The metaphor of the family in relation to the footwashing in John 13:1-20.
- Authors: Van Zyl, Charles
- Date: 2008-04-16T06:45:48Z
- Subjects: Metaphor in the Bible , John XIII 1-20 , Family
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8223 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/230
- Description: Family life plays an integral part in our society. In the South African context we live in a society where there seems to be a break down in society. This is prevalent in our schools where we see so many children come from single parent homes. The father figure is absent. It is only when we encounter a personal relationship with Christ that we discover how the family unit is stabilized. In the light of this, the whole research is based on the metaphor of the family in the Fourth Gospel, and how it is employed at micro-, meso- or macro-level in the gospel. JG van der Watt's book, Family of the king. Dynamics of metaphor in the Gospel according to John (2000) forms the basis of this research. He points out that the metaphor of the family is the most essential imagery in the gospel. The footwashing pericope in John 13:1-20 fits into the family metaphor as Jesus calls those closest to him, namely his disciples in a warm friendly environment to inform them of his impending hour and what impact it will have on them. Chapter 1 centers around the research premise. Elements featuring in this chapter are: the introduction, problem statement, aim of research, methodology and further development of the study. The significance of why Jesus washed the feet of the disciples and the setting he uses in drawing his disciples aside. Furthermore, in the light of the metaphor of the family he draws their attention to the hour at hand. Various interpretations are then employed on micro-, meso- and macro-level from a narratological point of view. In Chapter 2 the function of the family in Jewish and Graeco-Roman cultures are discussed. Aspects such as the patron-client relationship and how this filters through to the family are taken in consideration. Family responsibility and how each member of the family has a role to play in ensuring the cohesion of the family life. The hierarchy of this function and this responsibility stems from the father right down to the slaves. This is important in the footwashing pericope, because Jesus breaks with conventional norms to take the place of a slave in washing the feet of the disciples. Purposes for footwashing are discussed and why it is significant in John 13. Chapter 3 contains the discussion of the meaning and function of the metaphors in general and specific in the Gospel of John. In this chapter the following are considered: theoretical considerations of a metaphor, definitions and nature of a metaphor, types of metaphors and how they function as well as the imagery of the family metaphor. John emphasizes in this gospel the divinity of Jesus and his relationship with God. He used household entities centered around a meal to portray, not only Jesus' relationship on a personal level with his disciples, but also on a divine level or spiritual level in their identification with Christ, in him washing the feet of the disciples. Furthermore, the chapter focuses on the aspects of family members' responsibility in the household as well as the care and love the members show towards each other. Chapter 4 is the focal point of the research and contains a detailed exegesis of John 13:1-20 to explain the function of the family on macro- and meso-level. The metaphor that links with the metaphor of the family, such as the metaphor of water and the significance of water in the Fourth Gospel as well as the metaphor of bread, life and the hour, are also discussed. In the final chapter of my research the focus is on the implications the text has for our society. In the footwashing pericope, the example Jesus sets in washing his disciples feet, is one of service. By identifying with Jesus Christ on a personal level we are called upon to be in his service and to serve one another. More importantly is our acceptance of Christ as our personal Lord and Savior. We are also called upon to exercise the love of God in our hearts to those around us. , Dr. S.J. Nortjie-Meyer
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Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and 36
- Authors: Nortjé-Meyer, Lilly
- Date: 2015-07-03
- Subjects: Metaphor in the Bible , Lamb of God , Bible. N.T. - John 1:29 & 36
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5627 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/14860
- Description: Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John 6 1:29 and 36. Most scholars are of the opinion that ‘amnos’ refers to the Passover lamb. 7 This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the 8 metaphor lamb or ‘amnos’ of God, one should understand the transferable meaning of the 9 figure or image. In this comparison only the vehicle, namely lamb, is given. What and 10 who the lamb is stay open. It can be anything within the limits of the other story elements 11 that have the same qualities of a lamb. To uncover the communicative dynamics of the 12 metaphor, the exegete must have insight into the meaning and function of the original 13 metaphor. Rhetoric provides a clue for the interpretation of the metaphor, namely that it 14 is a Lamb of God. Within the perikope other rhetorical clues like antithesis and varietas 15 are also provided. These clues are important but do not explain the image of the lamb. In 16 this study these problems will be considered via another medium, namely Hellenistic art 17 and images and their penetration into Judaism and Christianity during the first centuries 18 CE. Hellenistic and biblical images will be used to give an alternative interpretation of 19 the metaphor of the Lamb of God.
