'n Etnografiese studie van 'n skool in verandering
- Authors: Fritz, Elzette
- Date: 2011-12-06
- Subjects: Educational change
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1795 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4159
- Description: D.Ed. , This study is my account, as an educational psychologist and newly educated educational ethnographer, of how a school community experiences major social political change. I had ventured into a school to inquire into matters related to educational psychology and found a culture in flux- a school in crisis. The notion of an ethnographic inquiry was conceived at the time when I realised that broader systemic changes were impacting the school to the extent where the institution became a concert, to some degree a Bakhtinian medieval carnival -thus the style and format, or design type of the study. The research, which had commenced as a conventional qualitative inquiry, metamorphosed into something of a critical ethnography, written up as an integrated account of research, narrative and also, ultimately, as a way of doing school counselling. The study is thus presented as an illustrated account of what I observed, interpreted, and came to understand at some levels. My interaction with children experiencing learning and developmental barriers in my private practice, led me to the decision to interrogate the impact that change has on their behaviour and their emotional experience. In my initial assumption, I considered the policy change with regard to the 'national' curriculum to be the major change confronting school communities. My interaction as a participant observer in a predominant white, Afrikaans primary school on the East Rand during the course of 1999 introduced me to their experience of chaos in a rapidly changing world as reflected in a changing education system. Curriculum 2005 seemed of little consequence in their struggle against redeployment, uncertainty, poverty, crime and a general sense of futility and isolation. During the course of the year, their preparation for the school variety concert, known in these schools as a "revue", commanded specific attention, due to the amount of time, energy and money invested in presenting a concert of outstanding quality. Through the use of an ethnographic methodology, I tried to capture their story, using the songs sung in the concert to present the framework of the ethnographic stage on which I was planning to present the findings emanating from the inquiry.
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Absent leadership in curriculum implementation
- Authors: Edwards, Graeme Bentley
- Date: 2008-05-09T12:27:57Z
- Subjects: Educational leadership , Educational change , Curriculum change , School improvement programs
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7023 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/352
- Description: Schools are essentially concerned with people and the development of knowledge and skills. Schools require leadership in order to achieve their goals. Furthermore, schools are tasked with being relevant in their contemporary societal contexts as well as for society in the future. Regarding the type of leadership in schools, Sergiovanni contends that schools need special leadership because they are special places, because they are lifeworld intensive and because “school professionals don’t react warmly to the kind of hierarchically based command leadership or hero leadership that characterizes other kinds of institutions” (2000:165 - 166). Against the backdrop of this commonly held belief, this research project undertook to investigate a school where the new curriculum had been successfully implemented in a context where there was absent leadership. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, the school type and context, the human interventions and the school culture were considered. The qualitative approach was selected for this research with a grounded case study as the relevant research design. Epistemologically, this research is located in the constructionist paradigm and an interpretivist theoretical perspective will be employed in the research project. Interpretivist philosophies promote the notion that human action can be distinguished from physical objects by virtue of the fact that they are inherently meaningful. The data were collected by means of some semi structured interviews and a dyad interview. Both convergent and divergent questions were posed to the participants in the data collection strategies. The process of data analysis was approached from a grounded theory perspective. This approach requires that a theory should emerge from the data rather than the data proving or disproving an existing theory. Six themes were identified through the process of data analysis. These themes were then processed into five findings which collectively developed and compiled a substantive theory. The findings of this study revealed that schools require leadership. Leadership should be considered in its broadest sense with all educators possessing the potential to lead. In addition, the appropriate use of power and authority were identified as essential ingredients for successful leadership. School culture was also found to be an essential component of successful schools. Not only is school culture essential for the successful daily functioning of schools, but an appropriate school culture is imperative for dealing with change and the successful implementation of new policies, curriculum and school reform initiatives. A collaborative school culture was identified as the type of school culture that is appropriate and that would support and facilitate the management of change. In light of the findings, implications for policy and practice are presented and suggestions for future research are made. Lastly, the limitations of the study are noted and the conclusions of the study discussed. It is hoped that this study will assist policy makers and school principals to seriously consider their leadership style in terms of sharing power and authority and in the creation of school culture that are empowering and positive, one that considers individual potential as well as group cohesiveness. , Prof. B. Smit
