An exploratory study on the usefulness of eye movement integration therapy in overcoming childhood trauma
- Authors: Struwig, Elsabet
- Date: 2010-05-27T06:04:50Z
- Subjects: Psychic trauma in children , Physical therapy for children , Neurolinguistic programming
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6845 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3277
- Description: M.A. , Since 1994, there have been various changes in social work in South Africa, changes that reflect developments in international social work. Social workers are described as generalist practitioners, who must be able to address their clients’ problems on different levels of service delivery and drawing on an eclectic range of theories and intervention models. Trauma is a definite reality in South Africa and only one of many problems that social workers face. Eye Movement Integration Therapy (EMI) is a therapy that has its roots in neurolinguistic programming (NLP). Steve and Connirae Andreas researched the possible link between eye movements and therapeutic growth. Subsequently EMI was developed to facilitate the reduction of trauma symptoms. Danie Beaulieu studied under the Andreas’s and developed the technique further. According to contemporary research, the amygdala is responsible for storing trauma memories. These memories are fragmented, as they are stored in the sensory modalities and have no narrative. The precise mechanisms of EMI are still unknown. It appears, however, that EMI, with its 22 eye movements, assists with the integration of fragmented trauma memories. The effectiveness of EMI with the adult population has been studied, but not its usefulness with children. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the usefulness of EMI in overcoming childhood trauma. A sample of 12 children, aged 14-16 years, who had experienced trauma, underwent a single session of EMI with the researcher. A multi-method approach was utilised as both qualitative and quantitative methods were implemented. The quantitative component took the form of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) administered before and after the single EMI session. The qualitative component of this study had two parts, namely a semi-structured interview with the parents/caregivers of the children conducted after the EMI session, and a journal that the researcher kept throughout the data collection process. The study found that EMI effectively and significantly reduced the trauma symptoms of the respondents. The successful clinical application of the intervention with children also showed that EMI is a useful technique in the recovery from childhood trauma.
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Evaluating the "what color is your hurt?" programme for traumatised preschoolers in South Africa
Korttermynterapie met getraumatiseerde kleuters
- Authors: Grimbeek, Marinda Elizabeth
- Date: 2012-09-11
- Subjects: Psychoteraphy - Research - South Africa , Toddlers - Family relationships - Research - South Africa , Toddlers - Development , Psychic trauma in children
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9957 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7353
- Description: M.Ed. , The socio-political climate in South-Africa has led to an increase in the number of children experiencing anxiety-related symptoms. Children are observant and notice how their parents react and discuss with other adults the violence and uncontrollable crime rate that exists in our society at present. Society generally views childhood as a naturally happy time, free of responsibilities and worries. But the implication that children are somehow protected from the emotional effects of traumatic events is not true. Children are, in fact, as susceptible to trauma as adults. Many children have experienced incredible trauma first hand and these traumatic events can have a negative effect on the child's self concept and future functioning. Mother problem arising from the insecurity of the socio-political climate is that parents tend to feel that they have to take greater safety precautions, thus children are lacking opportunities for developing independence. Other stress aspects are the changes in family structures. One out of every three children will experience divorce, and will have to cope with the stress of reconstituted families. Not only is there stress involved in the process of divorce, but prior to the divorce conditions within the home are unbearable tense and full of conflict. Children in the South - African townships are often left in the care of extended families due to the fact that their parents may be working far from where they live and go to school. Because of the complexities and breakdown of family life, these children are often forced to get on with their lives and growing up on their own, with no or little family support. It is clear that our children of today often find themselves in positions that they are not developmentally and emotionally equipped to handle, and the instinct of survival is often what they rely on. The South African society consists of a set of complex and often polarised systems, each with its own difficulties. The need for intervention and therapy is great, but the resources are limited. Psychotherapy with a professional play therapist is just not a viable solution for many children. Not only is there a limit to the professional resources available, but a lot of parents see it as a waste of time and the financial cost can be crippling. The situational access is another problem that needs to be addressed. Many children are simply not in a physical position to gain access to therapy. It becomes clear every day that in South Africa, the Western view of individualised and specialised play therapy for children is simply not feasible in many instances. The objective of this research project is to describe the therapeutic process in order to establish certain guidelines regarding therapy with traumatized toddlers. The efficiency of this process will also be discussed. The design of this research project compelled a qualitative research strategy, where the researcher in this study is also the therapist. A participating research process is thus of importance in this project. This research project looks at the process and the implications of short term therapy, especially Narrative Therapy with toddlers between the ages of four to seven years. The project describes the therapy process of co-constructing new and preferred narratives with three clients by challenging dominant discourses of violence, death , loss and trauma. The results of the therapeutic process as well as the shortages and recommendations conconclude this research project.
