A model of work identity in multicultural work settings
- Authors: Bester, Francois
- Date: 2012-10-25
- Subjects: Diversity in the workplace , Teams in the workplace , Multiculturalism , Intercultural communication , Communication in organizations
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:10440 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7906
- Description: D.Phil. , Identity is a cognitive concept that describes “who I am”, and an important part of an individual’s identity is derived from shared social entities. However, as work and the work setting began playing prominent roles in most people’s social lives, the social identity derived from the working environment became the focus of several studies. It was, however, recognised that the locus of identification stretched beyond the organisation to other social phenomena available in the work setting. This finding encouraged a change of focus, which asserts that facets of work are sources of identification. The construct, work identity (WI), captures this extended understanding of social identity derived from work. There were also several research agendas about ways to strengthen or manipulate the relationship between employees and their work and/or workplace. Concepts such as work involvement, work commitment, work engagement, work centrality, and person-organisation fit represent this category of enquiry. As identity or identification was often mentioned in the definitions of these concepts, the concepts are perceived as WI-associated concepts. As several researchers recognised concept redundancy or concept contamination among the WI-associated concepts and between the WI-associated concepts and WI, further clarification of WI was needed. The purpose of this research project was to generate a model of the antecedents and consequences of WI in multicultural work settings. Conducting the research in a multicultural setting did not only test the theoretical ideas in a challenging context, but it contributed to a better understanding of employees from the research setting. The study used a cross-sectional field survey in order to gather responses from a convenience sample of employees from workplaces in Dubai. Data from 644 respondents was subjected to regression analysis and structural equation modelling. One characteristic of the dataset was the positively skewed distribution within some scales and significant disparity in the mean calculations of different nationality groups. Applying multiple regression to analyse and explore bivariate relationships, the data supported a positive relationship between job resources and WI. As an unexpected weak positive relationship between job demands and WI was also found, further research into the behaviour of job demands is required. A strong predictive relationship between WI and work engagement was indicated and a negative relationship between WI and turnover intentions was supported. Structural equation modelling identified a parsimonious model of WI in multicultural work settings which contained the concepts of job resources and job demands as antecedents of WI, with work engagement and turnover intentions as consequences of WI. The strength of causal relationships within this model was significantly affected by three moderator variables, namely level of education, age and, most strongly, by nationality. Therefore, although a stable covariance model was accepted, different nationality groups still processed the relationships between variables within the model in unique ways. Although WI manifested itself as a single-component structure in previous research that operationalised WI in the same way as this study, three facets of WI emerged here: work centrality, person-organisation fit, and value congruence. The different WI facets did not consistently relate to the antecedents or the consequences of WI in the same way. In addition, in response to findings of redundancy and contamination in previous studies, WI was found to be distinct from work engagement. This finding is a catalyst for future research to explore facets of WI and for researchers to revisit work engagement a consequence of WI and work engagement in multicultural work settings.
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Die selfkonsep van adolessente binne 'n multikulturele opvoedingskonteks
- Authors: Blignaut, Monique Carol
- Date: 2008-10-31T09:06:14Z
- Subjects: Self-perception in adolescence , Identity (Psychology) in adolescence , Self , Multicultural education , Multiculturalism
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/384585 , uj:13857 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1417
- Description: M.A. , The political situation in South Africa has changed over the past ten years to that of a democracy. A result of this dramatic change is the assemblage of various cultures within a given context, especially multicultural schools. From this the question arose whether adolescents of different cultures present with different levels of self-concept within multicultural schools. Furthermore, it was to be determined whether cultural identity correlates with self-concept. Literature regarding the self, culture and cultural identity was used to get a better understanding of the study at hand. The theoretical frameworks of Allport and Rogers were studied to determine underlining factors involved in the formation of the self-concept. The various dimensions of the self, including self-esteem and self-labelling, was investigated as well as recent research regarding the self-concept. Research has shown that the self-concept of Black people is directly connected to their cultural norms and reference group (Allen, 2000). Differences between individualistic and collectivist groups have been identified, as well as the effect it has on social roles and the definition of the self. Regarding the issue of self-esteem and cultural identity research has shown a strong positive correlation between the level of self-esteem and cultural identity. Research has also shown that pupils in multicultural schools have a better understanding of cultural diversity and tolerance. The effects of negative stereotyping and labelling on the self within a multicultural environment are however issues to be taken into consideration. Tajfel and Turner’s (1979) Social Identity Theory provided the focus on cultural identity. Research regarding cultural identity within South Africa, contributed to the understanding of in-group and out-group categorization and it has been found that association with a particular group determined definition of the self. From the literature used it thus became apparent that the self- concept and cultural identity is closely linked, although a multicultural environment could have an impact on the self. This formed the basis for conducting the