The effectiveness of a diveristy awareness training program.
- Authors: Cavaleros, C. , Van Vuuren, L.J. , Visser, D.
- Date: 2002
- Subjects: Diversity awareness , Performance management , Career development , Teamwork , Work-family needs , Organisational culture
- Type: Article
- Identifier: uj:6409 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1206
- Description: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a diversity awareness training programme. A sample of 382 employees from four different departments within a large accounting firm was used to form the groups of a simulated Solomon four-group design. The impact of a two-day workshop on diversity awareness was assessed using a 68-item questionnaire designed to measure awareness of self, impact of differences, performance management, career development, teamwork, work-family needs, participation, organisational culture, relationship building, and general satisfaction with the organisation. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (20 items) was included to measure job satisfaction. The results showed no evidence of a statistically significant effect of the diversity awareness training programme.
- Full Text:
Die ontwikkeling en validering van die loopbaanvoorkeurvraelys (LVV)
- Authors: Du Toit, Renette
- Date: 2008-10-31T09:15:07Z
- Subjects: Career development , Vocational guidance , Questionnaires design , Questionnaires evaluation
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13974 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1434
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The main aim of this study was to compile a career interest inventory – the Career Preference Inventory (CPI) – that would succeed in identifying the career preferences or vocational interests of learners from Grades 9 to 12. The specific objectives of the study involved an empirical examination of the content validity, construct validity, as well as reliability of the inventory. A study was also made of the structure of vocational interests of the test groups that formed part of the study. The study entailed two empirical investigations. When the inventory was administered for the first time, additional items were added to the SAVII and the test group was made up of a representative sample of 1385 Grade 9 and 12 learners in the North West Province. As a result of the item analysis that was based on this sample, 54 of the items in the questionnaire were either changed or replaced. The reliability coefficients of the subfields of the SAVII for the population involved in the first administration were acceptable and ranged between 0,747 and 0,901. After an analysis of the items in the SAVII and the selection of the most suitable items, the questionnaire – by now known as the Career Preference Inventory (CPI) – was administered once again. The reason for the second administration was to establish whether the amended items met the statistical requirements that had been set. Convenience sampling was used in this part of the study, since it was not possible to draw a representative sample of the population. The sample consisted of 1271 Afrikaans first language speakers, 2699 English second language speakers and 306 English first language speakers. Item analysis revealed that all the items were acceptable. The reliability coefficients of the fields of the CPI were also acceptable and varied between 0,714 and 0,860 for the particular test group. Test-retest reliability coefficients could be calculated for a group of 197 English second language speakers only and varied between 0,689 and 0,863. A factor analysis was made to determine the constructs or factors that emerged with regard to the CPI. Initially six factors were specified, but since the fields for Clerical-Administrative, Business, and Management manifested within a single factor, seven factors were subsequently withdrawn to establish whether the two latter-mentioned components could indeed function independently. The following fields or dimensions eventually realised: 1) Human-Communication; 2) Medical and related; 3) Technical-Scientific; 4) Practical-Handcraft; 5) Artistic; 6) Business and Management; and 7) Clerical-Administrative. The final questionnaire contains 18 fields that are described individually and that are not categorised into 6 main fields. The questionnaire is also supposed to disclose the vocational information in Career Mentor in an ordered and structured manner. The 18 fields are therefore linked to more than 500 occupations and the CPI results serve as a search strategy that unlocks the mentioned occupational database according to specific vocational preferences.
- Full Text:
The development of a work values questionnaire
- Authors: Engelbrecht, Petronella Maria
- Date: 2008-11-03T06:48:13Z
- Subjects: Career development , Values research , Work ethic , Industrial psychology , Questionnaires
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14033 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1441
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The shift from a modern to a postmodern culture is reverberating through the field of career psychology. This results in a rejection of the grandnarrative of the objective career and a shift to the exploration of multiple subjective realities regarding the world of work. A description of three aspects, namely, sensitivity towards diversity, the notion of the subjective self and the challenge to the general paradigm of progress, illuminate blind spots in modern career psychology. These aspects present a conceptual base for thinking on postmodern career psychology. The career psychologist’s role is determined by processes of decision making and attributing meaning. An exploration and clarification of values is useful during these processes. The aim of this study is to formulate and investigate the validity of a structure of work values during an early stage of career process by means of developing a Work Values Questionnaire. A theoretical discussion of the constructs of values and more specifically work values, presents a basis for developing items for the Work Values Questionnaire. The purpose of this theoretical description is operational. In accordance with the postmodern incrudibility towards the grandnarrative no attempt is made to present a unified value or work values theory. The work of Buchholz and Hofstede forms the basis for a description of work values. From this theoretical basis five work value scales, namely, Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Individualism and Humanist Values were postulated. 93 items representing these scales were written and administered on 1365 South African participants. The responses of 637 participants were used to perform an exploratory factor analysis on the 93 items. The responses of the remaining 717 participants were used to perform confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained empirical structure. Five factors were identified and described in the first group by means of exploratory factor analysis. Based on these results, a postulated model was generated and tested with the Group Two data. The fit between the model and the data was explored by means of the chi-square statistic, the Goodness of Fit Index, the Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index and the Steiger Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation Index. The results indicate a satisfactory fit between the postulated model and the data. Based on the outcome of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, these five factors can be described as iv empirically well defined. The factors also appear to represent meaningful psychological constructs. It is therefore stated that the validity of a structure of work values is supported. The five constructs are Group Involvement, Uncertainty Tolerance, Structured Work, Visible Success, as well as, Progressive Advancement and Success. The results of this exploration can be utilised in further research aimed at the development of a Work Values Questionnaire.
- Full Text:
A factor analytic study of adult career concerns, career status and career resilience
- Authors: Lew, Charlene C.
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:24:09Z
- Subjects: Job satisfaction , Vocational guidance , Vocational interests , Career development , Adult Career Concerns Inventory , Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory , Career Resilience Questionnaire
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14592 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1513
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil. , Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resilience in adult vocational adjustment. In an exploratory factor analysis of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory theoretical considerations suggested the extraction of four factors which explained 74% of the variance in the correlation matrix. The communalities of the variables were determined by means of squared multiple correlations of the subscales. On oblique rotation by means of Promax, a four factor solution was supported, reflecting the underlying dimensions of Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance and Disengagement. High correlations among the factors suggested the presence of a general factor, which may be termed career concerns. A factor extension analysis indicated the high quality of the test items, and a high level of correspondence between the Maintenance and Establishment factors. Maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analyses of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory were subsequently performed to test four and three factor measurement models. The estimated standardised factor pattern coefficients of both the models were found to be statistically significant. High correlations between the Maintenance and Establishment factors from the four factor model however favoured the three factor model, which allows for the merging of these two latent dimensions. In an exploratory factor analysis of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory use were made of constructed item parcels. Theoretical considerations suggested the extraction of nine factors, which accounted for 54% of the variance in the correlation matrix. The squared multiple correlations of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory item parcels were used to determine the initial communalities, and the nine factors were obliquely rotated by means of Promax. With the exception of two of the parcels, the factor pattern coefficients indicated that all the item parcels could be explained by nine factors that correspond with the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory subscales, namely Job Satisfaction, Career Worries, Family Commitment, