The need for and contents of a life cycle management plan for Eskom transmission line servitudes
- Authors: Vosloo, Hein Frederich
- Date: 2009-01-29T12:09:55Z
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Environmental impact analysis , Electric lines , Servitudes , Electric lines management , Servitudes management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14856 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1978
- Description: M.Sc. , The transmission system of Eskom occupies approximately 28 000 km of servitude that crosses a number of biomes in South Africa. The management of these servitudes, with respect to the impacts that the system has on the surrounding environment, as well as the effect of biotic, social and natural phenomena on the electrical system, needs to be carefully managed. This study investigates these bi-directional influences to determine which are pertinent to the management to the transmission line servitudes. This study also derives a number of strategic actions and accountabilities for all participating departments in the Transmission Division of Eskom, who are involved in the management of one or more phases of the life cycle of the servitude.
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An analysis of supplier relationship management practices in Eskom
- Authors: Minya, Thina Khumo
- Date: 2011-09-15T08:04:49Z
- Subjects: Supplier relationship management , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7215 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3849
- Description: M.Comm. , The primary objective of this dissertation is to perform an analysis of supplier relationship management practices in Eskom. Currently, Eskom is facing pertinent challenges such as a diminished reserve margin, increased unplanned generation plant outages as well as coal supply and quality constraints coupled with ever-rising primary energy costs. Since 1994, the demand for electricity has grown significantly on the back of robust economic growth. As a result, Eskom’s power system has an inadequate reserve margin which is at an all time low of around 8% and this does not compare well with the international standard of 15%. It is therefore evident that, as a national asset Eskom cannot overcome the current challenges successfully without strong partnerships with key suppliers. Impact of global expansion in the power sector has seen increased demand for utility specific commodities, and the resultant implication is the increased pressure on utilities to secure supply. Significant energy pressures are impacting on traditional procurement systems; as supply tightens it is vital for Eskom to intensify their efforts to build and sustain long-term collaborative relationships with key suppliers. With a more strategic view of procurement, companies are increasingly finding that different types of supplier relationships should be managed differently to achieve maximum value. Supplier relationship management has become increasingly sophisticated; buyer and supplier preferences are driven by circumstances in any relationship. The relationship portfolio analysis as explained by Cox, Sanderson and Watson (2000) demonstrates that buyer and supplier relationships centre on power, interdependence, and independence and they agree that relationships can be of an arms’ length, adversarial and collaborative nature depending on the power and style of management. Electricity is an important sector in the South African (SA) economy, despite its relatively small share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Eskom has a capital expenditure budget of R800-billion for the next 20 years (Venter, 2007). An overview of the electricity industry in SA covering key highlights on the evolution of thinking on energy developments in the country and the resultant implication for supplier relationship management is discussed. Eskom supplies about 95 percent of South i Africa's electricity, and the recent power crisis had far-reaching implications for the economy. Some economists say that Eskom’s power crisis could slice two percentage points off SA’s growth rate, sending it below 3% for the first time in a decade.
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The level of competitiveness of the South African electricity industry
- Authors: Goldstuck, Alison
- Date: 2012-01-24
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Competition , Electric power distribution
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1945 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4304
- Description: M.Comm. , South Africa's demand for electricity is expected to outstrip the industry's generation capacity by 2010. If the government wants to avoid this situation, the construction of new plants must commence. At the moment this task has been delayed because the Government is at loggerheads with COSAU and Eskom about restructuring the electricity supply industry. This debate will remain unsolved unless the government can substantiate why exposing the industry to competition will improve its performance. Unfortunately this task is not as simple as it seems. Even though competition is one of the most widely used terms in economics, it still remains an elusive concept. The ambiguity regarding tl1e meaning of competition arises from the failure to divorce the concept of competition from a market structure; as a consequence an operational meaning of what it means to compete \n terms of contemporary business behaviour does not exist. As a result activities associated with industrialisation, such as a changing production function, the development of new products and t~chniqu'::s and business structures are not related to the concept of competition. In order to develop n clear understanding of "what it means to compete", this dissertadon uses a behavioural definition of competition to determine why exposing firms to. competitive pressure improves their performance, reflected in superior static and dynamic efficiency levels. Based on this conceptual framework, Schumpeter' s approach to competition, which emphasises innovation, profits and the entrepreneur as the agent of improvement combined with the idea that it is the uneven development of knowledge that matters in the process of creative destruction", is accepted (Metcalfe & Ramlogan &Uyarra: 2001). Based on the above notion of competition, competitive pressure positively influences firms' performance, improving their static and dynamic efficiency levels. A micro-economic analysis of a C!)IDp.etitive electricity industry is conducted in order to test the abov~ assumption. This case study demonstrates that the competitive process ultimately improves thr: integration of knowledge throughout the supply chain, which is used an input to stimulate innovation within firms and exploit new technologies (Murphy, 2002:21). As a result, firms facing competition will try to retaii1 their market position 2 by exploiting all knowledge and exploring all avenues of technological invention, before selecting the best method (Khan: 1998). In addition, this case study illustrates that stimulating dynamic efficiency goes beyond developing and implementing "hardware" (computers, CCGT plants, fuel cells etc). Although technology plays an important role in shaping industrial organisation, it is not the catalyst that drives innovation and change. Rather organisational innovation changes market participants' schemas, breeding new ideas that become the input to create technology. Therefore organisational innovation has profound efficiency consequences (Williamson, 1994: 183). If technological and organisational inncvation is intertwined, then innovation is a complex evolutionary process, which occurs over time. Furthermore innovation cannot occur in a vacuum, but is interconnected, interwoven and interdependent with an industry's physical and institutional context (Perez, 2000). Based on the stylised facts a competitive market provides the institutional context that stimulates innovation, and therefore it might be worth incurring the transactions costs and short-term losses in order to create these opportunities.