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Changing perceptions of teachers regarding the importance and competence of their principals as leaders
- Authors: Grobler, Bernardus , Bisschoff, Thomas , Beeka, Amrat
- Date: 2012
- Subjects: Educational change , Leadership , School principals
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5764 , ISSN 2076-3433 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7771
- Description: We examined the perceptions of teachers on the importance and competence of principals as leaders before and after an intervention programme on holistic leadership. The research was quantitative and contextualized in the Secunda region of Mpumalanga province in South Africa. The methodology followed a literature study and an empirical investigation in the form of a pre- and post-test experimental-type design. A structured questionnaire was administered to 400 teachers in 40 randomly selected schools divided into two groups. One group of 20 principals was provided with an intervention programme regarding the dimensions of holistic leadership. The other group of 20 principals was not exposed to the intervention programme. The perceptions of teachers from their schools were probed using a pre-post-test design. The intervention programme and biographic variables served as independent variables whilst the seven factors of holistic leadership formed the dependent variables. Principals who were exposed to the intervention programme were perceived by their teachers to be more competent than their counterparts who were not exposed to the programme.
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Dealing with tensions during curriculum change implementation in a school community
- Authors: De Coning, Andre
- Date: 2012-11-02
- Subjects: Curriculum change , Curriculum planning , Stress (Psychology) , Competency-based education , Educational change , Teachers - Training of
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:7301 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8040
- Description: M.Ed. , This study explores the tensions that exist in a school community during proposed curriculum change from a traditional collection-type curriculum to a totally integrated curriculum. The research study was conducted using a qualitative approach in which a case study research design and focus group interviews were used to generate data. Engeström’s (1997) Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was used as the conceptual framework in this study. A constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify categories and themes within the data. The results of this research showed that a multiple of tensions are present within this school community during curriculum change. Tensions exist between the teachers and the School Management Team (SMT), the community and the SMT as well as tension between the parents and the status quo. Recommendations include the suggestions for the implementation of an integrated curriculum as well as recommendations for further study.
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Educator development as an aspect of educator management : implication for whole school development
- Authors: Ntombela, Joyce Sibongile Nurse
- Date: 2012-09-05
- Subjects: School management and organization , Teachers -- In-service training , Educational change
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:9579 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7002
- Description: M.Ed. , Educators in South Africa are faced with critical yet challenging problems such as Curriculum 2005 and Curriculum 21, coping with instability (during retrenchments and redeployment), working towards professional advancement and at the same time teaching new approaches to assessments and reporting. This has brought into question the role and authority of educators in the administrative actions they have performed. These problems 1 have highlighted the significance of the educator development in the school context. In order for educators to reach the stage of professional maturity, they ought to continuously develop themselves. The Educator Appraisal System that was introduced in April 1999 also aims to develop new and in-service educators throughout execution of their jobs. Educator development will never have its intended impact as long as it is grafted into schools in the form of indiscreet, unconnected projects. More powerful strategies are needed in order to bring about more powerful changes. Having mentioned some of the challenges facing the education system, according to Firestone (1996:209) efforts to enhance educator professionalism must persist. A need to develop educators cognitively and professionally remains a priority. Reform initiatives, which endeavour to empower those closest to learners in the classroom, create new roles and responsibilities for role players in education. Transforming the learning-teaching process that unfolds in the classrooms and decentralisation of management and governance of the school must be developed, monitored and implemented (Hallinger, Murphy and Hausman, 1992:330). In order for schools to function effectively principals need to have an essential role in the implementation of innovations by providing vision, direction, encouragement, support and resources for developmental activities. Sybouts and Wendel (1994:150) are of the opinion that training must be relevant to the educators work. With shared decision-making and using educators as an integral part of the educator development programme, principals can build instructional relevance into the programme.