research on the impact of a multicultural context on the self-concept. The instruments used comprised of a cultural identity questionnaire, as well as the Beck and SIP self-concept scales. Participants of three different cultural groups were used namely, Black, White and Coloured individuals. Participants, between the ages of 16-17 were given the questionnaires to complete on cultural identity as to determine their level of association with a particular group. The self-concept scales evaluated their self-concept as either positive or negative. Additionally, the participants’ cultural identity scores were statistically divided to create two groups, one which scored low and another which scored high on cultural identity and these groups were compared on self-concept. Thus, this study attempted to control for cultural identity in terms of its influence on self-concept within a multicultural context. Results have shown that there is a strong positive correlation between self-concept and a cultural identity. Both of the self-concept scales showed this correlation in regards to Cultural Identity. Furthermore, statistically significant difference between the self-concept scores of the different cultural groups namely Black, White and Coloured Participants was found. It can thus be stated that cultural identities have a role to play in the manner in which we perceive ourselves, and more research is needed in this area to fully understand the scope of it. Research in this matter may also have a positive effect on the understanding of integration of different cultures in South Africa, especially within the educational context.
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A people rejuvenation strategy for multicultrualism in the emerging South Africa
- Authors: Govender, Cookie M.
- Date: 2017
- Subjects: People management , People rejuvenation strategy , Multiculturalism
- Language: English
- Type: Conference proceedings
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/244567 , uj:25290 , Citation: Govender, C.M. 2017. A people rejuvenation strategy for multicultrualism in the emerging South Africa.
- Description: Abstract: South Africa as a developing country in an emerging economy is under continuous political, social and economic turbulence and conflict. Since democracy, transformation of society, cities, villages and workplaces towards the redress of past people injustice has been slow. Living conditions are substandard. Workplace equity for the majority of African people and other previously disadvantaged people, such as women, has not happened. The country is plagued with conflict, discontent and continuous protest as a result. National toxicity in recent times is due to poor leadership, mismanagement of public funds, unethical decision making, differences in values and multicultural intolerance. This theoretical, conceptual paper explores this research question: What strategy can leaders and managers implement to redress conflict and simultaneously revive and promote employee relations and talent management in the multicultural, emerging South Africa? The purpose and message of this paper is that leaders and managers can and must rejuvenate the consciousness of people into cooperativeness, collectiveness and compassion towards harmonious individual and team interactions within society and especially within the workplace. This paper presents an introspection and review of African, eastern and western leadership theories and practices on conflict resolution, co-creativeness, multiculturalism, talent management, mentorship and collaborative leadership. The paper proposes a solution for debate on a people rejuvenation strategy for the integration of multiculturalism and globalisation within the localised context of South Africa. The implications for policy makers, leaders and managers in South Africa, Africa and BRICS are that the strategy can be employed to rejuvenate people towards being productive in a joyful, multicultural, cooperative workplace
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The psychometric properties of the Snijders-Oomen Individual Non-verbal Intelligence Scale Revised (SON-R) for secondary school learners from culturally diverse communities
- Authors: Grey, Simone Sylvia
- Date: 2012-02-27
- Subjects: Intelligence tests , High school students intelligence testing , Multiculturalism , Snijders-Oomen Non-verbal Intelligence Scale Revised
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2059 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4408
- Description: M.A. , Traditional measures often used in the assessment of cognitive functions of individuals, are regarded as unsuitable for two reasons. Firstly, since a particular language is utilized in the test items and instructions of most cognitive tests, the overall lower verbal test scores of culturally diverse individuals often is an indicator of poor verbal knowledge and language proficiency that in effect has a bearing on an invalid lower Full Scale IQ score. The verbal item content fail to provide important information regarding the potential learning and reasoning abilities of a person from a different culture. Secondly, due to past standardization practices in the construction of measuring instruments, important elements regarding the cultural relevance of the content of the measures, have often failed to be included. In order to address such problems, this research examined the suitability of the S.O.N.-R 5 % - 17 according to three objectives: (a) to cognitively assess the non-verbal intelligence of 400 secondary school children from four culturally diverse groups in the Johannesburg metropolitan area, viz. Afrikaans-, English-, Sotho- and Zulu-speaking learners who are in grades 8-10; (b) to determine whether home language, grade level, socio-economic status (SES), gender, handedness and the use of visual aids (spectacles/contact lenses) were important variables in determining subtest total scores; and (c) to determine the appropriateness of the S.O.N.-R 5%- 17 for local use in terms of its psychometric properties, viz. reliability (internal consistency) as well as its construct and predictive validity. Apart from providing the developmental aspects pertaining to the cognitive development of adolescents, other important theoretical aspects of intelligence were discussed from a cross-cultural perspective in reference to various conceptual frameworks from which intelligence was viewed as a function of the internal (innate) psychological processes of the individual and the external (socio-cultural) psychological processes of the individual. An outline based on the psychometric and cultural implications for such theories of intelligence was also delineated in an effort to define the concept of intelligence as related to culture-fair testing.
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Personal identity in multicultural constitutional democracies
- Authors: Lotter, H.P.P.
- Date: 2009-04-01T06:22:21Z
- Subjects: Identity , Democracy , Multiculturalism
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5633 , ISSN 02580136 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2412
- Description: South African Journal of Philosophy, 17(3), 1998 , Examines an approach for accommodating varying kinds of identity within a multicultural constitutional democracy, showing how people define, construct and change their personal identities in order to become unique individuals. Examination of a definition of personal identity; Assessment of the components of personal identity; Effect which personal identity has on one's life and how it changes.
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Understanding the potential of adult “third culture kids” as talents in multi-national corporations
- Authors: Molteno, Louise
- Date: 2014-10-22
- Subjects: International business enterprises , Multiculturalism , Cosmopolitanism , Human capital , Executive ability
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:12664 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/12497
- Description: M.Phil. (Personal and Professional Leadership) , Globalisation has dramatically impacted the way business is conducted. As business becomes more global, there is a growing need for employees, especially managers, with the right skillset to be successful in this international environment. Given the scarcity of internationally skilled employees, companies will have to look at new sources of potential talent. “Adult third culture kids” (ATCKs) are such a source of talent, as they have already acquired some of the skills necessary to be successful internationally, because of the way they had grown up. It appears, however, that ATCKs are an untapped talent source. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of managers within multi-national corporations (MNCs) regarding the potential of ATCKs as a source of talent. The study aimed to establish if awareness existed within MNCs of the ATCK phenomenon, and to explore some of the reasons for the apparent under-utilisation of this source of talent. A qualitative approach with a case study design was chosen to answer the research question, as this was deemed the best method to obtain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions within MNCs of the potential of ATCKs. Five research participants from five different MNCs were identified, based on their expertise in human resource management (HRM). Data were collected by means of individual, semi-structured interviews and supporting field notes. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse this data. Three dominant themes pertaining to the research question were identified. The findings of the research revealed that there is limited awareness of ATCKs within the MNCs selected for this study. Research participants acknowledged the characteristic skillset of ATCKs to be a valuable asset to their organisations. Possible reasons for the under-utilisation of this source of talent are the limited awareness of the ATCK phenomenon and the lack of knowledge of the actual contribution of ATCKs in the workplace.