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An assessment of the impact of dry and wet cooling systems on stake holders
- Authors: Jonker, Markus Smith
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Cooling towers , Coal-fired power plants , Water consumption management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1972 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4329
- Description: M.Ing. , Water gives life. It waters the fields of farmers; it nurtures the crops and stock of rural communities; it provides recreation for our children, our friends, our families; it supports our power generation, our mines, our industry, and the plants and animals that make up ecosystems. Water is the key to development and a good quality of life in South Africa. South Africa's water belongs to its people. It is the task of the South African Government to care for this water, to seek its fair distribution, and to facilitate its wise use for, amongst other things, social and economical development. Issues such as water resource management, use, protection, water services, etc., are presently governed by a number of policies, acts and regulations. All South Africans has a responsibility regarding the management of the country's resources. The supply of water to its entire people makes it extremely important to optimise the use of this scarce source. Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The coal fired power industry is a major user of natural resources; coal for fuel and water for steam generation as well as the cooling systems. It is estimated that 1.5% of the water abstracted in South Africa is used for power generation. The power industry receives its water mainly as abstraction from surface impoundments in the form of rivers and dams. Eskom, as a strategic user of water, is mindful of the importance of water to its business, as well as the development of the country. In addition to the interests of the government as the shareholder, Eskom recognises the legitimate interests, as stakeholders, of specific government departments, employees, consumers, suppliers, investors and lenders of capital, rating agencies, the media, policy and regulatory bodies, trade unions, non-governmental groups and local communities in its affairs. Eskom needs to ensure, through an effective water management strategy, that water is used wisely and effectively and that Eskom's impact on local water resources (surface and underground) is minimised. Eskom therefore has to manage water resources in a manner that will sustain the ecological integrity, support social development and ensure economic growth. Eskom has undertaken to benchmark the power generation industry, in co-operation with the DW AF, in a project aimed at developing the principles of water conservation and water demand management. In order to effectively manage water quality and quantity at Eskom's power stations, and to show Eskom's commitment with regard to water conservation and use, Eskom has compiled its own water and environmental policies.
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Development of a Fire-induced Flashover Probability Index (FIFPI) for Eskom transmission lines
- Authors: Frost, Philip Edward
- Date: 2012-05-03
- Subjects: Fire-induced Flashover Probability Index , Eskom (Firm) , Electric lines , Fire risk assessment
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2253 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4691
- Description: M.Sc. , The need for a fire-induced flashover (power line arcing to the ground) probability index for Eskom transmission (high voltage power) lines became evident soon after the installation the Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) in 2004. AFIS is a satellite based fire detection system that utilizes polar and geostationary satellite sensors to detect fires as small as 50 m x 50 m in size. As soon as a fire is detected by either, the Terra, and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) or Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellites close to any of the 28 000 km of Eskom transmission lines, a cell phone and email text warning is sent out to line managers responsible for the management of the particular section of line affected. Between 3000 - 6000 fires are recorded annually close to Eskom transmission lines with a fire-induced flashover rate of 100 - 150 transmission line trips per year. Fire-induced flashovers occur when the air around high voltage transmission lines are ionised due to a hot flame (> 500° C). As the air becomes conductive, electricity can move from the line to the ground in the form of a lightning flash. Studies have shown that one flashover can cause an average of three voltage depressions (dips) on the electrical transmission system, and each voltage depression can cause damage to a customer’s production ranging between R5000 and R150000 per dip. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model with the ability to accurately predict fire-induced flashover occurrences on Eskom transmission lines in order to reduce the large amount of false alarms (SMS and email messages) produced annually by AFIS. The prediction model in the form of a probability index was derived from a combination of remote sensing satellite products as well as weather forecast variables. With the MODIS active fire product as base layer, weather forecast variables in the form of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, as well as topographical elevation and a satellite derived vegetation condition product served as input to the predictor data set of the model, while flashover statistics for 2007 provided the target data set within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. iii The prediction capabilities for each of the variables were evaluated based on their prediction accuracy and Receiver Operation Characteristic (ROC) value in terms of the validation data set. Wind speed, relative humidity, wind direction and air temperature were shown to have the highest predictor importance and were used to develop the probability index calculated from a logistic regression analysis. The Fire-induced Flashover Probability Index (FIFPI) was tested through simulations of predictor variables and was also compared to existing Fire Danger Indices (Willis et al. 2001). The FIFPI was able to outperform most of the standard Fire Danger Indices (FDI’s) with only the McArthur Grassland Index (MK 4) which demonstrated some prediction capability. The importance of wind direction as an environmental component in the prediction of flashovers became clear as it tended to decrease the misclassification rate from 4.45% when only wind speed, relative humidity and temperature were used to 3.87% when wind direction was added. The research has shown that wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and temperature can be used as an indicator of possible fire-induced flashovers underneath Eskom transmission lines. However, additional research is needed to verify the results from 2007. Ideally at least 3 years of data should be used.
