Holisme en ontwikkeling
- Authors: De Beer, Stéfan Johannes
- Date: 2012-08-14
- Subjects: Holism , Economic development , Philosophy and civilization
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9148 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5602
- Description: M.A. , The inability and shortcomings of current scientific models, methods and theories to fully and effectively explain certain phenomena and provide certain solutions to everyday problems, is a great cause for concern. The ruling Newtonian scientific paradigm that serves as the foundation for current scientific methods and theories, provides an insufficient ontological basis for studying and explaining complex and interdependent phenomena and questions. The attempt to explain and address problems and phenomena from this deterministic and fragmented viewpoint, was generally unsuccessful - an instance that is especially prominent in the social sciences. As with most fields of study, Development studies is also affected by the abovementioned reality. Development theories and approaches are still being distinguished by singular and fragmented approaches and views, where only single facets of the development process are being addressed. These theories and approaches also try to find solutions for development problems from a Western, First World perspective. Local communities' meaning-giving context was, and still is, rarely considered as part of the development equation and development as viewed by the West, was consequently "enforced" on these communities. In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis to a search for approaches that are inclusive, non-deterministic and process-driven which would better explain complex behaviour, problematique and phenomena. This tendency is also to be found in all the fields of scientific inquiry, including Development studies. In view of the abovementioned reality, it is subsequently necessary to examine the holistic ontology as it provides a clear and essential, albeit supplementary, alternative to the Newtonian scientific paradigm. The holistic ontology, which manifests concepts like linearity, causation, determinism, objectivity and inductive reasoning, differs from the Newtonian scientific paradigm in that it represents an opposite reality where concepts such as process, context and recursive relationships play a central role. The holistic ontology is also non-linear, non-causal and non-deterministic in nature. This dissertation then focuses on the holistic ontology as applied to development studies. The topics that receive attention in this dissertation are the meaning and goals of the concept of "development", the evolution of development theory, the concept and nature of holism and how the holistic ontology can be applied and operationalised in terms of development. It becomes evident that holism can contribute in a positive manner towards the whole development discourse and that this approach will sensitise developers (on a conscious level) of the importance of communities' recursive relationships and meaning-giving context in the development process. The holistic ontology thus provides, for the first time, a clear and definite alternative to the current fragmented Newtonian-based approaches from where development can be implemented.
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The development and evaluation of the pursuit of wholeness model for paraprofessional counsellors
- Authors: Frankish, Coral A.
- Date: 2012-09-05
- Subjects: Counselors -- South Africa -- Attitudes , Paraprofessionals in social service , Holism
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9610 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7030
- Description: M.A. , South Africa is a country characterised by inherent diversity of culture, language and race and is undergoing a process of reconstruction and development. This entails the establishment of a new national identity and socio-political structure based on integration, accommodation of difference and equity of access to the basic necessities for mental, physical, social and spiritual well-being for all its citizens within budgetary and personnel limitations. Mental health care needs and services have been shaped by socio-political and economic factors in the past. Further there has been unequal access to health care, which focused on psychiatric conditions and which provided curative, institutionalised care. Little provision was made for mental health care of children and mentally handicapped persons. A climate of unprecedented change and uncertainty also impacts on the mental health care of South Africans. A vital part of the Reconstruction and Development Programme is the reorientation of health care, which includes mental health, to a comprehensive health care approach with emphasis on primary preventive and promotive health care. An invaluable, economical yet untapped source of manpower to provide primary mental health care is the paraprofessional counsellor. Paraprofessional mental health workers can provide first level mental health care in the form of growth counselling which includes primary preventive and promotive care as well as some secondary and tertiary mental health care. In order to provide safe and effective care, this category of health worker needs to be carefully selected and trained and should work under the supervision of professional mental health care workers. The role of the latter needs to be re-evaluated in the context of South Africa. Effective and efficient care can be facilitated by the use of a simple yet comprehensive model for the selection and training of paraprofessionals and to guide their contribution to mental health care in South Africa. Two theoretical shifts have influenced mental health care. These are the paradigm shift from linear Cartesian-Newtonian thinking to the circular systems epistemology and the movement in psychological theories to ecosystemic theories. These developments have given rise to the bio-psycho-social model which does provide a basis for holistic health care but it excludes the spiritual dimension. This dissertation examines the concept of spirituality and argues for its inclusion in a truly holistic model of human functioning. The Pursuit of Wholeness model is proposed as a simply yet truly holistic tool to effect efficient, economical and ethical mental health care using , paraprofessionals. The model is described in detail and its use by paraprofessional counsellors in a growth counselling situation is discussed. An evaluative study was undertaken to test the use of the Pursuit of Wholeness model by paraprofessionals in three organisations. Results showed that the Pursuit of Wholeness model has the potential to enable paraprofessional counsellors through holistic growth counselling to contribute significantly to mental health care in South Africa.
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