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Educators’ experiences of deracialisation in a historically advantaged school
- Authors: Chetty, Venie
- Date: 2015
- Subjects: Racism in education , Educational change
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/63974 , uj:17135
- Description: Abstract: Despite deracialisation and educational reform, educators have encountered a number of challenges that perpetuate hegemonic practices characteristic of the apartheid era. These challenges include unfair practices within principalship and governance, a lack of access to equitable education and a stifling of individual autonomy by the prescribed curriculum. This study focussed on educators’ experiences of deracialisation in a historically advantaged school in Johannesburg, in the east of Gauteng, South Africa. The aim of the study was to: (1) explore educators’ experiences in achieving educational reform, and (2) analyse the role of the school management team in navigating the process of deracialisation in post-apartheid South Africa. I conducted a qualitative case study at a historically advantaged (ex-Model C) school. This study was conducted through the lens of critical theory. The principal, institutional development and support officer and four educators were purposively selected to participate in the study. Data was elicited from the participants through the use of semi-structured interviews, and this was supported by document analysis. This study revealed that principals still adopt apartheid policies and practices, especially in limiting student access to schools. In addition, the handing over of governance to schools has failed to address inequalities prevalent in the education sector during the apartheid era. Furthermore, educators are unsuccessful in fulfilling their role as transformative individuals as they continue to employ apartheid principles in their practice. Insights gained could inform policy and practice in the following ways: (1) school management teams need to be equipped with skills to perform their duties; (2) educators must be involved in the process of establishing curriculum; and (3) intensive training of educators must be undertaken before the implementation of a new curriculum. , M.Ed.
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Exploring how professional development capacitates SMT's as change agents
- Authors: Diale, Governor
- Date: 2012-08-06
- Subjects: Educational leadership , School management teams , Educational change , Transformation (Education)
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:8930 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5402
- Description: M.Ed. , With the dismantling of the apartheid system in 1994, and the emergence of a new, majority government in South Africa, expectations of school leaders changed. They were suddenly expected to show initiative, plan and budget for the future, and act as leaders to improve schools. School leaders were also perplexed because they had not been given sufficient preparation or training to do the new job expected of them. The vital element that underpins this study is how professional development of SMTs enables them as change agents. SMTs play a vital role in the smooth running of schools. Therefore, it is imperative for SMTs to engage in professional development activities so that they can assist educators to deliver good quality education. SMTs interviewed regard professional development as a self initiated step towards honing personal skills and capacitation in accordance with their profession. Most schools are faced with a multiplicity of problems. Therefore, the following workshops/courses were recommended to can benefit SMTs namely, Conflict resolution, Human relations, School Management and Leadership, Labour Relations, Management of finances and resources and Classroom management. Another aspect is lack of parental involvement in the education of their children and this causes frustrations for teachers. The content of workshops needs to be relevant to the teachers' needs. The timing and duration of workshops is also a matter of concern because very often time allocated for workshops is not enough. Participants also raised the issue that there are still principals who are under qualified and this raises issues about their capability to iun schools professionally.
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Inevitable change: an ethnographic analysis of transformation in formerly Afrikaans primary schools
- Authors: Marais, Ingrid E.
- Date: 2010-05-13T09:26:23Z
- Subjects: Educational anthropology , Educational change , Multicultural education , Racism in education , Education and state , Elementary schools
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6800 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3235
- Description: M.A. , In the fourteen years since democracy, there have been many legislative changes in South Africa, especially in the educational sector. Although policies have changed at a macro level, there remains a need to investigate the effect of these policy changes at a micro level. This is an ethnography of two formerly whites-only, Afrikaans-only primary schools. In this study I found that although society and legislation have changed dramatically, what happens in the schools has not necessarily changed. There is widespread resistance to policies such as OBE, the disciplinary code, as well as religious legislation. Furthermore, there is a large element of racism within the schools which is mediated through the personal belief systems of the two headmistresses. Teachers resist legislative change because it does not accord with their own agendas, and is perceived as politically motivated and unworkable in their schools. In some cases, legislative change goes against the teachers’ identity. Teachers respond to this change with resistance—which is often not well articulated or organised. They stay in the profession because of a specific teacher identity that includes a strong religious element.