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Development of a project management maturity measurement model to evaluate project management efficiency in a large parastatal
- Authors: Mapane, Mohau
- Date: 2012-06-04
- Subjects: Project management , Systems engineering , Eskom (Firm) , Reengineering (Management) , Industrial productivity - Measurement , Industrial productivity
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2368 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4823
- Description: M.Ing. , The aim of this research is to develop a Project Management Maturity Measurement Model to evaluate project management efficiency in a large Parastatal such as Eskom Distribution. This model will identify areas of improvement to assist a large Parastatal in improving their project management performance. It will eventually assist the organisation to build a culture of project management excellence. The hypotheses for the study were that firstly, the Parastatal does implement project management practice processes as advocated by project management bodies of knowledge. Secondly, a Project Management Maturity Measurement Model can be successfully implemented at a large Parastatal and help the Parastatal to identify project management grey areas that require improvement. Thirdly, a Project Management Maturity Measurement Model could assist a large Parastatal with project management improvement as a result of areas of recommendations. The method used to collect the required data for analysis and interpretation was the descriptive survey method. A customised survey questionnaire was developed to obtain data from research sample. Data was analysed using appropriate statistical techniques. The research sample was defined as the people who are primarily responsible for project, programme and portfolio management at a large Parastatal. The results of the data analysed pin pointed project management process weaknesses and possible improvement opportunities. Three main areas of improvement have been identified, namely applying lessons learned from previous project into future project, performing benchmarking to improve performance and project control processes. The findings of this study support the abovementioned hypotheses, and the insights provided and recommendations made will be of great help to a large Parastatal on its road to continuous improvement and building a culture of project management excellence.
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A case study on the development of an asset management process within the Eskom fossil fired power stations with emphasis on the reliability basis optimisation process
- Authors: Singh, Shanil Narain
- Date: 2012-06-05
- Subjects: Asset management , Fossil fired power stations , Reliability basis optimation process , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/382518 , uj:2425 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4885
- Description: M.Ing. , This dissertation deals with the implementation of a Reliability Basis Optimisation Process for Eskom’s fossil fired Power Stations. This study comes about as a result of the situation that Eskom currently finds itself in. Eskom currently has a generating capacity of 41 000MW. It supplies 95% of South Africa’s power requirements and 45% of Africa’s power requirements. With the unprecedented economical growth that South Africa has experienced in the last five years, coupled with the economic recession of 2008/2009, Eskom has found itself in a precarious position in terms of power delivery. Eskom’s request for a 45% tariff increase in its Multi Price Determination (MYPD2) application to NERSA was turned down and a figure of 25% was awarded. Eskom’s current reserve margin is currently lies as less than 10%. With the funding restrains it now becomes difficult to replace machinery as it fails. The focus now shifts of carrying out effective maintenance. Eskom established the Asset Management Department with a view to ensure that the right maintenance was carried out. Within the Asset Management Department the Reliability Basis Optimisation (RBO) Process was established. The aim of the RBO stream is to improve the reliability and availability of the fossil fired Power Station. This dissertation looks at how the RBO process was developed and rolled out to the Power Stations. It also gives a brief overview of the Asset Management Improvement process to which the RBO process is the backbone.
