A model for facilitation of wholeness of therapists experiencing personal disintegration due to secondary traumatisation in a specific private psychiatric clinic
- Authors: Theron, Magdalena Julya
- Date: 2010-05-24T09:09:03Z
- Subjects: Psychiatric clinics , Psychic trauma , Psychotherapist
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6821 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3255
- Description: D.Cur. , It was established during research that I have done for my master’s degree that therapists experience secondary traumatisation in a specific private psychiatric clinic when they listen to the trauma filled stories of their clients. This often led to the therapist’s personal and professional disintegration. The main purpose of this research was to describe, operationalise and evaluate a model for the advanced psychiatric nurse practitioner to facilitate the mental health of therapists who experience secondary traumatisation in a specific private psychiatric clinic in South Africa. I used a qualitative, descriptive, contextual and theory-generating research design to achieve the above purpose. The development of the model consisted of four steps. Step one consisted of concept analysis that included the identification, classification and defining of the central, essential and relational concepts in the model. During concept analysis, facilitation of wholeness was identified as the most relevant concept for the model instead of mental health. It was evident that personal disintegration became the specified concept and focussed aspect in terms of secondary traumatisation in this research project. Step two consisted of a description of how the identified and defined central concepts interrelate with each other as part of the model. During step three, the model to facilitate wholeness in therapists with personal disintegration due to secondary traumatisation in a specific private psychiatric clinic was described. The structure of the model was described in terms of its purpose, assumptions and context. Definitions of the central concepts, as well as the relationship statements between the central and essential concepts, were described. The structure of the model was also described in terms of a visual representation that included the dynamic and interactive narrative process of deconstruction, choosing of alternatives and celebration.
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A social constructionist exploration of the experience of abuse and multiple traumas in women who kill
- Authors: Seletswane, Gay Tsholofelo
- Date: 2009-04-30T09:23:03Z
- Subjects: Abused women , Psychic trauma , Women murderers , Women prisoners
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8324 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2451
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The present study explores the experiences of abused women who kill their intimate male partners and are imprisoned as a result. It looks at the multiple traumas associated with the abuse, killing and imprisonment. Abuse of women violates their right of freedom and security, as well as the right to be free from torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. The experiences are explored within a prison context in which these women are serving hefty sentences as a means of punishment. This is a means of prosecuting perpetrators by the criminal justice system, thus sending out a message that violence is unacceptable. The prison context is metaphorically and physically associated with phenomenon such as isolation, control, labelling, punishment, reform and rehabilitation, among many others. Social Constructionism as a postmodern epistemology becomes relevant in this study in that the concern is in explicating the process by which people come to describe, explain, or otherwise account for the world (including themselves) in which they live. Therefore, the abused women’s experiences are descriptions to be understood through the analysis of the intersubjective influence of language, family, and culture. The implication being that social construction reflects on that which is said about the world, which is the product of shared conventions of discourse that are guided by and limited by the systems of language that we use. Our understandings of reality are embedded in our patterns of action, and these understandings constrain future constructions. Language as an important tool in social constructionism is embedded in the ideas, concepts and memories arising from social discourse and is found in neither the speaker nor the hearer, but somewhere in between. Furthermore, the context of prison afforded me with the opportunity to experience a sense of communality with the women, which according to a social constructionist stance suggests that reality is co-created between people in their quest for meaning from the interpreted experiences. There is no absolute truth that represents its objectivity, implying that as the researcher, I am not entering the system searching for some single truth that is ultimate. This acknowledges that there are realities and reflexivity of events and situations that look for many alternatives deconstructed and constructed equally between the researcher and participants. In conducting this study, a qualitative method of research was used, which focuses on the description, exploration and elaboration of experiences and perspectives of the people being interviewed. The qualitative method is not concerned with numbers and statistical analysis in the way that the quantitative method is. The participants take active charge in describing and exploring experiences that bring about meaning to them and the study. The researcher is equally involved as the participants, and becomes the participant observer. Whilst the focus was directed towards experiences of abuse and the multiple implications of trauma on abused women, the larger social context of their experiences was acknowledged. Five women offenders who are in the Potchefstroom prison, participated in this research. The women were allowed to elaborate on their experiences as experts in their own lives. Through this interaction a relational process of sharing and support emerges, which is characteristic of therapeutic practices with social constructionism. In-depth semi-structured interviews provided a means to explore their incidents of abuse as perpetrated by their intimate male partners. For the purpose of collecting data, an open-ended questionnaire was used. A thematic content method was used to analyse data. Here themes are identified that represent the meaning of events constructed by the participants themselves. A thematic analysis reflected the following themes: Loss and gain, power and helplessness, hope and despair as well as connection and disconnection. Upon the identification and analysis of themes, the discussion of findings which are integrated using the social constructionist theory, was conducted. From the findings the implications of multiple traumas abused women suffer at the hands of their intimate male partners, and the result of killing and imprisonment, are explored.
