A critical analysis of TRIZ as a creative problem solving and opportunity finding technique
- Authors: Myburgh, Ferdinand Jan Hendrik
- Date: 2012-09-10
- Subjects: Creative ability in business , Problem solving , Creative writing
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9823 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7227
- Description: M.Comm. , The objectives of the study are: To define "creativity", to understand how people think when they solve problems, and to identify the major barriers to creative problem solving and opportunity finding and to investigate whether these barriers can be overcome. To investigate the essence of TRIZ, its history of development, how it works, its nderlying inventive principles, its psychology and whether it is an effective problem solving technique in the sense that it is a cure for barriers to creative thinking. To investigate whether TRIZ can be applied in a non-technical context as a creative problem solving technique, whether it can be applied in conjunction with other creative problem solving techniques and whether it is effective in relation to other creative problem solving techniques.
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Government mechanisms for resolving land conflict
- Authors: Sibanyoni, Mphikeleli Christopher
- Date: 2012-09-06
- Subjects: Land settlements - Government policy - South Africa , Land tenure - Government policy - South Africa , Land tenure - South Africa , Conflict management , Problem solving , Mediation
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:9698 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7111
- Description: M.A. , This study analyses the government mechanisms for resolving conflict over land between white farmers and labour tenants in South Africa. Against the background of the evolvement of the institutions for resolution of conflict over land, the issues addressed include: problems experienced by the Land Claims Court with the Land Reform Act; acceptability of the Land Reform Act to farmers and labour tenants; and the use of the government institutions of conflict resolution by farmers and labour tenants. A literature analysis of both primary and secondary sources supplemented by interviews with individuals within the institutions of conflict resolution and land redistribution in KwaZulu- Natal and Mpumalanga form the basis of the research. The institution of conflict resolution came as a result of agreements that were reached at CODESA. The property and land reform clauses that were agreed upon during the negotiations served as the guidelines for the land reform policies, such as the Restitution of Land Rights Act of 1994, Land Reform (Labour Tenants) Act of 1996 and the Extension of Security of Tenure Act of 1997. However, labour tenants and farmers did make an input in the Green and White papers on Land Reform, which led to the establishment of the Land Claims Court. The Land Claims Court and magistrate's courts encountered problems in interpreting the Land Reform Act. The Courts are experiencing problems in interpreting the definition of a "labour tenant", particularly in paragraph (a), (b) and (c), and whether these paragraphs should be interpreted cumulatively or disjunctively. Although there is inconsistency in the interpretation of the Labour Tenants Act, the adjudicative bodies are largely becoming predictable in that conflicts are increasingly handled successfully. The bad draftsmanship is not the only problem regarding the Land Reform. Another problem experienced is the evictions of labour tenants. The evictions are attributed to capitalisation of agriculture, drought, fear and non-acceptance of the Land Reform Act. Although some farmers do not utilise the institutions of conflict resolution and disregard some of the clauses in the Act, farmers and labour tenants are nevertheless gradually beginning to accept land reform. Instead of using violent and illegal means, the conflicting parties are beginning to opt for peaceful means of resolving their disputes. The conflicts are submitted to institutions of conflict resolution, particularly the mediation institutions. The high cost involved in litigation and the likelihood of getting rights to land attribute to this development.
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Bridging the gap : the role of mediated transfer for computer programming
- Authors: Chetty, Jacqui , Barlow-Jones, Glenda
- Date: 2012
- Subjects: Mediated transfer , Interactive tools , Problem solving , Computer programming
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:6053 , ISBN 978-981-07-2759-8 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10464
- Description: The objective of computer programming is that students learn how to develop solutions in computer programing languages, such as Java. However, to develop such solutions students need to be able to solve problems. Therefore, problem solving is a critical skill that needs to be acquired. As problem solving and computer programming is difficult, universities worldwide make use of interactive tools, such as Scratch, Alice and Greenfoot to provide a user-friendly, visual and comfortable computer programming environment. The aim of such tools is for students to develop computer programming concepts informally. However, if students are to become competent computer programmers, they must transfer the programming concepts learnt from such tools, to formalised computer programming languages.This paper examines the extent to which mediated transfer is an effective pedagogy to transition students. The results indicate that the transition may not be as seamless as was first expected.
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Operasionele navorsing: model en interdissiplinariteit
- Authors: Venter, M. J.
- Date: 2009-03-31T09:00:33Z
- Subjects: Problem solving , Operations research
- Type: Inaugural
- Identifier: uj:14992 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2326
- Description: Inaugural lecture--Department of Statistics, Rand Afrikaans University, 5 June 1975 , Analysis of the activities of the wartime operational researchers suggests that three interacting components created the methodology to which much of their success can be ascribed. The systems approach to problem solving emphasised the necessity for clear, exact problem formulation. The use of mathematical techniques to model the problem being studied, enabled them to experiment with alternative solutions. Although the problems which confronted them, came from well outside their disciplinary boundaries, their interdisciplinary, and most important, formally scientific approach enabled them to succeed in solving the socia-technical problems. Different viewpoints regarding the content of the word "interdisciplinary" are discussed, and the view is put forward that although having a specialist knowledge of a specific field is valuable in an interdisciplinary context, being a good scientist in general is essential. It is stressed that in order to solve the problems confronting mankind, the lessons learned from these operational researchers cannot be ignored.