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Kriteria vir die regverdigbaarheid van deelperspektiewe in die opvoedkunde
- Authors: Kotze, Nico
- Date: 2012-08-16
- Subjects: Educational science - History , Educational change , Education - Study and teaching (Higher) , Teaching - Philosophy , Education - Philosophy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9465 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5897
- Description: D.Ed. , The aim of this study was to investigate: the causes, problems and justification of the increase in part-perspectives in faculties of education; the reasons for the apparent disappearance of borders between part-perspectives in Education; and possible criteria for the justification of existing and new part-perspectives and modules. The study showed that the increase in part-perspectives led to various problems in Education, such as: considering the own part-perspective to be more important than other partperspectives; overlapping between part-perspectives; and overemphasising the subdivisions of Education in stead of emphasising the educational phenomenon as the object of investigation. There were not only historical reasons for the diversifying of Education. The difficulties experienced in the structuring of Education were the result of the complex reality of education in a rapid changing society. Contemporary and future trends were therefore taken into account by the researcher because the effectiveness of faculties of education is determined by the manner in which they respond to changes in society. The present stance of the part-perspectives in Education was evaluated in this study in order to find criteria for the justification of existing and new part-perspectives. These criteria can be used as a basis for the possible restructuring of Education. The following criteria were amongst others identified: an educational perspective; demarcation; a clear problem; theoretical accountability; scientific justification; expertise; and a sound curriculum. This study demonstrated the necessity of knowledge of the nature of an educational perspective to enable educationists to evaluate the focus of their part-perspectives from an authentic educational point of view.
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Management and leadership experiences in fostering a culture of teaching and learning in ethnically diverse schools in Johannesburg North District
- Authors: Buma, Anastasia Malong
- Date: 2012-11-14
- Subjects: School management and organization - South Africa - Johannesburg , School improvement programs , Educational leadership , Educational planning , Educational change , Multicultural schools
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7392 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8199
- Description: M.Ed. , Since 1994, South African schools are increasingly becoming more diverse due to the implementation of new legislation to foster democratization in schools. Many schools whose communities were until 1994 defined along racial lines are increasingly becoming mixed in terms of learner, staff and parent bodies. Other external factors such as the increasing movement of people across the globe as a consequence of increasing globalization may also be contributing to the apparently growing diversity at schools. Such increasing diversity could pose challenges regarding fostering a culture of teaching and learning at these mixed schools. Therefore, school management and leadership, need to have the skills, knowledge and appropriate attitudes that are required in order to ensure that the culture of teaching and learning is advanced in ethnically diverse school. Considering her experience as a teacher at both private and public schools in South Africa over the last ten years, the researcher has observed significant changes in learner population across many schools with resulting implication to teaching and learning. These changes have placed tremendous demands on school principals and teachers who have to deal with the challenges such as, culture mismatch between student-student and student-teacher interaction, social tension and antagonism, communication problems, misinterpretation of values and behaviors that thus influence the process of teaching and learning. Hence, the researcher opted to do an investigation into how school leadership and management in ethnically diverse schools will advance opportunities that encourage a culture of teaching and learning. In order to do the investigation, the researcher firstly employed an extensive literature review to explore how the leadership and management of ethnically diverse schools advance opportunities that cultivate a culture of teaching and learning. The research design and methodology employed involved a mixed method approach consisting of quantitative as well as qualitatative methodologies. During the first phase of the empirical study, the researcher carried out the quantitative method of data collection where a set of questionnaires were filled in by the principal and the HoDs of the selected schools. In order to validate the findings of the quantitative survey, the researcher employed in-depth individual interviews with the teachers and students of the selected schools. Through qualitative analysis of the data, the research findings confirm that the diverse culture of schools in Johannesburg North includes characteristics of both traditional and liberal multicultural education. Also, societies are becoming more complex in terms of social, economic and political needs. Therefore, the implication of the findings are that, in addition to teaching the basic skills of reading, writing and math, school leadership and management should advance a culture of teaching and learning that will involve social justice issues where students will learn to become reflective, moral, caring and active citizens as is inherent in liberal multicultural education. Finally, the researcher recommends that regular survey on different aspects should be carried out in ethnically diverse schools in order to get such schools to open up to the demands of liberal multicultural education.