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Abused women and trauma
- Authors: Seletswane, Gay Tsholofelo
- Date: 2008-11-12T08:47:05Z
- Subjects: Abused women , Violence against women , Psychic trauma
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:14663 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1636
- Description: M.A. , This study is described within a social constructionist perspective, which explores the experiences of abuse on women by their intimate partners and the resultant trauma will be fully explored. The women are battered, raped, beaten, emotionally, verbally, and psychologically abused by their partners. To add on the partner abuse, the patriarchal, social-economic, political, cultural, historical, traditional, criminal and mental health systems also perpetuate the abuses. However, from the inhuman exposures there are prevailing traumatic effects that are destructive to the lives of women victims. They may lose their newly or unborn infants, abuse substances, attempt or complete suicide, suffer chronic medical problems and psychological disorders that are an enormous sense of loss to their esteem, confidence, pride, dignity, and identity (self).
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Countertransference reactions of incest survivor therapists in psychotherapy with adult incest survivor patients: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
- Authors: Tlali, Molahlehi Tshepo
- Date: 2016
- Subjects: Countertransference (Psychology) , Incest victims , Psychic trauma , Adult child sexual abuse victims
- Language: English
- Type: Doctoral (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/227037 , uj:22968
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. (Psychology) , Abstract: Psychotherapy between an incest survivor therapist and incest survivor patient presents psychotherapists with numerous challenges, especially in terms of countertransference for therapists. It is believed that therapists‟ countertransference experiences play a pivotal role in the psychotherapy treatment of this population of patients, and if left unchecked, these countertransference reactions can be potentially detrimental to the process of therapy and to patients. This study aimed to gain in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of countertransference reactions of incest survivor therapists (ISTs) in the treatment of incest survivor patients (ISPs). This type of research can potentially enrich the clinical practice in South Africa. Qualitative research, specifically a phenomenological paradigm, was employed as a research method. Using purposive sampling methods four registered psychologists, sourced predominantly from private practice, between the ages of 33 and 69 years old, who had between 3 and 20 years of psychotherapy experience, were interviewed regarding their lived countertransference experiences in psychodynamically treating ISPs. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed based on the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework suggested by Smith and Osborn. The analysis of each participant‟s transcripts provided seven master themes, most of which are supported by superordinate themes. The master themes are: a) Emotional experience of treating ISPs; b) The experience of self in treating incest ISPs; c) The participants‟ perceptions of ISPs; d) The technical issues involved in treating ISPs; e) The importance of clinical supervision and personal therapy; f) Treating ISPs as a mutual and reciprocal process; and g) Unique individual themes. Participants in this study experienced various yet expectable reactions to the reality and the narrative of their patients‟ trauma, such as feelings and behaviour of shock, disbelief, denial, ambivalence, powerlessness, frustration, anger, avoidance, shame, and re-traumatisation. While some participants experienced a sense of competence in treating ISPs, the majority of participants felt incompetent and ill equipped to treat ISPs as they believed they lacked theoretical and practical skills in treating this population of patients. Most participants experienced ISPs as defensive, dissociated, gullible, and frustrating, as well as resilient. Finally, the narratives of the experiences of all participants emphasise the importance of clinical supervision and personal therapy while treating ISPs. All participants experienced treating ISPs as a mutual and reciprocal process. These findings support existing literature in the treatment of survivors of gross interpersonal violations.