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Do problem solving, critical thinking and creativity play a role in knowledge management? A theoretical mathematics perspective
- Authors: Giannakopoulos, Paul , Buckley, Sheryl
- Date: 2009
- Subjects: Knowledge management , Problem solving , Critical thinking , Creativity , Mathematics , Psychopragmatic approach
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:6218 , ISBN 978-1-906638-40-5 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5308
- Description: Litschka, Markom, Schunder (2006) state that "... a knowledge-based economy requires new approaches in management especially with employee oriented actions, because workability, well-being, and creativity of employees determine the success and sustainability of an organization." Such approaches have to be grounded on established learning theories for life long learning which are conducive to knowledge creation and knowledge acquisition. Situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1997), constructivism (Piaget, 1971; Vygotsky, 1978), behaviourism (Thorndike, 1915; Skinner, 1958) and cognitivism (Wertheimer, 1912; Kohlberg, 1972; Mezirow, 1962, all cited by Hergenhahn and Olson (1997: 29-48) have dominated education for more than eight decades. Though each theory has made valuable contributions, management of knowledge requires higher order thinking skills such critical thinking, problem solving and creativity on the part of the manager of the organisational knowledge and the part of the knowledge creator. The importance of these three skills, especially for the last two decades, have not only been accepted as important cognitive skills by educators and employers, but they also form part of the critical outcomes in American educational policies (American college personnel association, 1994 cited by King & Baxter-Magolda, 1996) as well as in South Africa (SAQA, 1998; the White Paper on Further Education and Training, 1998: 21-23). What is suggested here is a new approach to knowledge management, the psycho-pragmatic approach, which makes use of theories of learning of mathematics as problem solving, critical thinking and creativity form the essence of knowledge acquisition (Schoenfeld, 1987; Skemp, 1977). Mathematics has been recognised as a subject that enhances higher order skills because on the one hand requires abstract thinking on the other promotes use and application of knowledge (Pushkin 2007; Alonso, 1992; Forinash, 1992). This new approach makes use of psychological learning theories for generation of knowledge and pragmatism for application of such knowledge. It is of cyclic nature as well as of spiral nature based on the idea of Nonaka and Konno (1998) model of knowledge and of Bruner's (1976) spiral curriculum.
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Outodidaktiese indiensopleiding in die onderwyskundige vaardigheid van vraagstelling : 'n eksemplaar
Exploring the elements and dynamics of transformational change
- Authors: Mdletye, Mbongeni Andile
- Date: 2013-05-01
- Subjects: Transformational change , Industrial management , Problem solving , Theory of constraints (Management) , Decision trees - Computer programs
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7501 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8359
- Description: D.Phil. (Leadership in Performance and Change) , The desire for organisational competitiveness as a result of factors such as the changing and increasing needs of customers, deregulation, the globalisation of the economy and work, the increasing competition due to globalisation, the need to control costs and increase efficiency, as well as the fast pace of technological advancement, has compelled organisations to embark on changes that take place at a fast and ever-increasing rate. However, it was noted that organisations are not at all succeeding in implementing and institutionalising change initiatives effectively. There is a high failure rate in the implementation of transformational change efforts, and this is attributed to the fact that managers are not well-equipped to deal with challenges associated with the implementation of transformational changes in organisations. As a result of the high failure rate in change implementation, there had been a number of empirical studies conducted, which investigated reasons behind this low success rate. Unfortunately very few studies have focused on the human side of transformational change. Most of the researches have dwelt more on the technical side of change. This quantitative study was then conducted in order to identify and explore the elements and dynamics of transformational change, which can be regarded as constituting the human dimension of transformational change. Specifically, the main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the elements and dynamics of transformational change (that is, perceptions, reactions, experiences, personal impact, and organisational impact) relate to the status of the change process. This research adopted a two-pronged approach, which incorporated a literature study first, and thereafter an empirical study. The literature study contextualised the elements and dynamics of transformational change within the Correctional Services environment. An overview of transformational change in the Department of Correctional Services was also provided. Based on the results of the literature study, a theoretical model, which hypothesised the relationships between perceptions and experience on one side, and the status of change on the other, was developed and empirically tested. The empirical data was collected by means of two survey questionnaires – one for correctional officials and the other for offenders, which were administered to 1000 correctional officials and 500 offenders. Methodologically, the study was guided by an exploratory, survey, descriptive, correlational and explanatory research designs, which were underpinned by ontological and epistemological perspectives. All completed and returned questionnaires were computed to analyse the responses of the respondents. The results of the analysis of data showed that the DCS change was characterised by positive perceptions; positive, negative and introspective-anxious experiences; negative responses in terms of emotional reactions and resistance; negative personal impact at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels; and positive organisational impact as the key aspects of the elements and dynamics of transformational change. The discussion in this thesis revolves around the above-named elements and dynamics of transformational change. Through performing exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, a three-factor measurement model which encompassed perception, experience and the status of change, was identified and confirmed. The structural equation modelling found that both perceptions and experiences were the predictors of the status of change.
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