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Organisation development (OD) as a tool for sustainable school improvement
- Authors: Anderson, Cavil Sybil
- Date: 2010-11-17T07:19:57Z
- Subjects: Organizational change , School management and organization , Educational change
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6984 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3491
- Description: M.Ed. , Organisation development as a tool for sustainable school improvement is at the core of this study and a qualitative case study research method was deployed. Organisation development in itself is a process, which applies behavioural science knowledge and systems theory to plan and implement change in schools. The goal is more effective schools and an educational environment supportive of human needs and developments and where the participation of all stakeholders forms a crucial determinant in the change process. The researcher's field experience as an organisation development consultant combined with an international literature survey brought to light evidence to the effect that there is a definite need for a more school-based model of organisation development. The importance of a comprehensive capacity building exercise for principals and school management teams on the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for organisation development are identified as an absolute necessity in this research. The aim of the research is therefore to describe the nature of organisation development within a school context, determine the perceptions of educators concerning organisation development, investigate aspects that could be enhanced and develop guidelines that could be used by educational managers to improve their schools and to facilitate the management of change. A detailed literature study embedded within a theoretical framework of organisation development emphasises the importance of the individual nature of schools with reference to school improvement interventions.
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Rationalisation and redeployment in public schools in the Northern Province
The experiences of the nurse educators following the rationalization of nursing colleges in Gauteng
- Authors: Ntsele, Nompi
- Date: 2010-07-12T07:50:02Z
- Subjects: Nursing study and teaching , Educational change , Health care reform
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6885 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3333
- Description: M.Cur. , The rationalization of nursing colleges was implemented to change the manner in which the state institutions were administered for the purpose of improving service delivery, reduce state expenditure and maximize the utilization of these state institutions by making them accessible to all eligible users. The nurse educators’ experiences in this regard had to be explored and described because people react differently even to the best of intentions. The following research questions that gave direction to the research study were formulated. • What are the experiences of the nurse educators following the rationalization of the nursing colleges in Gauteng? • What are the supportive guidelines that can be formulated to assist the nurse educators cope in the nursing college that has undergone the rationalization process? The purpose of the research was to describe the supportive guidelines that might assist the nurse educators cope in the receiving nursing college that had undergone the process of rationalization. The objectives that would enable the fulfillment of the research purpose were formulated. The objectives of the study were: • To explore and describe the experiences of the nurse educators in a nursing college that has undergone the process of rationalization. • To conceptualize the experiences of the nurse educators • Describe the supportive guidelines to assist the nurse educators cope in the nursing college that has undergone the process of rationalization. A qualitative, contextual, exploratory, descriptive and phenomenological research design was used to address the research questions and objectives (Mouton 1998). The study was conducted in two phases. Phase one focused on the description and exploration of the nurse educators’ experiences following the rationalization of nursing colleges in Gauteng. Phase two focused on the conceptualization of findings and the description of the supportive guidelines. The method of selecting the participants of the study was purposive so that participants who met the criteria could be included in the study. The sample was obtained from the target population of thirty six nurse educators who were deployed from the nursing colleges that were closed down and those who were employed in the nursing college before the implementation of the rationalization of nursing colleges in Gauteng. A pilot study of four nurse educators was done. The four nurse educators were not included in the focus group interview. Twelve nurse educators from General Nursing Science, Midwifery, and Psychiatry and some of the managers (HOD’s) participated in the study. Community Nursing Science nurse educators were not available due to work commitment outside the nursing college. A focus group