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The alignment of espoused values and organisational culture at a South African parastatal organisation
- Authors: Phale, Robert Aubrey
- Date: 2012-06-06
- Subjects: Corporate culture , Organizational behavior , Business ethics , Government business enterprises , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2469 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4925
- Description: M.Comm. , The primary purpose of the present study was to identify whether the organisational culture of the Transmission Division of Eskom is aligned to its stated values. In seeking to reach this objective, it was necessary to assess the gap between espoused and practised organisational values. The study also sought to identify the Transmission Division’s organisational culture. A correlation between the stated values and identified organisational culture was calculated and this was used to infer whether the values that the organisation espouses are aligned to the current organisational culture. The study made use a self-administered questionnaire sent via email to all the Transmission Division employees (N=1793) of whom 182 responded. The questionnaire comprised sections covering biographical aspects, organisational values as well as questions on organisational culture. In the questionnaire, biographical aspects were provided by the Transmission Division’s human resources department and those for organisational values were derived from both literature and Eskom’s value statement. Questions on organisational culture were taken from Cameron and Quinn’s (2006) Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). Data on organisational values was subjected to quantitative analysis whilst data relating to organisational culture was interpreted by following Cameron and Quinn’s (2006) Competing Values Framework (CVF). The present study found that there is a gap between observed and espoused or stated organisational values. By using the Cameron and Quinn (2006) framework of organisational culture, which identifies hierarchy, ‘adhocracy’, market and clan’ as the ‘four distinct organisational culture types, the study found that respondents experience the current Transmission Division’s organisational culture to be predominantly hierarchical. A general inference drawn in this study is that the current hierarchical organisational culture is misaligned to the espoused organisational values of ‘integrity’, ‘customer satisfaction’, ‘innovation’ and ‘excellence’. The study makes recommendations to the Transmission Division about how to address this misalignment and areas that require further investigation are suggested.
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Some cost implications of electric power factor correction and load management
- Authors: Visser, Hercules
- Date: 2012-08-13
- Subjects: Electric utilities - Costs , Electric power systems - Load dispatching , Electric power-plants - Load , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8989 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5458
- Description: M. Phil. , Presently, ESKOM is rated as the fifth largest utility in the world that generates and distributes electricity power to their consumers at the lowest price per kilowatt-hour (kW.h). As a utility, ESKOM is the largest supplier of electrical energy in South Africa and is currently generating and distributing on demand to approximately 3000 consumers. This represents 92% of the South African market. ESKOM was selected as the utility supplying electrical energy for the purpose of this study. ESKOM's objective is to provide the means and systems by which the consumer can be satisfied with electricity at the most cost-effective manner. In order to integrate the consumers into these objectives, ESKOM took a decision in 1994 to change the supply tariff from active power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) for a number of reasons: To establish a structure whereby the utility and the consumer can control the utilisation of electrical power supply to the consumer. To utilise demand and control through power factor correction and implementation of load management systems. To identify some cost implications of electrical power factor correction and load management. Consumers with kW maximum demand tariff options had little or no financial incentives to improve their low power factor (PF) by reducing their reactive current supply. Switching to (kVA) maximum demand will involve steps to be taken to ensure that the reactive component is kept to a minimum with maximum power factor. ESKOM has structured various tariff rates and charges with unique features that would accommodate the consumers in their demand side management and load cost requirements, which, when applied, will result in an efficient and cost effective load profile. These tariffs are designed to guide consumers automatically into an efficient way of using electrical power, as it is designed to recover both the capital investment and the operating cost within two to three years after installation of power factor correction equipment. ESKOM's concept of Time-of-use (TOU) periods for peak, standard and off-peak times during week, Saturday and Sunday periods is discussed as load management. Interruptible loads can be scheduled or shed to suit lower tariff rates and to avoid maximum demand charge. The concept of load management will change the operation pattern of the consumer's electricity demand whereby the consumer will have immediate technical and financial benefits. In the last chapter of this dissertation, a hypothetical case study addresses and concludes on some of the technical and cost implications of electrical power factor correction and load management as a successful and profitable solution to optimize electrical power supply to the consumer. By implementing the above, ESKOM ensures that the consumer utilizes the electrical power supply to its optimum level at the lowest cost per kilowatthour (kW.h) generated.
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Branding in an electricity utility with special reference to Eskom's Industrelek brand.
- Authors: Roux, René
- Date: 2012-08-14
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Trademarks - South Africa , Branding (Marketing) - South Africa
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:9223 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5672
- Description: M.Comm. , The primary goal of the study is to establish whether branding of an intangible product such as electricity is worthwhile, and to recommend improvements in this regard. In more detail the study will establish the following: Usage and awareness figures for Eskom's Industrelek brand. Image of the Industrelek brand amongst its target audience. A clear and detailed understanding of the current market status quo in terms of awareness, trial and usage of the energy advisory service. The identity of the advisory brand in relation to the parent brand, Eskom. An understanding of the function of the brand. Advertising effectiveness - the promotional message as perceived by the target audience and important factors that need to be communicated by Eskom to the relevant target market. The potential of the brand amongst its target audience.