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The metaphor of the family in John 4:1-42.
- Authors: Moruthane, Sepadi W.D
- Date: 2008-01-09T11:27:53Z
- Subjects: John 4:1-42 , Family , Metaphor in the Bible
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8135 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/210
- Description: The motivation of my research is the massive problem of physical and sexual abuse of women and children we experience in South Africa. This is unacceptable for a society like ours where the rights of every citizen are entrenched in the constitution. Therefore, I have focused on the metaphor of the family in the Fourth Gospel, and how they are employed at micro-, meso- or macro-level. J.G. van der Watt’s book, Family of the King. Dynamics of Metaphor in the Gospel of John (2000) forms the basis of my study. He has pointed out that the metaphor of the family is the constitutive and most essential imagery in the Gospel. The story of the Samaritan woman in John 4 fits somehow into the family history of the father and the son. The questions I am concerned with are: 'How does Jesus' encounter with the Samaritan woman in John 4 fit into the network of imagery of the family in John's Gospel? What other imageries related to the imagery of the family, are also functioning in the story of the Samaritan woman and what significance does this encounter have in relation with the rest of the Gospel? In chapter 1 the research premise is worked out. Elements featuring in this chapter are: the problem statement, general and specific objectives, aim of the study, motivation and methodology. Literary criticism, social-scientific criticism, rhetorical criticism and theological criticism together are used into an integrated and approach to interpret this pericope. When they are used interactively, a rich and responsible approach is available for dealing with belief, action and life in the world today. In Chapter 2 the social-historical background of the Jewish and Roman family is discussed. Aspects like the meaning of family, family functions in the Jewish household and family and community solidarity were taking into consideration. The important role of cleanness and uncleanness in the Jewish family and the way they considered Samaritans as ‘menstuants from the cradle’ are underlined. Because John 4 is about the encounter between Jesus and a Samaritan woman, the origin of the Samaritans; their beliefs and traditions; and divorce in their community are important. The Samaritan education system; cleanness and uncleanness in their community and the place of a woman in the Samaritan family were also included in the discussion. At the end of this particular section the similarities and differences of the Jewish and Roman families were compared to be able to reconstruct and to obtain as much information as possible of the context of the Samaritan family. Chapter 3 contains the discussion of the meaning and function of metaphors in general and specific in the Gospel of John. In this study I have looked at the definition of a metaphor, types of metaphors and imagery in the Fourth Gospel. John emphasizes in his gospel the divinity of Jesus and his relationship with God. The author is using human relational images to portray this relationship as well as Jesus, the divine’s relationship to the world and to other people. In the words of Van den Heever: ‘The metaphors in John are all embedded in contexts made up by other metaphorical expressions: descent/ascent, living in you/you in me, partaking of Me as food, walking in the light, etcetera. It means that the connoted micro-level metaphors must be understood macro-metaphorically.’ (1992:94). This forms the basis of the discussion of the metaphor of the family in John 4. Chapter 4 is the focal point of the research and contains a detailed exegesis of John 4:1-42 in order to explain the functioning of the metaphor of the family on micro-level. The other metaphors that are linked with the metaphor of the family are also discussed, e.g. the metaphor of water and the significance of water in the Fourth Gospel as well as the metaphors of light and life. Because a family is about relationships, the family metaphors in John’s Gospel are about various relationships. It is in the first place about Jesus’ relationship with his Father, with the disciples and with the believers. In John 4 two other family relationships are portrayed: the Samaritan family and the Jewish family and they are in conflict with each other. Therefore, Jesus invites the Samaritan woman into a new family, namely the family of the Father. In this family she will have a special place and function. Other aspects of the Samaritan woman's relationships are also explored, e.g. her relationship with men, with the disciples and with men in the village. Jesus as a human being was also part of a family. The Gospel writers hesitated to say too much about it, but eventually we do know something about his family relationships. In the last chapter of my research families in South Africa are discussed. How the Fourth Gospel and particularly the story of the encounter between Jesus and the Samaritan woman can help to build families in South Africa that respects women; a society that gives women their rightful places in that society. , Dr. S.J. Nortje-Meyer
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'n Ondersoek na die gebruik van genderverwante metafore van die liggaam as beeld van die Kerk in die brief aan die Efesiërs
- Authors: Vrey, Aletta
- Date: 2010-04-01T06:18:23Z
- Subjects: Bible N.T. Ephesians , Metaphor in the Bible , Sex role and Christianity