interview (Krueger 1994) was conducted within ethical considerations. Audio tapes were used to capture the data. Field notes of the gestures and emotions expressed by the nurse educator during the interview were taken. Tech’s (in Cresswell 1994) protocol to systematically process the contextual data was utilized. Trustworthiness was maintained to ensure credibility of the study (Lincoln & Guba 1985.) The two categories, seven sub categories and the related themes that emerged from data analysis were conceptualized and supported by relevant literature. The two main categories were positive experiences and negative experiences. The sub-categories of the positive experiences were: sharing of resources, empowerment of the nurse educators, collaboration of the receiving nursing college with the community to improve nursing education and acquisition of trans- cultural knowledge. The sub- categories of the negative experiences were: fear, perceived behavior of the authorities concerned with rationalization of nursing colleges in Gauteng and aspects pertaining to racial issues. These categories and their related themes were conceptualized and supported by relevant literature. Guidelines that would assist the nurse educators cope in the receiving nursing college were formulated. It is recommended that the authorities concerned with the rationalization of nursing colleges in Gauteng and the management of the receiving nursing college should consider the guidelines to assist the nurse educators cope in the receiving nursing college and in future rationalization of the nursing college. In conclusion, the study has sheared light on the importance of conducting a research before implementing a major change such as rationalization of state institutions to ensure sustenance of the objectives of the change. The employees’ wellbeing should be considered because the success of the rationalization depends on them. Rationalization of institutions, whether public or private, requires effective management to facilitate a reasonable integration process.
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The influence of educator attitudes on whole school development
- Authors: Andraos, Alexis
- Date: 2010-11-17T07:20:17Z
- Subjects: School improvement programs , Educational change , Teachers , Corporate culture
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:6985 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3492
- Description: M.Ed. , The central focus of this inquiry hinges on the notion that, within the context of school improvement initiatives, the nature of the organizational culture of the school cannot be overlooked as it has profound consequences for both stability and change (Finnan & Levin in Altrichter & Elliot, 2000: 93). This inquiry further proposes that if educational psychology is to succeed in establishing a more progressive identity, greater emphasis needs to be placed on its contribution to the management and psychology of schooling (Sharrat, 1995: 212). This study was borne out of my personal experience as an educator where it seemed increasingly apparent that the attitudes of my colleagues did not succeed in contributing positively to the improvement of the school as an organizational whole. This was evident in their reactive, often inconsistent approach towards discipline; poor motivation; late arrivals; regular absenteeism; lack of commitment; feelings of frustration as well as a sense of inevitability about the status quo. These factors seemed to playa critical role in the general ethos and cultural identity of the school. In light of the aforementioned, I chose to conduct an ethnographic inquiry at the school where I became submerged in the culture of the school for a period of approximately four years (February 1998 to December 2001). In keeping with the principles of ethnographic research, the overarching purpose of this study has been defined by its underlying concern with cultural interpretation (Wolcott, 1999: 67 -68). It has embodied an educational-autobiographical dimension and has taken the combined form of a realist-confessional tale. The data collection techniques utilised have included fieldwork; participant observation; semi-structured group interviews; incomplete sentences questionnaires; graphic representations of the school emblem and representation of the field by means of photographs. The participants comprised 27 secondary school educators. The findings indicate that a link exists between the attitudes of educators and a school's capacity for improvement. Moreover one crucial observation was made, namely that where the organisational culture of a school is anomic or entropic in nature the school's capacity for improvement is limited. This appears to be exacerbated by a negative identity, a poor culture of teaching and learning, and a lack of effectual executive leadership. These factors evidently give rise to an absence of a culture of collaboration, disciplinary difficulties and a poor quality of working life within the organisational whole of the school. The findings further suggest additional notable issues for consideration in -relation to the role the educational psychologist should play in the planning of whole school intervention strategies.