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Inclusion and impression management in the workplace as mediated by organizational and ethnic identities
- Authors: Ngwenya, Sibongiseni
- Date: 2020
- Subjects: Diversity in the workplace , Multiculturalism
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/452309 , uj:39889
- Description: Abstract: In this study, the mediating effect of organisational identity and ethnic identity on the relationship between perceived inclusion and the impression management strategies of ingratiation, supplication, intimidation, self-promotion, and exemplification was examined. The moderating variable in this study was race, which consisted of Black African and White employee sample groups. A total sample size of 138 employees completed the measurement instruments used in this study. The study was quantitative in nature and the results from the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) indicated that there were significant differences in the measures across the Black African and White sample groups. The findings suggest that the more that employees perceived they were included in their organisation, the more they identified with their respective organisation as well as their ethnic group... , M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology)
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Kruiskulturele verskille in Suid-Afrikaanse humor met spesifieke verwysing na Madam & Eve
- Authors: Ras, Johannes Christiaan
- Date: 2009-01-08T13:06:36Z
- Subjects: Language and culture , Multiculturalism , Pictorial South African wit and humor , Caricatures and cartoons , Madam & Eve
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14766 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1845
- Description: M.A. , South Africa is a multiracial and multicultural society, and the diversity of languages reflect a complex and differentiated nation. This investigative study attempts to show how South Africans from different cultural and linguistic groups experience the humour in the Madam & Eve comic strips and whether, to some extent, they share a common sense of humour. The study starts with an investigation into the relationship between culture and language through the Sapir and Whorf hypothesis. Furthermore the study discusses the relationship between culture, language and humour to show that humour is in many instances culture specific. In culture-specific humour, the humour tends to be at the cost of people from a different cultural group; thus “we” can laugh at “them”. The study also defines humour and investigates the working of humour through the superiority theory, the relief theory and the incongruence theory. The discussion shows that participants in humour need to share the right context and knowledge before they can enjoy the humour. The study looks at comic strips as a genre and how humour operates in comic strips. The investigation also discusses the background on and the characters in the Madam & Eve comic strips. The discussion shows the humour in the Madam & Eve comic strips depicts social issues, racial relationships, especially the relationship between the white Madam, her elderly mother and the black Eve, crime in South Africa and politics. An empirical survey serves as the vehicle to investigate how respondents from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds experience the humour in Madam & Eve. The different examples were chosen to see if respondents experienced certain types of humour depicted in the comic strips in a negative way. The study includes analysis of the different racial and linguistic groups’ experience of the humour depicted in the comic strips included in the questionnaire to show differences in different groups’ experiences. Although some of the respondents took a more neutral stance to some of the ethnic humour depicted in Madam & Eve, generally speaking the respondents experienced the humour depicted in the comic strips in a positive way.
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Multicultural scale development in social work
- Authors: Van Breda, Adrian Du Plessis
- Date: 2010-05-27T06:03:31Z
- Subjects: Services for ethnic groups , Multiculturalism , Social work with minorities , Intercultural communication
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6843 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3275
- Description: M.A. , This study serves to expand the work of A.C. Faul on scale development in social work to incorporate the demand for multiculturalism. Ecometrics – the measurement of ecosystems – is a steadily growing field in South Africa. To date, however, scale development has assumed that the ecometrics will be practiced in a monocultural context. This is obviously not the case in South Africa. Consequently, the research goal is to design a process model for the development of social work scales for multicultural use in South Africa. As a secondary objective, the study aims to test this model in practice, through the development of a multicultural scale that accurately measures the social health of military employees/families. A number of issues underlying the technical aspects of multicultural scale development are first explored, including issues of the characteristics of ecometrics; the meaning of the term culture; the emic-etic debate; cultural equivalence; and bias, fairness and standards in ecometrics. Thereafter, a process model for the development of multicultural ecometric scales is introduced and five main phases are described: analysis, design, development, evaluation, and diffusion & adoption. Each of these phases is further decomposed into main moments and steps, each of which is described at both theoretical and technical levels. In order to test this process model in the real world, a new multicultural, multilingual, multidimensional, systems-oriented, salutogenic scale was created, called the Military Social Health Index. In the analysis phase, the need for the scale was analysed and the innovation requirements determined and contracted with the client. A theoretical framework – family resilience theory – was identified and explored, resulting in the development of an assessment model that underlies the scale. The cross-cultural comparability of the constructs was assessed and each construct was operationally defined, using facet maps. In the design phase, a multicultural, multilingual team of social workers generated close to 200 items, as well as instructions, using a multifocus approach, in which items were generated in four languages simultaneously (English, Zulu, Setswana and Afrikaans). Only items that could be expressed equivalently across languages were accepted. This resulted in an initial instrument, comprising 175 items (plus 16 demographic items), covering seven constructs, in four languages, at an average reading level of Grades 6-7. During the development (or field testing) phase, the instrument was reviewed by a group of social workers for content relevance, translation equivalence, item formulation, etc. Thereafter it was reviewed by focus groups of soldiers in the SANDF. Finally, the instrument was subjected to an analysis of linguistic equivalence. In response to each review, changes were made to the instrument.
