Happy in the informal economy? A case study of well-being among day labourers in South Africa
- Authors: Blaauw, Phillip , Botha, Ilse , Schenck, Rinie , Schoeman, Christie
- Date: 2013
- Subjects: Day labouring , Well-being , Happiness , Informal economy
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5532 , ISSN 1535-0754 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/13943
- Description: Past research provided evidence of the negative effect that individual unemployment can have on subjective well-being. The persistent high levels of unemployment and poverty in South Africa have been well documented. Many people are forced into the informal economy, where they engage in a variety of survivalist activities such as day labouring. As o previous study has been conducted on the well-being of day labourers, the aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the well-being of South African day labourers. Objective and subjective functions are compared to determine the role of income and other variables in the well-being of day labourers. The determinants are categorised according to economic, comparison and attitudinal variables. The objective function uses income and the subjective function uses the binary measure of experiencing a good week in terms of wages as dependent variables. The results showed that attitudinal variables are important determinants for the subjective measure of well-being. The economic variables were important in both functions. The findings of this paper confirm other research findings showing that personal income is important for well-being in a poor community. The difference between these functions indicates that the subjective and objective measures of well-being both capture valuable characteristics of subjective well-being (SWB) in a poor community.
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Mapping spatial locational trends of informal economic enterprises using mobile geographic information data in the city of in Harare, Zimbabwe
- Authors: Gumbo, Trynos , Geyer, Manie , Moyo, Inocent , Moyo, Thembani
- Date: 2018
- Subjects: Mobile GIS , Spatial location , Informal economy
- Language: English
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/280059 , uj:30087 , Citation: Gumbo, T., Geyer, M., Moyo, I. & Moyo, T. 2018. Mapping spatial locational trends of informal economic enterprises using mobile geographic information data in the city of in Harare, Zimbabwe. Data in Brief, 20:1692–1699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.09.037
- Description: Abstract: Spatial planning for informal economic enterprises globally and cities of the developing world such Harare in particular is made difﬁcult by the lack of appropriate data. In most cases, informal economic enterprises are discussed descriptively and statistically, leaving out their spatial characteristics. This makes the orderly planning for the enterprises very difﬁcult if not impossible, espe- cially given that the informal economy dominates the economies of most developing countries. This article presents geographic information data that was collected by means of mobile geo- graphic positioning systems over time. In the absence of any other spatial datasets in the City of Harare, this unique data is handy in revealing spatial locational trends of informal economic enter- prises and the preferred locational behaviour of informal economic entrepreneurs in the city. Spatial planning for informal economic enterprises globally and cities of the developing world such Harare in particular is made difﬁcult by the lack of appropriate data. In most cases, informal economic enterprises are discussed descriptively and statistically, leaving out their spatial characteristics. This makes the orderly planning for the enterprises very difﬁcult if not impossible, espe- cially given that the informal economy dominates the economies of most developing countries. This article presents geographic information data that was collected by means of mobile geo- graphic positioning systems over time. In the absence of any other spatial datasets in the City of Harare, this unique data is handy in revealing spatial locational trends of informal economic enter- prises and the preferred locational behaviour of informal economic entrepreneurs in the city.
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Employment growth constraints of informal enterprises in Diepsloot, Johannesburg
- Authors: Ledingoane, Christina M. , Viljoen, Jacoba M. M.
- Date: 2020
- Subjects: Informal economy , Township , SMMEs
- Language: English
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/436489 , uj:37864 , Ledingoane, C.M. & Viljoen, J.M.M., 2020, ‘Employment growth constraints of informal enterprises in Diepsloot, Johannesburg’, Acta Commercii 20(1), a827. https://doi.org/10.4102/ ac.v20i1.827
- Description: Abstract: , Orientation: Informal enterprises in South Africa’s townships play an important role in employment creation and social protection. While some informal enterprises in inner cities grow, those in townships experience stagnant growth. Research purpose: The aim was to identify and analyse the internal and external growth constraints, regarding employment growth, of informal enterprises in Diepsloot, Soweto. Motivation for the study: Knowledge of internal and external growth constraints can inform policymakers on aspects that needs attention in assisting informal enterprises to realise their growth potential. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. Primary data were collected from 300 informal enterprises using a convenience sampling technique and structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, a matrix analysis and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data ...
