Cross-cultural differences in the character strength of citizenship in South Africa
- Authors: Du Plessis, Graham A. , Saccaggi, Carolina F. , De Bruin, Gideon P.
- Date: 2015
- Subjects: Citizenship , South Africa , Cross-cultural , Character strengths
- Language: English
- Type: Journal article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/17762 , uj:15922 , Citation: Du Plessis, G.A., Saccaggi, C.F. & De Bruin, G. 2015. Cross-cultural differences in the character strength of citizenship in South Africa. Psychology in society (PINS) 48:22-44
- Description: Abstract: The psychological conceptualisation of the character strength of citizenship as a trait ubiquitous across cultures is examined within the context of a diverse South African sample. The theoretically supposed elements common to the definition of citizenship as a dispositional trait (rather than a situational or cultural phenomenon) are examined by means of considering Peterson and Seligman’s (2004) conceptualisation of citizenship as espoused in their work on character strength and virtues. Using the Rasch model of item response theory the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Value in Action Inventory (VIA) Citizenship scale was examined for fit and differential item functioning (DIF). A diverse sample of 902 South African university students who completed the Citizenship scale was examined for DIF as a function of self-asserted ethnicities and home language groups, which serve as indicators of culture within the South African context. The findings of the study suggest that while certain conceptual aspects of trait-based citizenship as espoused by Peterson and Seligman (2004) are common across the heterogeneous cultures (as defined by ethnicity and language group) examined, there is sound evidence that there are also qualitative distinctions that are exclusively a function of cultural grouping, suggesting difficulties with the exclusive conceptualisation of citizenship as an individual trait. The implications of these findings speak to the importance of considering citizenship as a nuanced and complex notion that requires further consideration in terms of the philosophical, theoretical and empirical qualification of its conceptualisation.
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The construction and evaluation of a Work Performance Questionnaire for use with administrative and operational staff.
- Authors: Schepers, J.M.
- Date: 2008
- Subjects: Performance , Halo error , Citizenship , Orientation , Counterproductive
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:6401 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1169
- Description: The principal objective of the study was the construction and evaluation of a work performance questionnaire for use with administrative and operational staff. Work performance is a multidimensional construct that indicates how well a worker performs in his/her work, the degree of initiative he/she takes, the ingenuity he/she shows in the finding of solutions for problems, and the manner in which he/she uses the human resources at his/her disposal. Two questionnaires were constructed – one for staff performing managerial functions (the full scale) and one for staff in non-managerial positions (the shortened scale). The sample consisted of 278 staff at a South African university. The full scale yielded a reliability of 0,983 and the shortened scale a reliability of 0,978. The implications of the findings are discussed.
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The presidential public participation programme (imbizo) as participatory policy-making
- Authors: Hartslief, Odette
- Date: 2010-05-13T09:24:32Z
- Subjects: Political planning , Public participation programme , Policy-making , Citizenship , Politics and government - 21st century
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6798 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3232
- Description: M.A. , The central problem this research addresses is to establish if the Presidential Public Participation Programme (izimbizo/imbizo) constitutes a form of participatory policy analysis and policy evaluation as proposed in the general policy literature. The izimbizo programme is uniquely suited to meet the requirements of the (South) African context. Post-positivism provides a different approach through policy analysis, especially in relation to valuative and normative approaches. The research is furthermore applied, as it seeks to improve the application and existing practice around organising the izimbizo. The research proposes the extension of the use of the programme beyond that of merely a communication tool, into the realm of the policy process. The objectives of this dissertation were to provide an overview of the concept of izimbizo as a deliberative approach to policy making, focusing particularly on the evaluation process. The research systematically explores how the izimbizo is operationalised. It provides an overview of the international trends and international examples of successful participatory methods. Consideration is given as to how information at different stages of the policy cycle may be used for improving policy making. The research further explores existing research on public participation as well as the theory regarding deliberative approaches as a more recent mechanism for policy analysis in a democratic milieu. The benefits as well as limitations to using the izimbizo as a deliberative approach in the policy process as well as in policy monitoring and evaluation in general are explored. The study also provided a strong case for developing a clear social contract through the use of participatory programmes such as the izimbizo in order to develop citizenship and to create a positive role for sophisticated accountability.
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The role of screen-print projects in enhancing awareness of active citizenship : a case study at artist proof studio
- Authors: Hartwig, Claudia Katarina
- Date: 2012-07-31
- Subjects: Citizenship , Community engagement , Screen process printing , Visual art learning programs , Artist Proof Studio (Johannesburg, South Africa) , Community education , Social participation
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8877 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5345
- Description: M.Tech. , This study is based on the premise that awareness of active citizenship among South African citizens should be encouraged and can be developed through specific educational and skills interventions embedded in Visual Art learning programmes. South Africa‟s developing democracy requires active citizens with the capacity to disseminate values of equality, dignity, liberty and social justice, amongst other constitutional rights. Our country‟s history in the struggle for liberation encompasses a legacy of resistance, and screen-printed protest posters played an important role in communicating dissent towards the apartheid state (Seidmann 2009, Peffer 2009). My research examines the role of screen-printing as a particular graphic medium which is an organising tool to create awareness and communication. The project uses co-operative enquiry as a participatory action research method to facilitate the application of hand-made fine art screen-printed artworks and posters that support skills development, an understanding of self-identity and a sharing of skills that contribute to active citizenship. I present three visual art screen-printing projects that I facilitated from 2010 to 2011 at Artist Proof Studio (APS), an art centre in Johannesburg, whose mission is to inculcate aspects of active citizenship among the participating learners. I contend that the combination of all three screen-print projects presented to the group of students, leads to skills-development, awareness of personal identity and participation in community engagement projects which may enhance their ability to participate as active citizens and which in turn supports the mission statement of the education unit at APS. Such an intervention serves as a learning model that can further contribute to social, educational and economic redress among the participants at APS.
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