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Authenticity, identity and psychological well-being at work in multicultural contexts
- Authors: Van Niekerk, Chanèl
- Date: 2017
- Subjects: Psychology, Industrial , Diversity in the workplace , Well-being , Multiculturalism
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/246442 , uj:25550
- Description: M.Com. (Industrial Psychology) , Abstract: This study aims to contribute and add to research on identity and more specifically identity at work by exploring the relationships between dimensions of identity (personal, work, ethnic, and religious), authenticity (state and trait), and psychological well-being (work engagement, burnout, and life satisfaction). These aspects were considered across both cultural groups, South Africa and the Netherlands, and their multicultural context, making it a valuable study to contribute to identity research that is current mainly focused on Western contexts. Descriptive statistics examined the demographic variables in the data and analysis of variance was used in order to study the relationships between variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted in order to establish the differences between the various cultural groups and different context on all variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) allowed the researcher to test the conceptual model in line with the research questions and assess the relationships between identity, authenticity, and psychological wellbeing across groups and context. A total sample of 440 employees from the Black and White South African group and the Ethnic Dutch group from the Netherlands completed measures of identity, authenticity, and psychological well-being. From the results obtained in the SEM the general work identity had a significant relationship with state authenticity and the psychological well-being factor. When considering whether state authenticity informs the psychological well-being factor, a small, significant relationship was achieved across groups. As such, state authenticity seemed to have mediated the relationship between general work identity and psychological well-being.
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On being South African: identity, religion and culture
- Authors: Villa-Vicencio, Charles
- Date: 2008-09-23T12:19:36Z
- Subjects: Identity , Political pluralism , Liberalism , Multiculturalism
- Type: Inaugural
- Identifier: uj:14881 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1038
- Description: Until recently we spoke of the “new South Africa” with a certain relish. We imagined that we had turned our backs on our colonial and apartheid past. While there was always sufficient prejudice and racism and religious bigotry around to cause us to question this assumption, we hoped that these outbursts were hangovers from the past that would in time wither away. The recent xenophobic attacks have changed this perception. Newspapers remind us that we have a long history of hating others. Building on a World Values Survey on International Attitudes to Immigration, the Southern African Migration Project (Samp) has found that South Africans held the harshest views on foreigners among 29 nations surveyed before 2002. A new as yet unpublished Samp survey, in turn, shows that our xenophobia is getting worse, suggesting that one-third of South Africans want all foreigners to be kicked out of the country. 9% of respondents said they would use violence to do so.
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Appreciative merger and acquisition team coaching programme to facilitate managers' mental health in a cross-cultural context
- Authors: Visagie, Retha Gertruida
- Date: 2011-10-11T07:52:41Z
- Subjects: Consolidation and merger of corporations , Multiculturalism , Executives' mental health , Industrial psychiatry , Training of teams in the workplace
- Type: Thesis (D.Cur)
- Identifier: uj:7240 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3894
- Description: D.Cur.(Psychiatric Nursing Science) , One overarching research aim guided me in this research, namely to generate a worthy Appreciative Merger & Acquisition (M&A) team coaching programme to facilitate managers’ mental health in the context of a cross-cultural M&A. The context represented a hotel in Swaziland, which was situated in a Southern African hospitality environment. A variety of stories reflecting the paradoxical, alienating nature of M&As impelled me to enter the research context. At the same time, research and literature confirmed a preference for organisational change strategies that depart from a deficit orientation. These change strategies presuppose that something is broken in the organisational context, which needs to be repaired. Inherent power-driven organisational change processes are often employed as a strategy to try and repair the identified organisational brokenness. It was, therefore, from a position of curiosity regarding the cross-cultural M&A experiences of managers in the particular hospitality environment, as well as interest in positive organisational change initiatives, that I have gone on this journey. Positive organisational change initiatives celebrate the life-giving stories of organisational life. It departs from the assumption that something in an organisation does work. On entry, I hoped that the context would lend itself to implementing an existing M&A team coaching programme. Additionally, that the stakeholders involved would allow the transfer of such a programme in order to establish its worth while contributing to the advancement of theory in the field of business coaching. Two central research questions were asked. These questions related to the existence of an M&A team coaching programme that lacked scientific credibility at the time, as well as literature that confirmed the detrimental influence of mismanaged cross-cultural M&A implementation processes driven from a deficit orientation on the mental health of managers. • Can an M&A team coaching programme to facilitate managers’ mental health for sustained performance be applied to a cross-cultural M&A in a Southern African hospitality environment? • If the programme is applicable, how can it be refined, implemented and valuated as a foundation to generate a worthy Appreciative M&A team coaching programme to facilitate managers’ mental health for sustained performance in a Southern African hospitality environment?
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