A numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure
- Authors: Cassa, Amanda Marilu
- Date: 2012-07-19
- Subjects: Pipe - Fluid dynamics , Numerical analysis , Piping , Finite element method
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8843 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5255
- Description: D.Ing. , This study is a numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in uPVC pipes under pressure. This study is a continuation of a Masters dissertation which showed that leakage exponents vary significantly from the theoretical orifice exponent of 0.5 for cracks in pipes for different materials. This study looks at the behaviour of cracks in more detail and specifically with regard to the parameters of the pipe and crack. Using Finite Element Analysis the relationship between the pressure head and the leak area in pipes with longitudinal, spiral and circumferential cracks was investigated. It was found that the longitudinal, spiral and circumferential crack areas increase linearly with pressure. The slope of this linear relationship depends on various parameters, including loading state, pipe dimensions and pipe material properties. The effect that the individual pipe parameters had on the pressure-area slope was investigated. These parameters included the material properties of the pipe (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and longitudinal stress), the geometry of the pipe (internal diameter and wall thickness) as well as the geometry of the crack (length of the crack and the width of the crack). Once the effect of the pressure-area slope m is known, the link between the conventional leakage exponent N1 and the pressure-area slope m was further investigated and the effect of each parameter on the leakage exponent N1 was found. Using various data techniques the above data was combined and processed to find mathematical relationships that give reasonable descriptions of the pressure-area slopes of longitudinal, spiral and circumferential cracks. Once these equations for the pressure-area slopes were determined it was possible to obtain three new relationships for leakage from longitudinal, spiral and circumferential cracks.
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