A component analysis of cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder
Cognitive specificity in the treatment of the borderline personality disorder
- Authors: Linde, Colinda D.
- Date: 2014-05-08
- Subjects: Cognitive therapy , Borderline personality disorder - Research - South Africa , Borderline personality disorder - Treatment - Research
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/368928 , uj:10971 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/10544
- Description: M.A. (Clinical Psychology) , The relatively rapidly development of cognitive-behavioural approaches to various psychological conditions, has prompted clinicians and researchers to investigate the borderline personality disorder more thoroughly. Research has evidenced the uniqueness of the borderline personality disorder in terms of description, etiology and therefore treatment. of the various treatments proposed, the cognitive-behavioural approaches appear to be most effective. Latest developments in this area emphasize cognitive factors such as content-specitic cognitions and Early Maladaptive Schemas. These factors are important tor psychotherapeutic purposes. A hypothesis was formulated which stated broadly that cognitive-behavioural approaches would result in equal treatment efficacy, whether process(schema) or content based, and investigated in the context of a pilot clinical trial with tour subjects. Apart from measures for depression and cognitive processes in the BPD, a depth-of-processing task and a schema questionnaire were utilized in investigation or the hypothesis. These measures, in addition to CB interventions, were applied to a small group or carefully selected BPD's, with a secondary diagnosis or depression. Findings supported the basic hypothesis of the study, and demonstrated that cognitive-behavioural approaches of either content or process typos are equally etricacious in treatment of the borderline porsonality disorder.
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The effects of an anger-expressive cognitive-behavioural intervention programme on HIV-seropositive patients
- Authors: Lamb, Torsten Rainer
- Date: 2012-08-16
- Subjects: AIDS (Disease) , AIDS (Disease) - Epidemiology , AIDS (Disease) - Psychological aspects , AIDS (Disease) - Patients - Mental health , AIDS (Disease) - Patients - Research - South Africa , Behavior therapy , Group psychotherapy , Cognitive therapy , Psychometrics
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/382928 , uj:9573 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5997
- Description: D.Phil. , This thesis presents an intervention programme that aims to facilitate anger-expression and takes psychosocial and immunological variables into account. The present research argues that if the effects of the programme are validated, similar programmes may yield similar benefits for other participants in future intervention programmes in a South African context. The nature, course and effects of the HIV disease are described and include specific processes and mechanisms of influence in physical, mental and social terms. Biological processes that result from immunological deficiencies causing AIDS are analyzed and an explication of disease progression is offered. Psychological and social aspects related to immune-system deterioration carry implications for patients and influence their prognosis. The research was conducted in the context of a biopsychosocial conceptualization and was aimed at reducing levels of anger and helping establish recourses in the patients to manage infection and disease, as well as improve or at least retard decrements in immunological functioning. The goal of this intervention programme was to reduce levels of anger, anxiety, depression and social isolation. This would in turn increase the participant's personal sense of self-control, self-efficacy and self-esteem. Changes in these factors would help retard the overall HIV disease progression. An intervention programme was tailored to address the specific needs of HIV- infected patients. The group intervention was focused in such a way that relevant psychological, behavioural and social aspects were addressed. The programme borrowed and used aspects of different models and reformulated an intervention that would best address the specific needs of the participants. It was possible to isolate specific problems and focus the intervention on these specific areas, such as depression, anger, social isolation and hopelessness. For example, it was possible to take into account the participants' low self-efficacy and problems related to a lack of interpersonal coping skills and develop the participants' confidence and assertiveness (Antoni, 1991)
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Hulpeloosheid en gebrek aan beheer as determinante van sielkundige funksionering in 'n waakeenheid
- Authors: Bertelsmann, Anchen Margaretha
- Date: 2014-03-27
- Subjects: Intensive care nursing - Psychological aspects , Cognitive therapy , Helplessness (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:4513 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/9851
- Description: M.A. (Clinical Psychology) , The purpose of this study was to establish whether a cognitive intervention with patients in an intensive care unit in a general hospital would lead to a decrease in the commonly observed "intensive-care syndrome", which previously led to a deterioration in patients’ condition irrespective of their physiological condition. In order to effect this study an intervention focused at the alleviation of cognitive factors possibly causing the intensive care syndrome was constructed and rendered on audio-tape. An experimental and control group were randomly selected and pre-tests were performed on these groups. After the pre-tests were performed, the cognitive intervention was applied and post-tests on the same measures were performed. The results were subjected to separate analysis of covariance where baseline levels of the dependent variables were used as covariates. No significant results were found, implying that cognitive factors might not be playing the role they were expected to play, and that organic-physiological factors might play a more important role in the causation of the intensive-care sydrome. In addition, it was hypothesised that patients used their own "cognitive intervention" in order to alleviate the severity of symptoms observed in the intensive care unit. Further research is suggested in order to determine the relevant factors inherent in such a condition.
