Manufacturing of fibre bragg gratings for dispersion compensation
- Authors: De Bruyn, Louis
- Date: 2011-11-30
- Subjects: Optical fibers , Diffraction gratings , Fibre bragg gratings
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1751 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4106
- Description: M.Ing. , Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have been manufactured for the first time in South Africa by means of the phase mask method. It is possible to manufacture not only uniform FBGs, but also chirped FBGs. The optical fibre that is used for imprinting the FBGs can also be hydrogen loaded locally. FBGs with a reflectivity of 99.7% and higher can be written by making use of the experimental setup presented in this thesis. It is possible to manufacture a FBG with a centre wavelength that has any value between the Bragg wavelength and approximately 6 nm lower than the Bragg wavelength. This is done by stretching the optical fibre prior to the writing process. FBGs have been simulated in MATLAB to get an idea of what one may expect during the manufacturing process. The program makes it possible to simulate the effects of changes in grating length, index modulation, pressure, temperature and strain on the centre wavelength of an FBG. Dispersion is explained in detail. Chromatic dispersion, which is part of dispersion as a whole, can be cancelled by making use of an FBG. The different techniques for the measurement of chromatic dispersion is explained. Some insight is given on dispersion (the pulse broadening in the time domain due to the different velocities of different wavelengths from the source's finite optical bandwidth) compensation. An FBG that was manufactured locally has been tested as a dispersion compensator. It was found that an FBG is effective in performing this function.
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Add-drop multiplexers using fibre bragg gratings and optical couplers
- Authors: Naude, Riaan
- Date: 2009-02-26T12:21:04Z
- Subjects: Diffraction gratings , Optical fibers
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8168 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2173
- Description: M.Ing. , This thesis, devoted to fibre optics, is primarily concerned with the utilization of fibre Bragg gratings and optical couplers to realize optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs). A comparative study regarding various OADM configurations is undertaken on the basis of manufacturing and the performance in terms of insertion loss, channel isolation, tuning ranges, stability and cost. The heart of most of the OADMs is fibre Bragg gratings. The Runge-Kutta numerical integration method is used to solve the coupled-mode equations in order to simulate the spectral dependence of Bragg gratings numerically. Properties such as the grating strength, the grating length and the grating index profile governing the spectral dependence of Bragg gratings are investigated. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the dispersive properties of Bragg gratings. We investigate methods to limit the amount of dispersion induced by fibre Bragg gratings. The tuning of Bragg gratings for dynamic OADMs is also reviewed. High channel isolation Bragg gratings are theoretically and experimentally investigated. DC-apodized gratings were designed and manufactured by using the phase mask method through the use of a preconditioning technique. Bragg gratings with channel isolations of up to 24.61 dB have been realized by using this technique. The spectral dependence of DC-apodized gratings on the amount of preconditioning and the smoothness of the index envelope is simulated and in agreement with the experimental results. An athermal Bragg grating was designed and manufactured, exhibiting an average wavelength-temperature sensitivity of 2.76 pm/oC. An OADM comprising a DC-apodized Kaiser grating and an optical circulator was realized. The device showed an insertion loss of 1.84 dB and a channel isolation of 22.84 dB. The coupling mechanisms for different types of optical couplers are investigated. The distribution of power was established to be either by evanescent field coupling (etched, polished and weakly fused couplers) or due to the beating phenomenon (strongly fused couplers). The beating phenomenon of the HE11 and HE12 modes in the waist of the tapered-fused coupler is modelled and used to simulate different characteristics, such as wavelength, polarization and external refractive index dependence of tapered-fused couplers, in order to realize OADMs.
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Realization of chirped fibre Bragg gratings by strain gradients and their applications for fibre dispersing compensation
- Authors: Zhu, Yinian
- Date: 2012-09-05
- Subjects: Optical fibers , Optical detectors , Diffraction gratings
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9621 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7040
- Description: M.Phil. , Linearly chirped fibre Bragg gratings can be used to compensate dispersions in a fibre transmission system. Various methods have been developed to chirp fibre gratings. It is proposed that a uniform period grating can be chirped by applying an axially linear strain gradient. In this project, we shall demonstate a novel method for making chirped fibre Bragg gratings, which involves bonding an unchirped fibre Bragg grating of 5cm length to the surface of a tapered stainless steel plate which is strained by bending or dilating. This allows a strain gradient to be formed along the grating length through the transferring of strains from the plate to the fibre. The profiles of tapered stainless steel plates have been determined by means of the finite element method and computer simulations to establish the strain gradient during loading. Ten conventional resistive strain gauges are also bonded on the other surface for strain measurements. Because of the strain gradient, the local Bragg wavelength is a function of the position along the length of the fibre grating so that the grating chirp is an automatic consequence of the strain gradient. This method provides the dynamic control of Bragg wavelength shift, peak reflectivity and spectral bandwidth, and its tunability is also suitable for optimising pulse compression and optical fibre dispersion compensation. Using couple-mode equations, we have also calculated the reflection response of a chirped fibre grating. It is shown that the close agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results suggests that the strain gradient technique provides good control of the Bragg grating chirp and the center wavelength of a chirped fibre Bragg grating.
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