chain no longer has an option: it must ‘adapt to survive’. Benefits, in non-food systems, are well documented, with the implementation of supply chain management principles. The analysis concludes by summarising the strategies into meaningful and manageable options recommended for implementation. The recommendations are: · Create a national and red meat agribusiness structure and craft a local supply chain vision · Ensure product quality and establish a positive red meat message that drives demand · Implement productivity gains across the South African beef supply chain · Share market information across the South African beef supply chain · Promote innovation across the South African beef supply chain · Implement research and development initiatives for success. , Prof. J.H. du Plessis
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Inflation targeting: a comparative assessment of South Africa's early experience.
- Authors: Powers, Caithleen
- Date: 2008-04-24T12:35:42Z
- Subjects: South Africa , monetary policy , inflation (finance)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8642 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/299
- Description: The general purpose of this study is to determine how South Africa’s early experience with the inflation targeting framework compares with the early experiences of Brazil, Chile, Israel, the Czech Republic and Poland. One developed economy, namely New Zealand, is included in the study since it was the pioneer of the inflation targeting framework. The experiences of these countries are compared along three dimensions: the stress tests the frameworks were subjected to and the monetary authorities’ responses to these tests; the adjustments made to the frameworks, operational and institutional procedures; and the credibility losses or gains as a result of these experiences. In order to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion to the problem a number of questions are explored. The theoretical basis of inflation targeting is analysed; the nature of South Africa’s framework is assessed to see how it conforms to general practices; South Africa’s early experience under the inflation targeting framework is assessed; and, lastly, South Africa’s experience is compared with the experiences of the six countries mentioned in the first paragraph. The assessment in this study shows that South Africa’s experience is not out of line when compared with other emerging-market countries. Many of the emerging markets surveyed faced significant stress tests and long-term obstacles that contributed to their failure to achieve their inflation targets in the early years of implementation. In response, the central banks surveyed sought to focus on the primary goal of monetary policy and to counter the second-round effects. As they became more experienced at operating an inflation targeting framework, some of the countries refined their frameworks. Ultimately, the survey draws lessons from the common experience of the seven countries assessed. It shows that credibility is key to the success of an inflation targeting framework, as is a supportive context. However, the survey also highlights that simply judging a country’s monetary policy success on whether it achieves its inflation targets is too limited an assessment for justifying the merit of an inflation targeting framework. , Prof. S. Chetty
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Corporate social responsibility in South Africa: fact or fiction.
The impact of black economic empowerment on the management of small companies in South Africa.
- Authors: Van der Nest, Delrene
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:11:17Z
- Subjects: employee empowerment , small business management , affirmative action programs , black employment , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6776 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/319
- Description: The subject of this dissertation is a fairly contentious issue, with advocates on all sides debating the effectiveness and value of affirmative action, as defined in the Black Economic Empowerment legislature. The goal is to determine the affect of BEE on the management of Small and Medium Enterprises in South Africa, although SME’s have been found by this study to have an influence on the effectiveness of BEE. An overview of the origins and history of affirmative action policies, cumulating in BEE, are discussed, and the various policies and their effectiveness are examined. Special emphasis was placed on the study of the Black Economic Empowerment Commission, and the recent policies around the enforcing of BEE compliance on corporate South Africa. The biggest problem with the implementation of BEE was found to be financing. Many financial models have been attempted to provide the necessary funding for empowerment to happen, but all seem to be flawed in some way or another. Insight was gained into how BEE policies are structured, the particular goals they are trying to achieve, and conclusions were drawn on how best these goals could be met. The study then provides an overview of the position and value of Small and Medium Enterprises in the South African economy and the particular issues that management of these enterprises face. The value of SME’s to the government’s policies of addressing massive unemployment in South Africa is examined, and certain conclusions are drawn around how effective these policies are. The various constraints and peculiar problems of the SME sector are examined, in order to place the topic of the dissertation in context. The dissertation then discusses the approach that was taken by the author in gathering the information and research material that was used to write the paper. These methods included meticulous research of the subject matter in the written press, internet sources, online libraries, as well as many personal interviews with leading industry and government personalities. This information is then used to discuss the effect of BEE in practice, with particular emphasis on impact that BEE has had and is having on the SME sector of the South African economy. Discussion is provided around the application of the BEE scorecard, as well as a section covering finance, both local and foreign, of BEE deals. The opinions of the industry leaders interviewed are discussed and particular issues raised by them are examined in the light of the previous discussions around BEE and SME’s. Lastly, the dissertation presents a set of conclusions drawn by the author, and backed up by industry comment. These conclusions provide a clear understanding of the impact that BEE is having on SME’s, as well as how SME’s will have an effect on the long-term success of BEE in South Africa. , Prof. S. Kruger
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Weather risk management: a South African market perspective.
