School dropout among female learners in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa
- Authors: Mokoena, Prince , Van Breda, Adrian D.
- Date: 2021
- Subjects: Discrimination , Pregnancy , School dropout
- Language: English
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/487373 , uj:44364 , DOI: 10.15700/saje.v41n3a1842 , Citation: Mokoena, P.; Van Breda, A.D. 2021. School dropout among female learners in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 41(3): 1-9, https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v41n3a1842
- Description: Abstract: Please refer to full text to view abstract.
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The relationship between accurate knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission and adolescent pregnancy in Ghana : A further analyses of the 2017 multiple cluster indicator survey
- Authors: Adomako, Emmanuel Brenyah , Manso, Kwabena Frimpong , Munemo, Petronella , Duah, Henry Ofori , Agbadi, Pascal
- Date: 2021
- Subjects: Adolescents , Pregnancy , HIV/AIDS
- Language: English
- Type: Journal article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/490252 , uj:44728 , Citation: Adomako, E.B., Frimpong-Manso, K., Munemo, P., Duah, H.O. and Agbadi, P., 2021. The relationship between accurate knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission and adolescent pregnancy in Ghana: A further analyses of the 2017 multiple cluster indicator survey. Heliyon, 7(2), p.e06265. , DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06265
- Description: Abstract: Background : The literature posits that HIV knowledge is associated with precautious sexual behaviour and practice. We hypothesised and investigated the association between knowledge of HIV transmission and adolescent pregnancy in Ghana, given that the relationship between HIV knowledge and adolescent pregnancy has not been extensively studied. Methods: We did analyses on 5836 cases (weighted as 5121) of 15–24 years old reproductive age women in the female dataset of the 2017 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey. Adolescent pregnancy was operationalized as reproductive age women between 15-24 years who became pregnant before the age of 18 years. Accurate HIV knowledge was measured by computing the scores of correct responses on six questions exploring women's knowledge about HIV transmission. We accounted for sample design and weight before performing a Chi-square test of independence and Poisson regression. Results: The results indicate that having lower scores on the HIV transmission knowledge scale was correlated with a higher probability of girls becoming pregnant before their 18th birthday. After controlling for the moderating effect of socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, we found that accurate HIV transmission knowledge loses its statistical significance in determining adolescent pregnancy. The factors that remain significant in the adjusted model were formal education status, household wealth, and region of residence. HIV transmission knowledge was statistically significantly related to adolescent pregnancy in the model after the education level variable was omitted. This observation was due to the significant effect of school education on other variables in the model. This result demonstrates that HIV knowledge has a major impact on adolescent pregnancy, but this effect is predicated by formal education attainment of the adolescent girl. Conclusions: Given the results, adolescent pregnancy issues can be resolved by the government and other development partners by adequately educating adolescents about HIV transmissions. Also, because they have the potential to reduce pregnancy among adolescents in Ghana, we recommend that programs and initiatives should address existing disparities in formal educational attainment and household wealth.
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Keratometric variation during pregnancy and postpartum
- Authors: Klaassen, Donald Gregory Istvan
- Date: 2012-08-27
- Subjects: Eye - Accommodation and refraction , Eye - Accommodation and refraction - Statistical methods , Eye - Accommodation and refraction - Data processing , Pregnancy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3234 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6644
- Description: M.Phil. , Keratometric readings on three subjects were taken both during pregnancy and postpartum. One subject was visually non-compensated and did not require refractive correction, one was a contact lens wearer and one had undergone radial keratotomy. Twenty readings were taken by means of an automatic keratometer on each eye, morning and afternoon, every fortnight. The recent matrix method of optometric statistical analysis was employed and the results graphically compared and analysed. Findings indicate diurnal variations including variation in corneal curvature and variance through the course of normal pregnancy. Most evident was an increase in keratometric variation in all three subjects at the time of birth and a substantial decrease in corneal refractive power in the subject who had before undergone radial keratotomy. This result may have far-reaching implications on the long term prognosis of refractive surgery especially for females of child bearing age. Outliers representing transient increases in curvature were most common in the vertical meridian (indicating possible lid interaction), while the presence of bimodal distributions suggests a sensitivity of the automatic keratometer to changes in head posture.
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Expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care
- Authors: Baloyi, Johanna Mmabojalwa
- Date: 2012-02-27
- Subjects: Prenatal care , Pregnancy , Midwives , Childbirth
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:2077 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4424
- Description: M.Cur. , The study aims at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have of an antenatal care clinic service and the formulation of guidelines for the implementation of an effective antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of eighteen pregnant women in this study. Methods of data analysis according to Tesch (1990) were applied. Guba and Lincoln's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted. Literature control was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. The conclusions that were reached led to the notation of limitations, recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.
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Psychosocial factors affecting choices in unplanned pregnancy
- Authors: Hosford, Helen Cristin Farah
- Date: 2012-01-24
- Subjects: Pregnancy , Abortion , Adjustment (Psychology) , Abortion applicants
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1930 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4290
- Description: M.A. , The aim of this study was to ascertain which variables affect and influence women when making choices in unplanned pregnancy. In addition, to determine if there were any significant differences between the pregnancy and termination of pregnancy (TOP) group, indicating a specific profile for the respective group. Comparatively little research has been conducted on unplanned pregnancy and abortion within South Africa, as compared with international studies. Future longterm studies are recommended. The research conducted was of a quantitative quasi-experimental research design, wherein the researcher compared the following variables between the two groups: Biographic/demographic data, Personality Styles, perceived Family Environments and Coping Resources. Subjects were not randomly assigned, but selected by the nursing staff and researcher. Statistical analysis reflected that the two groups differed significantly on four variables. The majority of women in the TOP group were found to be the sole earners within their families. Conversely, women in the pregnancy group had more financial resources and lower levels of employment. A lack of sufficient finances was shown to be the strongest determining factor for those electing abortions. A compounding factor, were the nature of the relationships from where conception arose, 71% of the women who elected abortion described difficulties with the partnerin- conception. These included poor relationships due to excessive drinking, extramarital affairs, disinterest in the pregnancy, subsequent abandonment and divorce. Although the two groups had similar profiles in terms of the religious variable, many of the women who elected to remain pregnant, cited religion and/or their beliefs as the primary reason for continuing their pregnancies. In contrast, the TOP group reported a higher level of conflict within their family of origin, compared to the pregnancy group. IV No underlying pathology was found to exist in the group electing terminations, with both groups presenting similar personality styles. The two groups were also found to use comparable coping skills and resources. This research indicates, that most of the women experiencing an unplanned pregnancy based their decisions to abort on external variables; such as their relationships, financial position and religious beliefs. Studies indicate that these women are more likely to experience deleterious consequences, than those who make this decision based on their own personal needs. Many of these women made their decisions based on limitations not preference. This study may be considered to show important findings, as it reflects the need for effective pre- and post-abortion intervention/counselling services, which should be easily accessible to the public. The psychological well-being of the individual is critical for the overall well-being of the community, and ultimately therefore, society.
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