Impact of agricultural waste additive on 1-dimensional clay consolidation behaviour
- Authors: Agbenyeku, Emem-Obong Emmanuel , Muzenda, Edison , Msibi, Innocent Mandla
- Date: 2014
- Subjects: Rice husk ash , Kaolinitic clay , Soil treatment , Soil consolidation , Soil stabilization , Agricultural waste , Landfills , Fills (Earthwork)
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/386034 , uj:5050 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/13589
- Description: Soil treatment is of vital concern in geoenvironmental and construction engineering in present times as suitable naturally occurring materials are rapidly depleted. Efforts are continually invested towards the resourceful utilization of wastes as fillers, cement enhancers, stabilizers and blenders with little or no significant impacts on the environment. This paper explains the use of a locally available and abundant agricultural waste- Rice husk ash (RHA) in West Africa, Nigeria for the treatment and stabilization of kaolinitic clay (KC) sampled from an active landfill site in Johannesburg, South Africa. The impact of incorporating different percentages of RHA on the compressibility characteristics of a parent compressible landfill KC sample was investigated under a One-dimensional consolidation test. Compacted soil specimens were treated at optimum water content (OWC) and maximum dry unit weight (MDUW) by the addition of agricultural waste material to the parent KC. The compacted specimens were subjected incremental vertical loading in a fixed ring consolidometer device. This was done with a view to closely simulate the waste loading effects from a typical landfill on a treated and parent clay/clayey bottom barrier based on one-dimensional consolidation behaviours. The introduction of RHA waste material to the parent KC revealed an outcome with substantial improvements in compaction characteristics. Hence, the results presented herein showed the agricultural waste to positively increase one-dimensional rigidity while settlement was effectively decreased. From results and analysis, the KC stabilized with RHA can withstand loadings from waste heaps under conditions as were applied in this study. With due recommended examination by geoenvironmental specialists, the stabilized material may be considered as an environmental and cost saving beneficiation approach for use in landfill liners.
- Full Text:
Industrial waste modified 1-dimensional compressibility of kaolinitic clay
- Authors: Agbenyeku, Emmanuel Emem-Obong , Muzenda, Edison , Msibi, Innocent Mandla
- Date: 2014
- Subjects: Fly ash , Kaolinitic clay , Soil modification , Soil compressibility , Industrial wastes , Landfills , Fills (Earthwork)
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/365833 , uj:5053 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/13592
- Description: The modification of soil has become a major drive in construction and geoenvironmental engineering in recent years. Researches towards the effective incorporation of wastes as cement blenders and enhancers with environmental friendly impacts are increasing. This paper channeled the utilization of commercially available industrial waste- Fly ash (FA) in South Africa towards the modification and improvement of kaolinitic clay sampled from a disposal site. One-dimensional consolidation tests were conducted to investigate the effect of integrating varied proportions of FA on the compressibility behavioral patterns of a parent compressible landfill material. Compacted specimens were modified at optimum water content (OWC) and maximum dry unit weight (MDUW) by the incorporation of an industrial waste material to the parent soil. The generated specimens were subjected to incremental vertical loadings/pressures in a fixed ring odometer. This was done to simulate the impact of waste loads from a typical landfill on the consolidation characteristics of the modified specimens in a view for use as bottom liners in domestic waste containment facilities. The addition of different proportions of FA waste to the kaolinitic parent clay resulted in considerable improvements in compaction characteristics. Thus, the results of this study revealed that the incorporated industrial waste effectively increased one-dimensional stiffness and as such, successfully decreased settlement. Under adequate strength and operative conditions, the modified kaolinitic clay soil can withstand loadings from waste heaps and after recommended scrutiny by experts, may be initiated into landfill designs as an eco-friendly cost reducing agent.
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