- Authors: Thompson, Carol Beverley
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:11:52Z
- Subjects: South Africa , derivative securities , economic conditions , weather forecasting , weather risk assessment
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6826 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/325
- Description: The weather derivative concept was created in the United States of America as a result of the deregulation of its energy industry. When other countries learnt of this concept they decided to enter the market as well. Thus a body called the Weather Risk Management Association was established. This body’s main function is to collate information pertaining to weather risk and to help the process of advancement and growth within the market. The weather risk market has grown tremendously and various participants across the world are using weather derivative products to protect the revenue of their respective companies against adverse weather condition. South Africa entered the weather risk market and it’s contracted its first weather contract in February 2000. The objective of this study is to evaluate the South African financial market perceptions on weather derivatives and to establish the feasibility of use. The study also places emphasis on the importance of evaluating the South African economic conditions in order to achieve the goal of the study. Hence the study evaluates the different aspects in terms of the legal, accounting, taxation, weather data, and structuring and pricing implications of a weather derivative transaction. Thus a survey was designed, forwarded, and received back from professionals in the legal, accounting, taxation, weather data, and structuring and pricing fields. This analysis was conducted to evaluate the South African financial market’s perceptions on weather derivative applications. , Prof. C.H. van Schalkwyk
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Risk analysis of the South African biotechnology industry.
- Authors: Tong, Rene Clarisse
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:11:58Z
- Subjects: risk assessment , biotechnology , South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6837 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/326
- Description: Biotechnology as an industry has come to the fore in the last 2 decades. It is a fast developing industry that offers significant growth opportunities to financial investors with significant advances also being made in terms of the medical fields (blood disorders), agriculture (pest resistant plants), food (genetically modified food) and forensics (DNA fingerprinting). , Prof. A.L. Boessenkool
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Purchasing governance and control for the Rand Afrikaans University.
- Authors: Voogt, Thea Louisa
- Date: 2008-05-06T10:12:21Z
- Subjects: South Africa , purchasing , Higher Education , Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit , Rand Afrikaans University
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6870 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/330
- Description: Hierdie proefskrif is in twee dele verdeel. Die doel van hierdie proefskrif is die bestudering van aankope beheer en die daarstelling van beheer oor die aankopefunksie van die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit. Die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit bevind homself in ‘n maalkolk van verandering waarbinne die Regering ‘n belangrike rol speel in rigtinggewing en die beheer van hoëronderwysinstellings. Alhoewel die Regering nog nie betrokke geraak het by die mikro bestuur van hoëronderwysinstellings nie, het hierdie studie bewys gelewer dat daar wel gronde is vir groter inmenging in die finansiële bestuur van universiteite en technikons. Van die metodes wat die Regering kan gebruik om beter korporatiewe beheer e n finansiële bestuur te bewerkstellig is onder andere vinnige intervensie by die vind van wanadministrasie, ‘n duidelike definisie van die vertroue -verantwoordelikheidsposisie tussen hoëronderwysinstellings en die Regering, die toepassing van publieke -sektor finansiële wetgewing, sowel as korporatiewe beheerbeginsels wat spesifiek vir die publieke sektor geskryf is. Al hierdie stappe het ten doel om meer effektiewe finansiële beheer in hoëronderwysinstellings te vestig. Hierdie studie het bewys dat nie alle universiteite en technikons in die besonder goeie finansiële posisie is waarin die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit hom bevind nie. Ten einde net beter finansiële beheermaatreëls te vestig by die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit het hierdie proefskrif verder gegaan om in detail beheer daar te stel oor aankope. Die resultate van hierdie proefskrif sluit in die skryf van ‘n eenvormige aankopebeleid, prosedurehandleiding en standaard dokumente wat in die tender - en aankopeproses gebruik gaan word. Purchasing governance and control for the Rand Afrikaans University Die proefskrif sluit ook spesifieke reëls in ten opsigte van die toepassing van voorkeurverkrygingsbeginsels. Hierdie voorkeurbehandeling word toegespits op voorheen benadeeldes sowel as klein, medium, mikro en baie klein ondernemings. Die voorkeurbehandeling wat voorgestel word is in baie opsigte meer progressief as die reëls wat deur die Regering toegepas word en is ‘n refleksie van die wyer transformasie wat binne die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit plaasgevind het. Voorkeurbehandeling word egter net toegespits op tansaksies wat na die tenderkomitee verwys word. Opsigself is hierdie voorkeurbehandelingsmeganismes nie genoegsaam om blywende aankopehervorming aan die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit te weeg te bring nie. Die proefskrif maak dit duidelik dat daar normalisering moet kom in die besigheidsverhouding tussen die universiteit en verskaffers. Die metode wat voorgestel word om hierdie doelwit te bereik, is die daarstelling van ‘n omvattende goedgekeurde verskafferslys wat die demografie van die Suid-Afrikaans e samelewing weerspieël. Aangesien die beleid en prosedures wat in hierdie proefskrif voorgestel word tot ‘n groot mate afhanklik is van die mense wat die proses dryf, sluit deel A van die studie af met ‘n etiese kode vir aankopepersoneel. Deel B van die proefskrif sit die beleid, prosedures, reglemente en standaard dokumente uiteen wat ontwikkel is en wat inderdaad al ‘n geruime tyd in werking is by die Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit. , Dr. G. Els
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