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Executive functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic growth
- Authors: Hyslop, Jamie L.
- Date: 2016
- Subjects: Psychic trauma , Psychological debriefing , Post-traumatic stress disorder - Physiological aspects , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/241384 , uj:24850
- Description: M.A. , Abstract: A trauma represents a negative event that severely challenges or breaks down the assumptive world, or the set of mental frameworks an individual uses to understand the self, other people, and the world. Trauma is associated with distress and can lead to a variety of negative physical and psychological outcomes. However, experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to result in positive individual outcomes, a phenomenon known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Posttraumatic growth is associated with positive changes within the domains of the self, relationships with others, and life perspective and is also linked to greater physical and mental well-being after a trauma. Executive functioning refers to a collection of higher order cognitive processes that support complex human functioning. The higher order nature of these processes implies that executive functions are under the conscious control of the individual and, consequently, support flexible cognition and behaviour. As such, executive functions allow individuals to adapt to a variety of situations, particularly those that are new or complex, where existing guides for thinking and behaving are inadequate. Given the role of executive functioning in adaptive functioning, it is reasoned that executive functions will play a role in rebuilding the assumptive world in the aftermath of a trauma. Because PTG can occur as a result of this rebuilding process, it is further suggested that executive functioning plays a role in the experience of growth. However, little research was found to directly investigate the relationship between executive functions and PTG. As such, the present study investigated executive functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic growth. The study used archival data obtained from 1063 first and second year psychology students at the University of Johannesburg. Executive functioning was assessed using the Executive Function Index (EFI) and posttraumatic growth was assessed using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between the two variables of interest. The study found support for a relationship between executive functioning and PTG in that higher levels of executive functioning related to higher levels of posttraumatic growth. Furthermore, the executive functions of Strategic Planning, Motivational Drive, and Empathy...
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Kuns as projeksiemedium : 'n opvoedkundig-sielkundige model om onverwerkte trauma by jong volwassenes aan te spreek
- Authors: Loock, Christina Aletta
- Date: 2012-08-22
- Subjects: Art therapy for the youth , Art - Study and teaching , Psychic trauma , Traumatism
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2991 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6415
- Description: D.Ed. , Art lecturers affiliated to a tertiary institute observed the occurrence of negative emotional content and expression in the artwork of their students. These students are also inclined to manifest negative behavioural and interaction patterns. The lecturers appealed for this research as a method to determine what the content of the expressed artwork indicate. The request was for the research methods to proceed within an art framework in order for it to be applied as a class project. The research proceeded with the use of art as a projection medium, applied during the process of facilitative interaction. The aim was to determine the degree to which the projected content in the young adults' artwork correlate with their personal life- and experiential world. The young adults were requested to write spontaneous sketches depicting the story of their life. The information was passed on to a graphologist for the analysis of their handwriting. The findings of the graphologist was later applied as external triangulation in order to verify the identified themes obtained from the analysis. With the aid of art as projection medium during facilitative interaction, it has been determined that the young adults struggle with unresolved trauma as a result of abuse. The exposure to abuse resulted in barriers influencing their relationships with others as well as themselves. The barriers manifest as experiences of pain and confusion; mistrust and isolation; aggression and depression. The research resulted in the development of a model for educational psychologists equipping them to identify and address unresolved trauma with young adults through the use of art as projection medium during facilitative interaction. The development of the model proceeded in four stages. During stage one concepts were identified, defined and classified after completion of the fieldwork. The sample included 30 respondents from different cultures ranging from ages 18 to 24. The collection of data proceeded with the use of art as projection medium involving the following - a Gestalt-therapeutic exercise: the drawing of a rosebush, in-depth interviews, the analysis of cartoons and the writing of spontaneous sketches on unlineated paper for graphological analysis. The model of Guba was used to ensure trustworthiness in qualitative methodology. This refers to the credibility, transferability, reliability and verification of the research. In step two the relationship between concepts was drawn, after which step three followed, involving the description of the model. Guidelines in operationalising the model, are stated in step four. The model aims at the empowerment of young adults suffering from unresolved childhood trauma, with the use of art as projection medium during facilitative interaction. During this process the young adults are guided to an enhanced self-awareness in order for self-insight and self-empowerment to develop so that mental health can be obtained. The power of the model lies in the continuous plotting taking place through the use of art as projection medium during facilitative interaction.