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An inquiry into the problems pertaining to the acquisition of servitudes for transmission powerlines based on a life-cycle approach
- Authors: Ramaphosa, Daphney Popie
- Date: 2012-08-20
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Servitudes management , Acquisition of property , Electric power transmission - Environmental aspects
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:2838 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6273
- Description: M.Sc. , Electrical energy has evolved to become the main source of energy as it fuels the processes in industry and other sectors. Electricity, generated at a power station, has to be transmitted to the users through transmission powerlines. Strips of land, in the form of servitudes, need to be acquired for the erection of these powerlines. Because this land passes through agricultural areas, residential areas and industrial areas which do not belong to the power utilities, these utilities need to acquire this land. The inability to acquire these strips of land is proving to be a problem for Eskom; in fact, it has been dubbed one of Eskom’s greatest risks (Seabe, 2010, Personal Comment). Hypotheses in respect of the problems pertaining to the acquisition of servitudes for transmission powerlines have been formulated with the supposition being that, by nature, these problems are not only biophysical, but also socio-cultural. Those classified as sociocultural problems are dependent on human behaviour: it is people who grant servitudes, and also people who own the land on which the servitudes are required. These problems, if not identified and addressed, have the potential to manifest at a later stage, causing conflict between the proponent and the landowner and in turn resulting in the electricity supply in South Africa being sporadically curtailed. It is therefore imperative that the problems pertaining to the acquisition of servitudes be investigated and analysed, and that methods be devised from the lessons learnt through investigating these problems. These methods, if implemented correctly, should minimise conflict between the landowners and Eskom and subsequently avert the risk of Eskom being unsuccessful in acquiring servitudes. These methods should also facilitate an improved, effective and successful servitude acquisition process, which will in turn ensure a continuous supply of electricity.
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Quality of life of migrant workers at Eskom
- Authors: Naves, Patience Mmetja
- Date: 2012-08-22
- Subjects: Migrant labor -- Housing -- South Africa , Social security -- South Africa , Migration, Internal -- South Africa , Blacks -- Housing -- South Africa , Youth hostels -- South Africa -- Social conditions , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3065 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6486
- Description: M.A. , This chapter has been dedicated towards painting a picture of the quality of life issues regarding migrant workers living in hostels. The results and findings as interpreted has brought about useful information that will be utilised to draw conclusions and recommendations. Quality of Life of Migrant Workers at Eskom The findings have reconfirmed who the migrant worker is in terms of the description given by Leatt (1981) which was the definition adopted for the study. The indices drawn from the objective and subjective indicators of quality of life which were adopted from Moller, Schlemmer and Du Toit's (1987) were used as the basis from which the interview schedule was drawn, and has proved useful. Reference is made in particular to questions 12,13 and 14. Relevant construct for quality of life were found, with more usable constructs from questions 12 and 13. Furthermore the statistical analysis of the vector of the mean test scores referring to the HOT 1 has also given useful information as it enabled the student to analyse three variables independently and jointly see section 3.3. Cross tabulations representing correlations between indices created out of quality of life indicators namely core quality of life issues as identified by Question(s) 12,13 and 14 and the objective indicators of quality of life, namely accommodation, the intake of nutritious food, and recreation practices. There is a clear demonstration of quality of life issues that should be looked at if the quality of life of migrant workers living in hostels has to be improved. Although there are many diverse quality of life issues identified in the study the three that were selected with the framework of this study has given usable information. The next chapter will address the conclusions and recommendations.
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Sosio-ekonomiese en energie-aspekte in die ontwikkelende gebiede, met spesiale verwysing na die Noord-Kaapgebied van Eskom
- Authors: Wolhuter, Josias
- Date: 2012-08-22
- Subjects: Electric utilities -- South Africa -- Northern Cape , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3026 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6448
- Description: M.Phil. , The problem that exists in the developing areas of the Northern Cape area of Eskom (and also in all other developing areas in South Africa), is to make the correct decisions in terms of electrification, marketing and sales of electricity and electrical appliances when electrifying these areas. This study investigates this problem. The results from field work before and after electrification and recommendations form the main part of the study. The main methods followed for this study were as follows: Previous pre-electrification studies over a period of roughly six years in 82 developing areas were aggregated into 33 tables with maximums, minimums and averages calculated, including compiling 52 graphs. This process took the best part of one year. This gives an in-depth combined view of energy - and socioeconomic aspects particular to the Northern Cape. A needs analysis was also done amongst role players inside and outside Eskom, inter alia the management of Eskom, municipalities, Rand Afrikaans University, electrical contractors and district councils. The most important needs were investigated during field work done for this study in 1994. Data processing in dBase and Microsoft Excel and statistical analysis in Statgraphics was done, and the findings were taken up in four internal before/after publications during 1995 and 1996 and finally, in this study. It provides a clearer insight into electrification -, socio economic and health aspects in the developing areas of Northern Cape before and after electrification. Electrification in developing areas in Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe is uneconomical and in many cases has just about come to a standstill. Electrification in Namibia and Botswana is progressing slowly, at a cautious economic pace. Amongst the most important findings (in another 29 tables and another 58 graphs) for the Northern Cape area of Eskom are: The number of prepaid customers in the developing areas grew from less than 100 in 1989 to more than 38 000 in 1996, an increase of more than 20 000%. At this stage these customers of Eskom consume 4.148 GWh of electricity p.m., the equivalent of about 4 148 big households, each consuming 1 000 kWh (units) of electricity. This translates to only 109.16 kWh (Eskom ±70 kWh nationally)per customer p.m., which is not even nearly economical to Eskom. It must be remembered that it took 20 years in Ireland for electrification programmes to become economically viable. The target of Eskom in South Africa vary from 350 kWh to 572 kWh p.m., the latter which can only be achieved by "second phase" electricity consumption, i.e. by using heavy appliances such as geysers as well. When the developing areas have been fully electrified, total electricity demand in South Africa could increase by 7.4%, which could cause the building of another 1.26 big power stations. After electrification, there was a statistically significant reduction in the monthly average spending on wood and coal in the developing areas of Northern Cape. The electrical appliances mostly in use (after electrification) are irons, kettles and TV's. After electrification there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of the maximum average "marketing potential" of appliances. The electrical appliances that most residents still want to buy after electrification, are washing machines, fridges and geysers. After electrification, only 68.63% of kettles are electrical types (on average). Nearly all electrical appliances are used during the peak hours of Eskom. The maximum amount that residents are prepared to spend on electricity, is R75.89 p.m., compared to R53.64 p.m. before electrification. The recalculated total average spending on energy (excluding petrol and diesel) is R91.72 per month before electrification and R121.21 p.m. after electrification. The average level of education is between standard 5 and 6 compared to between standard 3 and 4 before electrification (this is also statistically significant). The average income of households is R943.89 p.m.,compared to R507.59 p.m. before electrification. The average number of people per household is the following (pre-electrification figures in brackets): men 1.05 (0.96), women 1.21 (1.17) and children 3.26 (2.98). The total number of people per household is 5.51 (5.11). Most residents are very satisfied with health services in their areas. The biggest group (on average 95.30%) in the electrified developing areas of Northern Cape make use of modern medicine. The next biggest group (on average 4.7%) make use of modern medicine and traditional healers.
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A performance-based community project about the effective use of electricity
- Authors: Duma, Thembekile
- Date: 2012-09-12
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Community education - Research - South Africa - Soweto , Electric power consumption - South Africa - Soweto
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:10264 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7634
- Description: M.Ed. , Eskom has a programme called `Electro-Wise'* which is described as addressing the problem of the use of electricity in the community. Such a programme, it is claimed, educates people to use electricity in a cost effective manner and as such empowers people to monitor their electricity use and take necessary precautions on the safe and effective way of using electricity. The study seeks to challenge this view on the community education grounds that it tends to take for granted the process of educating the community (in an empowering manner) for empowerment. Furthermore, it undermines the method suitable for approaching adult learners * who have to be taught in an informal setting. A brief introduction of what community education entails and what `Electro-Wise' would be if it were based on the theories of community education, are presented. The findings of an inquiry conducted to probe the community's views on what Eskom does to reach out to them in terms of electricity usage were examined in the context of community education. Some implications of these findings point out that partnership, trust, continuous dialogue and closeness between the community and Eskom are significant. Implications highlight, among other things, the importance of a grounded theory on which the future programme should be based.
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Business process design as a shared services enabler
- Authors: Khonjelwayo, Bongani
- Date: 2013-05-01
- Subjects: Reengineering (Management) , Decentralization in management , Shared services (Management) , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:7492 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8350
- Description: M.Comm. (Business Management) , A lot of work has been done to implement a shared services model in various corporations as means to improve productivity, reduce operational costs and improve customer satisfaction. By combining services that are performed by different units within an organisation into a single business unit that allows each business unit to access those services, companies have been able to attain some of the benefits mentioned above. Process design is one of the critical activities that have to be performed to implement a shared services unit. Some companies, however, have not been able to optimally design processes in a way that adds value to the performance of a shared services unit. This study is a case study that explored how business process design could be utilised as an enabler to improve the performance of the Eskom Finance and Procurement Unit at Eskom Megawatt Park, in Johannesburg. Through an explorative study of the shared services process design project, the researcher studied how the processes were designed and implemented for the Eskom Finance and Procurement Shared Services. The study was able to identify important process design structures and principles, tools, and techniques that can be utilised to optimally design processes for a shared services unit. It also evaluated process design activities and processes to identify the gaps in process design as well to understand the impact of process design on Eskom.