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6745 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3153
- Description: M.A. , The emphasis of this study will be on the interpretation of the gender images and metaphors found in Ephesians. The use of metaphors in the ancient time and the influence thereof in the present-day interpretation of New Testament texts will be the main focus. The metaphor has been investigated in the theological, scientific and literary fields of study. Without becoming too involved in the arguments surrounding the use and meaning of metaphors, it is important to establish the relation between the metaphors used in Ephesians and the images of the ancient times. In the letter to the Ephesians two different bodies are being used as metaphors for the church, namely a male body in Ephesians 4:13 and a female body in Ephesians 5:27. The image of the body is being expressed through various body related metaphors in Ephesians. These metaphors are remarkable, because the church is being compared to the perfect male body of Christ, but also to the female body that should first be cleansed and sanctified before it can be presented to Christ as glorious without having a spot, wrinkle or blemish (Eph 5:26-27; Nortjé-Meyer 2003:735). It seems as if the ancient patriarchal and cultural view of the male and female bodies form the basis of the metaphors in Ephesians. The purpose of this study is to analyse, according to a feminist-critical reading, the metaphors of the body as well as other relevant metaphors in Ephesians that are used to portray the functioning of the church. The metaphors of Ephesians are being used within the context of the functioning of the church (male body) and the functioning of the household (female body). The cultural context of this letter portrays the male as the head of the female in the same way as Christ is portrayed as the head of the church. This view can no longer be maintained in a society where gender equality is a basic right. Traditional theological commentaries on Ephesians view these utterances of the author as authoritative and thus accept the male as the head of the female. The metaphor in Ephesians 1:20-23 that portrays Christ as the head of the body is related to the gender roles of Ephesians 5:22-33 by these commentaries. The conclusion is that the male should rule over the female in the same way that Christ rules his body, namely the church. The male is being portrayed as an exemplar of Christ and is therefore seen as the authoritative figure, the head and the ruler of his wife, children and servants. It is remarkable that these metaphors of Ephesians are still influencing the 21st century church. Women are still seen as the subordinates and the “others” lacking the authority of the man. The authoritative vii structures of today’s local churches are definitely still being influenced by the traditional interpretations of the gender images of Ephesians. The ancient Mediterranean society functioned according to a complex hierarchical structure that included patrons, clients, slaves as well as males, females and children. The principle of honour and shame formed the foundation of the social structure of this time. The male was responsible for the honour of his family and had to control the females and thus protect the family from shame. Status and class determined a person’s position in the ancient Mediterranean society. In the context of the New Testament texts the female’s identity was seen as inferior to the absolute dominance of the male. The early church was influenced by these cultural gender roles in the practice of their religion. Naturally the author too was influenced in the use of the metaphors portraying the image of the church. The interpretation of New Testament texts like Ephesians 5:22-33 cannot be done without considering the patriarchal culture of the ancient world and its influence on the authors and translators of the Bible. The interpretation of the Bible must be done in the context of the present day. The challenge of interpreting Ephesians is to understand the message without being blinded by the cultural patriarchal and hierarchical structures of the text. Different views are being held regarding the authorship or Ephesians. Divine authority was given to Ephesians due to the early church’s view that Paul was the author. Today, however, the authorship is being debated, and the more generally accepted view is that a follower of Paul wrote Ephesians. The patriarchal system that appointed the wife, child and slave as subordinate to the rule of the husband, father and master are being confirmed in Ephesians 5 and 6, while Paul abolished this hierarchical system in Galatians 3:28. These two chapters of Ephesians depict the author’s disapproval of female involvement in the community and especially in the religious activities, as was the case in Ephesus at the time. The author of Ephesians wanted to return to the traditional, patriarchal system and affirm the male as ruler over his household. He uses the strongest possible image to assist him in this purpose and compares the male to Christ as ruler and head of the church, thereby strengthening the male’s position of dominance. It seems as though Ephesians affirms the female’s position in the household, but at the same time excludes her from public responsibilities and leadership in the early church. This cultural, patriarchal image of the female is problematic and it is the purpose of this study to seek answers in this regard that are relevant for today’s church.
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