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Qualitative exploration of trauma outcomes: six survivors in South Africa
- Authors: Fischer, Josef
- Date: 2010-06-23T08:01:31Z
- Subjects: Psychic trauma
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6877 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3325
- Description: M.A. , There is a need to understand the outcomes of trauma in South Africa, as it is a country rife with violent crime. Thus far there has been little research into the aftermath of trauma, yet many trauma centres are coming into existence. A better understanding of the aftermaths of trauma could be integrated into current trauma intervention models so that locally researched models could be utilised by these centres. A grounded qualitative study on the outcomes of violent trauma in the South African context was thus conducted. Existentialism was included as a philosophical underpinning to the formal literature. The formal literature itself deals with the evolution of the cognitive tradition before a detailed explication of the Shattered Assumptions Model is given. This model stresses the role of trauma in disrupting central schemas regarding the manner in which both the self and the world are viewed. The impact of trauma itself in terms of the individual’s thoughts, memories and emotions was also explored. Participants in the study comprised of individuals who had been traumatised and sought counselling at the Rand Afrikaans University Trauma Centre. The participants were interviewed using the semi-structured interview format. Six such interviews took place. Selection of themes to discuss with the respondents was based both on existential theory as well as theory from the technical literature on trauma. The interviews were coded and analysed such that themes could emerge from the data itself. This is consistent with the qualitative tradition of psychological research. It was found that the South African respondents differed markedly with regards to outcomes following traumatisation. Results were discussed in terms of emotional sequelae, cognitive attributions, behavioural modifications as well as pervasive symptoms. Significantly, it was found that most respondents were still emotionally disturbed by their experiences, reporting high levels of fear and anxiety. These results are interpreted within the context of the South African environment where the incidence of violent crime and its resulting trauma is prevalent. The researcher speculates whether the recovery from trauma in South Africa is retarded due to the presence of continued threat. However, the limited external validity of the current study precludes the drawing of any universal conclusions. Further research in the field of the experience and aftermath of trauma in South Africa is recommended, with particular emphasis on the role that continued threat may play.
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Working with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: secondary traumatisation
- Authors: Dzuguda, Hulisani
- Date: 2008-11-03T06:47:53Z
- Subjects: Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) , Psychic trauma , Stress (Psychology) , Post-traumatic stress disorder , Volunteers
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14029 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1439
- Description: M.A. , The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Act was passed in 1995 and the TRC started its hearings in 1996. The purpose of the TRC was to promote national unity and reconciliation by establishing as complete a picture as possible of the human rights violations that had occurred during the apartheid era and to offer reparations to those who had been affected, as well as to grant amnesty to those who had committed these human rights violations. The TRC had to appoint people to help carry out its functions and deliver a report about human rights violations. Most of the people employed by the TRC to help carry out these functions were South African. Furthermore every South African had been involved in the past in one way or another, purely by being a South African. In this project the author explores, analyses and interprets the experiences of some of the people who were employed by the TRC. The focus of this project is to find out whether being employed by the TRC and having to listen to the stories being brought to the TRC exposed anyone to the possibility of developing what is called secondary traumatisation. This kind of traumatisation is different from the traumatisation that the people relating the stories had gone through during the apartheid years. This kind of traumatisation is said to develop from being exposed to traumatised people.
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