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Coronary heart disease prevention in healthy coronary-prone individuals
- Authors: Webster, Sharon
- Date: 2012-08-23
- Subjects: Coronary heart disease -- Patients -- Psychology , Type A behavior , Coronary heart disease -- Prevention , Cardiovascular system -- Diseases , Heart -- Diseases , Behavior therapy , Cognitive therapy , Angina pectoris , Myocardial infarction , Heart failure , Lifestyles , Stress (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:3128 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/6548
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , This research investigated the effectiveness of the treatment programme used by the South African Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project (SARCPP) in reducing the risk of not only recurrent heart disease, but also of original occurrence of heart disease. Heart disease can often be attributed to lifestyle factors such as obesity, high fat content diets and smoking (Friedman & Ulmer, 1995 and Richards & Baker, 1988). Another lifestyle risk factor of heart disease is Type A behaviour, as first discovered by Rosenman and Friedman (1959). Type A behaviour is made up of various components, such as hostility, time urgency and insecurity. The SARCPP has effectively reduced Type A behaviour in past studies (Venter, 1993; Viljoen, 1993; MacLennan, 1994 and Webster, 1994) and it has been found that reducing Type A behaviour through this programme increases high density lipoproteins and decreases total triglycerides, thus decreasing physiological risk factors of heart disease (Wolff, Thoresen, Viljoen, & Venter, 1994). The SARCPP thus far had only been used with Type A persons who had already suffered a form of heart disease, such as myocardial infarction and angina pectoris (here called "unhealthy" Type As). Other interventions have been used to decrease Type A behaviour in subjects who had not yet suffered heart disease (or "healthy" Type As). A leading researcher in this field is Ethel Roskies (1979-1990). Due to ineffective measurement and ineffective treatment programmes, her attempts were not successful, though. This research study applied the treatment used in the SARCPP to both "healthy" and "unhealthy" Type As and it was found that it was as successful in reducing Type A behaviour in both the "healthy" subjects as in the "unhealthy" subjects. Not only was global Type A behaviour as measured by the Videotaped Structured Interview decreased in the treatment groups, but so were the components of Hostility, Time Urgency and Insecurity (although Insecurity was not decreased in the "unhealthy" subjects). The tendency by the subjects to repress angry feelings was reduced in both "unhealthy" and "healthy" subjects, as was cynical hostility in the "healthy" subjects. It was found that the "unhealthy" subjects had significantly more State and Trait anxiety before the treatment took place than the "healthy" subjects and that the treatment reduced that anxiety in the "unhealthy" subjects significantly. Depression was decreased in both "healthy" and "unhealthy" subjects. Thus, the treatment programme of the SARCPP was effective in reducing coronary-prone behavioural factors and can be used as both prevention in recurrence and prevention in original occurrence of heart disease.
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The application of cognitive dissonance as a psychotherapeutic technique
- Authors: Kohler, Terence
- Date: 2014-02-04
- Subjects: Psychotherapy , Cognitive dissonance , Cognitive therapy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8023 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8958
- Description: M.A. (Psychology) , This investigation is aimed at enhancing the degree of behavioural compliance in individual clients through the utilization of cognitive dissonance as an adjunct to a behavioural prescription. The literature on behaviour therapy holds that behavioural prescription is accepted in its own right as an effective procedure for inducing behavioural compliance. At the same time it is evident that in certain situations behavioural prescription alone is not effective in inducing behavioural compliance. The reason for this is given as the tendency for certain individuals to respond to a behavioural prescription with defiance, or to use reactance. Such a tendency is known as the reactance-potential of the individual. Several variables have been linked in the literature to reactance-potential, for example, locus of control. This variable has the potential to be used to predict reactance-potential, and thus the likelihood of an individual responding to a behavioural prescription with reactance. Reactance is seen as a process that can be utilized in the therapeutic relationship in the service of change. Cognitive dissonance theory allows for the utilization of reactance in the psychotherapeutic context so that the response to cognitive dissonance induction is behavioural compliance. The experimental hypothesis was based on the theory that cognitive dissonance induction would direct the individual "s reactance towards the reduction of the state of cognitive dissonance that was induced. The goal of the therapeutic intervention was an increased degree of behavioural compliance in the experimental group that received cognitive dissonance induction. Therapeutic instructions were applied to two groups. The control group...
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Narratives of professional golfers regarding sport psychology : a social constructionist perspective
- Authors: Ohayon, Johnny
- Date: 2012-09-11
- Subjects: Sports -- Psychological aspects -- Research , Golf -- Psychological aspects , Cognitive therapy , Behavior therapy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:10038 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7427
- Description: M.A. , The approach of psychology to sport has over the century been ambivalent. The relationship between the field of psychology and matters on the sports field has tended to favour one type of understanding, namely cognitive-behavioural psychology. The theoretical underpinnings of this conception are seen to be directly connected to a set of philosophical, ethical and aesthetic ideas known as Modernism, which have dominated this century. It is suggested herein that with the renewed interest of psychology in matters sporting, some of the current theoretical perspectives in the general field of psychology might be applied to sports. The approach adopted here explores how the narratives of professional golfers, looked at through a social constructionist lens, could assist them in re-evaluating and enriching their experiences. Social constructionism aims to change the traditional agenda of psychological research, which might lead to new ways of talking about ourselves and our surroundings. Social constructionism is situated inside a different set of theoretical premises, which are known as Postmodern, which challenge the Modern way of knowing.
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