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Ontwerp en ontwikkeling van 'n praktykmodel vir kinderterapie
- Authors: Van Niekerk, Corne
- Date: 2012-08-22
- Subjects: Child development - Research , Child psychotherapy - Research , Problem solving therapy , Child care - Research , Psychic trauma in children , Counseling of children
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2950 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6377
- Description: M.A. , Children are so often seen as unproductive, dependents that are vulnerable and not responsible for their own actions. Children are in fact individuals in the process of development that can learn to act in a responsible way and to manage their lives. Because children are in the process of development and change, it is a challenge for the therapist to meet the unique needs of the child. This study was developed as a response to a need under social workers for structure in the handling of children with adaptation problems. Social workers need more than just techniques that can be utilized with children in therapy. They also need guidelines on the best techniques to utilize in different phases of the process. This programme aimed at developing an integrated model for child therapy that can be utilized for children who have experienced trauma, who have difficulties adapting to new circumstances, who have behavioural problems or who are in need of personal skills. The Intervention Design and Development Model of Rothman and Thomas (1994) was utilized in the development of the new technological item. The different phases used in the development of the model for child therapy were the following: The problem analysis and planning phase, which included the planning of the study and the setting of goals for the study. The information gathering and synthesis phase, which included an investigation into the available sources for the development of new technology for child therapy. The first focus of the actions in this phase was to identify applicable sources that could be utilized to formulate a theoretical basis for the new technology. The theoretical basis served as a frame of reference to identify the most important aspects of a child that a therapy model should take into account. The next focus was to select existing interventions and technologies that could be used to formulate a practice model that would address the needed aspects of a child. The design phase, consisted of setting a preliminary product. The evaluation phase, which included the implementation of the pilot test and both the process and outcome evaluation. The aim of this phase was to test the programme and to see what can be done to improve on the results and to refine the final product. The implementation and dissemination phase which concluded the study by setting the final product ready for distribution. This product, a model for Functional child therapy, does not provide a recipe for child therapy, nor does it only help children to work through present traumas. The main focus of the model is to help children to become unique individuals within a world that is dominated and structured by adults. Children learn with this model not just to react on adult behaviour, but to become active, responsible role players in their own world.
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The impact of psychological trauma on neuropsychological functioning in children aged 8-13
- Authors: Hosford, Donna J.
- Date: 2010-05-13T09:27:48Z
- Subjects: Post-traumatic stress disorder in children , Psychic trauma in children , Effect of psychic trauma on children , Neuropsychiatry
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/381003 , uj:6802 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3237
- Description: D.Phil. , Profound psychological trauma, which may lead to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can continue to negatively impact the lives of its victims for years after its occurrence. Psychological trauma is seen across cultures in people of all ages, the world over, and South Africa’s high levels of crime and violence, HIV and AIDS, and road accidents, make the topic especially pertinent. The symptom clusters of PTSD, included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition – text revised (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), namely Re-experiencing, Avoidance and numbing, and Increased Arousal can lead to significant distress and may interfere with all facets of life, including social functioning, career goals, romantic relationships, leisure activities, and mental wellbeing. The effects of trauma in childhood may be different than when it occurs in adulthood, due to developmental processes occurring on physical, emotional, and cognitive levels (e.g. Drell, Siegel, & Gaensbauer, 1993; Perrin, Smith, & Yule, 2000). As such it is clearly important to understand the effects of trauma specific to children. A fair amount of literature is available which discusses the emotional and psychological consequences of trauma in children. Similar studies with regard to PTSD are also available. However, a holistic picture of either psychological trauma, or PTSD in childhood should also include neuropsychological aspects, functions such as attention and concentration, planning, organisation, psychomotor speed, and memory in which dysfunction may interfere with children’s development and futures. Although the field of neuropsychology has traditionally investigated how the brain responds to physical trauma or disease processes, recent decades of technological advancement have made it possible to understand that psychological trauma may actually result in neurobiological abnormalities.
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The use of indigenous knowledge when working with children who have experienced trauma
- Authors: Beukes, Marni
- Date: 2013-12-09
- Subjects: Educational psychology - Training of - South Africa , Educational psychology - South Africa - Study and teaching , Cross-cultural counseling , Children - Counseling of - South Africa , Psychic trauma in children
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7817 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8711
- Description: M.Ed. (Educational Psychology) , The main aim of this research inquiry was to explore the use of indigenous knowledge by Black-African educational psychologists in South Africa when working with children who have been traumatised. I hoped that the results would provide a better understanding of how indigenous knowledge can be applied in therapeutic interventions in a way that takes into account the client’s cultural preferences. Mental health professionals are becoming more aware that cultural customs and beliefs have considerable influence on therapeutic interventions. The Western conceptualisation of health and illness is insufficient in a culturally diverse society like the one found in South Africa. There is a need to explore how traditional concepts can be incorporated into psychology and how indigenous knowledge can contribute to the wellbeing of a person, from a culturally congruent worldview. In indigenous knowledge, there is recognition that communities have their own definition of healing needs and strategies when addressing trauma. The perception and beliefs about the causation, communication and acknowledgement of the problem are all culturally constructed and can influence psychotherapy. However, there is a lack of research on applying indigenous knowledge in therapy, specifically in the context of children who have been exposed to exploitative trauma (abuse) and loss (death). As such, there is a need in South Africa for the development of psychotherapeutic interventions that are culturally valid, which can be applied to children who have been traumatised. The research approach employed within this study is qualitative. A phenomenological design was followed. The overarching framework was that of social constructivism. I interviewed five black educational psychologists who live in the Gauteng area through the use of snowball sampling. Data was generated through semi-structured interviews. The data collection and analysis process was done through the use of thematic analysis, whereby certain themes were revealed. The psychotherapeutic interventions that were discerned were based mostly on the trauma children experienced due to child abuse and the death of parents. These included 1) use of oral traditions comprising stories, folklore, proverbs and metaphors; 2) rituals, comprising visiting the grave, communication with ancestors through the slaughter of animals and cleansing ceremonies involving the slaughter of animals; 3) games, specifically masekitlana; 4) music, especially singing and drums; 5) the use of Ubuntu to support clients through care, as well as using available family systems to promote systemic support. These interventions are thought to be useful as they are non-threatening; they allow clients to express themselves, they are a way of relating/identifying, they release emotion and they help to release any “impurity”. With the choice of psychotherapeutic interventions, it is important to consider the “goodness of fit” or congruency between the culture and belief system of both the therapist and client. The findings of the study could make a contribution to the field of psychotherapy in South Africa, since it makes a strong case for the inclusion of psychotherapeutic interventions that are sensitive to cultural differences and meet the needs of children’s cultural beliefs.
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