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Transforming the school into a learning organisation : challenges for school principals and educators
- Authors: Moloi, Kholeka Constance
- Date: 2012-08-23
- Subjects: School management and organization , School principals , Educational change , School improvement programs , Organizational learning
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3103 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6520
- Description: D.Ed. , One of the central themes that permeate the concept of learning organisations is its focus on individual and collective learning. Learning organisations are characterised as organisations that are capable of creating learning cultures, where acquisition of skill and knowledge is seen as an investment in tomorrow. Individual learning is promoted at personal, interpersonal and professional levels. Collective learning is promoted through conversation, inquiry and relationship building on collaborative cultures. This research focuses on how school principals and educators can transform their schools into learning organisations. This research concentrated on Black schools due to the enormous problems that exist in these schools. Use was made of a two-phase methodology namely the quantitative and the qualitative methods to elicit the perceptions of educators with regard to the school as a learning organisation. In relation to the quantitative method, a structured questionnaire consisting of 88 items was administered to 100 educators, with a return of 74,3%. After two successive factor analyses of the responses the 88 items were reduced to two factors only, namely: a collaborative culture consisting of 74 items, with a Cronbach-alpha reliability coefficient of 0,971; and educator commitment consisting of 13 items with a Cronbach-alpha reliability coefficient of 0,749. The two factors, namely collaborative culture and educator commitment were then used as parameters for the qualitative individual and focus group interviews. Thus the merging of the two traditional methodologies, namely the qualitative and quantitative paradigms, enriched the research. The researcher used one individual interview and two focus group interviews to elicit the opinions of educators concerning the concepts collaborative culture and educator commitment. The responses of the participants were coded and analysed. Eight themes emerged from the analysis namely: personal mastery; mental models; shared vision; team learning; systems thinking; reflection; dialogue; and leadership/management (iv) Categories related to these themes were also identified. The direct quotes of the respondents were transcribed and these together with the themes and categories were discussed in relation to relevant research literature. The results of the data analysis showed that the learning organisation is built around collaborative cultures and educator commitment. There was congruence between the literature review, the structured questionnaire and the individual and focus group interviews in that the themes that make up a learning organisation were personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, systems thinking, reflection/inquiry, dialogue and leadership/management. The recommendations that are provided in this research are based on the eight themes identified in the individual and focus group interviews, on the findings from the literature review as well as from the findings from the structured questionnaire. Although eight themes were identified these themes are closely related and interactive. The research was concluded with a chapter on the findings, results and recommendations, as well as possible areas that needed further investigation.
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Understanding teacher identity from a symbolic interactionist perspective : two ethnographic narratives.
- Authors: Smit, Brigitte , Fritz, Elzette
- Date: 2008
- Subjects: Educational change , Narrative inquiry , Symbolic interactionism , Teacher identity
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:5763 , ISSN 2076-3433 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7770
- Description: In this ethnographic inquiry we portray two teacher narratives reflecting educational change in the context of two South African schools. The study was conducted as part of a larger inquiry into ten schools in urban South Africa. A decade of democracy begs some attention to educational progress and reform, from the viewpoint of teachers and with the culture of their schools as the inquiry’s landscape. We present two ethnographic narratives, crafted of a typical ‘township/rural’ school, and an established Afrikaans school, with two teachers as the main social actors. Data were sourced from passive observations, interviews, informal conversations, and journal data. These field texts were analysed for content and narrative using, as methodological frame, the ‘Clandininian’ “metaphorical three-dimensional inquiry space”. Three data themes, teacher authority, commitment to the profession in terms of staying or leaving, and multitasking are theorised from a symbolic interactionist framework, using constructs such as situational, social and personal identity. The major finding of this inquiry speaks to the power of the working context, the educational landscape, which appears to be a much stronger force in the development of teacher identity than national educational policies.
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