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Management of condition monitoring and diagnostic technology to optimise large turbo-generator rotor maintenance
- Authors: Bembe, Jabulani Richard
- Date: 2013-11-20
- Subjects: Turbomachines - Maintenance and repair , Turbomachines - Thermodynamics , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7755 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8645
- Description: M.Ing. (Engineering Management) , The turbo-generator unit is very important equipment for electric power production, which has a high rate of failure. As the capacity increases, condition monitoring and fault diagnostic play a crucial role to guarantee safe operation and cost efficiency. The Eskom generator fleet is fast approaching the end of the original designed life. Also in view of the recent constrained reserve margin, outage downtime, maintenance costs, resource management, and maintenance inherent problems, a systematic approach is required to optimise scheduled time-based maintenance to improve reliability and availability. The subject of turbo machine condition monitoring requires the development of new technologies to diagnose the turbo-generator problems. Condition is an underlying factor in the performance of machines. It is also an important predictor of future performance that the machine is in a good condition and will be reliable and perform better. It provides a reference for maintenance engineers on the current condition of the turbo-generator. Trends in condition monitoring can be used to determine whether turbo-generators are being maintained and that are meeting their expected service lives or whether their performance is deterioration faster than expected. In the industry, traditional maintenance philosophies have taken two approaches; the first approach is to perform fixed time interval maintenance, where the system engineers take advantage of relaxed production cycles to fully inspect all aspects of the turbo-generator. The second route is for engineers to simply react to the generator failure as and when it happens. All too many utilities operate largely in the reactive run-to-failure mode. The old phrase, “if it aren’t broken don’t fix” is perennial run to failure argument. Nonetheless, making use of today’s technology, a new scientific methodology is becoming popular to maintenance management. For the purpose of investigating the management of condition-based monitoring and diagnostic technology to optimise timed-based maintenance of large turbo-generators, Eskom Units installed with condition monitoring techniques were considered. The minidissertation culminated in the compilation of case histories based on Eskom turbo-generator fleet where the technology is being rolled out. The literature survey looked at current industry practices in areas such as total productive maintenance (TPM), technology management and support systems, return on investment (ROI) and maintenance management to compare what Eskom is doing to what in others in the field are doing. There is no research work currently that has been done that links maintenance to maintenance technology deployment enablers. The research incorporates a number of operational experiences where some Eskom turbo-generator units continue to operate with a known fault. Regular maintenance interventions introduce faults into the machine due to human error, the opening of units and the handling of components. Attention is given to the impact of two-shifting or cyclic operation on turbo-generators that were originally designed for base load condition. The time–based maintenance of these units is not taking advantage of condition monitoring information. Also, the installed condition monitoring techniques fall short of addressing twoshifting monitoring requirements. A number of lessons were learnt from the implementation of the condition-based maintenance technology on Eskom generator fleet. The theory of maintenance management underscores establishment of a good relationship between system engineers, maintenance personnel and the technology provider which is key to success of the technology. It further indicates that this relationship must go deeper than the mere technology provider and the end user of the technology service agreement. The maintenance engineers are taking key business decision for the well-being of machines and maintenance technology needs to demonstrate that it is creating value for the business. From the people perspective attention is required to staff motivation and providing balanced job satisfaction, whilst ensuring that employees feel part of an integrated organisation maintenance strategy rather than of being under thread of disempowered by the technology. A myriad of considerations have been identified to affect the effective execution of conditionbase maintenance strategy on Eskom generator fleet. There are multiple dashboards or standards indicators that can be used for maintenance management improvement. It has been established that the success of the implementation of condition-based maintenance rests in the concept of total productive maintenance approach. Within the ambit of TPM, the entire process of maintenance must be managed on the basis of maintenance programmes plan, which will have function of connecting the various maintenance programmes.
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'n Bevoegdheidsgebaseerde model vir die ontwikkeling van ingenieurs-in-opleiding by Evkom
- Authors: Rall, Cornelius
- Date: 2014-02-04
- Subjects: Competency based education , Adult education , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/369646 , uj:8008 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8944
- Description: M.Phil. (Economics) , Please refer to full text to view abstract
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Elektrifisering as onafhanklikheidstrategie vir Eskom
- Authors: Van der Merwe, Mauritz Christiaan
- Date: 2014-02-20
- Subjects: Electric utilities - South Africa , Strategic planning , Eskom (Firm)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/368746 , uj:4171 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/9518
- Description: M.Com. (Business Management) , In February 1990 the State President of the Republic of South Africa unbanned the political organisations that were previously banned. This set the scene for full and free elections. It also brought new role players to the fore. Parastatal institutions, including Eskom, now faced the problem of having to adapt to the new environment. or face the possibility of serious intervention from a new Government. During 1990 Nedcor and Old Mutual formed a team of experts, including one specialist from Eskom, to seek alternative paths that South Africa may embark on in an attempt to foster an environment that would enhance the possibility of a successful transition to a democratic South Africa. The team produced a scenario, which became known as the "change of gears" scenario. One of the cornerstones of this scenario is a kick-start of the economy, inter alia through supplying with electricity those citizens who do not yet have access to electricity. With a view to this the Nedcor/Old Mutual scenario suggests an electrification rate of one million houses per annum. This figure was