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Kwesbare groepe in die informele ekonomie : ŉ Gevallestudie van motorwagte in Johannesburg se Wesrand
- Authors: Pretorius, Marinda , Blaauw, Derick
- Date: 2019
- Subjects: Car guards , Informal economy , Vulnerability
- Language: Afrikaans
- Type: Article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/407375 , uj:34288 , Citation: Pretorius, M. & Blaauw, D. 2019. Kwesbare groepe in die informele ekonomie : ŉ Gevallestudie van motorwagte in Johannesburg se Wesrand.
- Description: Abstract: South Africa’s high levels of car-related crime and spiralling unemployment have resulted in the development of a distinctive South African practice where people are looking after vehicles in shopping malls’ parking sites in exchange for a fee during the last 25 years. People who have lost their work or who never had a formal job in the past could work as a car guard in South Africa. Here, they enjoy little if any of the protection that the labour dispensation provides formal workers. They are therefore indeed an extremely vulnerable group in the informal sector. This article is based on a survey among 110 car guards in Roodepoort and Crown Mines in 2017 with the aim to investigate the socio-economic vulnerability of car guards. Car guards are both socially and economically vulnerable. Besides earning a low income, they are also required to pay a considerable portion of their income to shopping centres or car guard agencies. The average car guard in the survey earns between R7.31 and R21.94 per hour. The average fee per hour was calculated at R12.60 at the time of the survey. The current minimum hourly wage in South Africa is R20. This implies that the average car guard earns less per hour than the official minimum wage in the country. If one keeps in mind that these are gross amounts (the car guards must often pay a daily fee to a car guard organisation from this income), then the economic vulnerability of car guards is obvious. Their economic situation is therefore extremely vulnerable. This vulnerability is worsened by the uncertainty with regard to future income. Their working conditions expose them to various health risks as they are prone to fluctuating weather conditions, such as severe heat and cold, on a daily basis. If they do not work (because of, for example, illness), they earn no income. The researchers identified several possible limitations during the research. In some instances, the language proficiency of the foreign born car guards was indeed a challenge. In these cases, fellow car guards were able to act as interpreters in order to complete the interview. We realise that the sample cannot be used to generalise conclusions for the whole of South Africa. However, the results broadly corroborate the results of surveys in Pretoria (Steyn 2018) and Durban (Foster & Chasomeris 2017). It should be clear that car guards, as is the case with other groupings in the informal economy (e.g. day labourers and waste pickers), experience vulnerability on both social and economic levels. The results of this survey emphasise that a number of questions and uncertainties in terms of the car guard industry remain. These require the attention of researchers. One of the most important points on any future research agenda, will have to be the role of car guard agencies as labour brokers. These brokers apparently take very few risks, yet receive a significant portion of the tips earned by car guards. It is crucial that their role and activities be analysed economically. The second critical aspect requiring further research, is the role of foreign born migrants in the car guard industry in South Africa. This is a conclusion based on this article but also corroborated by the work of Steyn (2018). The mere fact that such a high proportion of car guards in this survey is foreign born, puts a new perspective on the future analysis of the industry. This issue can no longer be ignored. South Africa remains a destination of choice for many immigrants who have to leave their country of origin for political and economic reasons. The renewed economic crisis in, for example, Zimbabwe and the lack of food and employment opportunities in other Southern African countries are push factors which inevitably result in a constant supply of immigrants to South Africa. Once here, they often compete with South African citizens for limited opportunities in the informal economy. These foreign workers are especially...
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