criticised because of the negative effect it would have on the balance ofpayments. The Nedcor/Old Mutual scenario was presented to many parties, including the Cabinet and the ANC Executive. Although criticism was expressed against this scenario, it served a meaningful purpose in that it was probably one of the impetuses for the ANC's national meeting on electrification and the creation of other scenarios, such as that of Van der Berg. as well as other studies such as this dissertation. This dissertation, comprises an environmental scan of the needs and wants of the parties affected by electricity and electrification. These parties were identified as: Eskom; the local authorities; the people who currently do not have access to electricity; the central government; the unbanned political parties; and the consumers ofelectricity. It has been ascertained that South Africa, in the form of Eskom, has an excess power generating capacity of approximately 25 percent; that 65 percent of the population does not have access to electricity; and that the price of electricity is low as compared to that ofthe rest ofthe world. It has also been established that in South Africa the percentage ofhouseholds (ii) electrified is approximately twice as high as that of any other country on the sub-continent. From this it was concluded that the issue of electrification is a political one, nevertheless an opportunity to improve the economy. The views of the interest groups were studied, with particular emphasis on the views expressed at the ANC's first national meeting on electrification. The views of the parties were reduced to a list of sixteen requirements/expectations. These were divided into two groups, these on which there are a high degree of consensus and those on which agreement would have to be obtained. The latter included the pricing issue for prepaid meter customers versus the other small power users; the effect of poor load distribution on the price paid by black local authorities; the gross underutilisation ofmanpower in the industry, due to the fragmented structures; the redistribution of wealth; strong Government intervention; and the question of the level ofprofits in the industry. From this follows the recommendation that the electricity supply industry be onsolidated under the Eskom structure and that the issue around electrification be depoliticised.It is also recommended that a stable rate of electrification of approximately 250 000 houses per annum be maintained.
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The benefits of privatisation in Eskom, the stakeholders perspective
- Authors: Makhaye, Nkululeko Allois
- Date: 2014-05-14
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Privatization - South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11084 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10657
- Description: M.A. (Business Administration) , The government is busy with the privatisation of all the parastatals. This is done in stages with the intention to better the lives of all South Africans through the exposure to global competitors, technology, economic markets and strategic alliances. This report looks at privatisation in general, the different definitions and the different models of privatisation that can be applied by South Africa. It then looks at Eskom as it undergoes privatisation and tries to establish if there are benefits that ensue from that and how do the stakeholders feel about privatisation. The Eskom method and policies supporting Black Economic Enterprises are visited. The questionnaire is circulated to stakeholders in Eskom to gauge attitude towards privatisation. The results are then statistically analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science II to arrive at the conclusive deduction. The researcher tries to see the positive things about privatization to encourage stakeholders to take advantage of the process and thereby securing all the possible benefits from privatization. The psychological perspective is that the government is going to implement privatisation to conform to the requirements of the international communities anyway, they are not asking for concerns to influence the decision whether to privatize or not to. The questionnaire circulated indicated that stakeholders think alike when it comes to different issues surrounding privatization. What is good is that there is a fair balance between those who are positive about privatization and those who are negative. The final recommendation of the report is that Eskom should privatize for pragmatic reasons using the French Model of Privatising whereby the total control of the enterprise still rest with the trusted members of the community.
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Die ekonometriese modellering van elektrisiteitsverkope deur Eskom in die Johannesburg en Pretoria gebiede
- Authors: Van der Bergh, Juanita
- Date: 2014-05-21
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Econometric models - South Africa - Gauteng , Electric utilities - South Africa - Gauteng
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:11146 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10738
- Description: M.Com. (Econometrics) , An attempt has been made in this study to model electricity sales of Eskom with the aid of an econometric model. The study examines the history of econometric modeling and the applications thereof. These applications include forecasting, policy simulation and policy analysis. The sales of electricity within the specific sales categories is estimated and simulated with the use of an econometric model. The model is specified according to the expected dependent and explanatory variables. The a priori theoretical considerations concerning the size and sign of the parameters of the function are also included in the specification, as well as the mathematical form of the model. The specification process of the econometric model is based on econometric theory and on available information relating to the phenomenon being studied. The method of ordinary least squares is used in the estimation of the parameters of the model. As this is an econometric study, the emphasis is on the evaluation of the results. Economic a priori criteria, statistical criteria and econometric criteria are used to evaluate the results of the parameters obtained by the method of ordinary least squares. Several tests, including the Goldfeld Quandt test for heteroscedasticity, the Durbin-Watson test for auto correlation and the Frisch analysis of multicollinearity are executed. The overall results of the tests to which the model was subjected, was satisfactory. The best functions are combined in a structured model. This model is simulated with the use of the Gauss-Seidel-method and forecasts of historical values are obtained. Statistical tests for the validation of these results, as well as Theil's inequality coefficient are applied to test the forecasting power of the model. The results of the ex post forecast for the period 1988.1 to 1995.1 emphasize the usefulness of the model as a forecasting device and the dynamic simulation demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the historical data from which it is estimated.
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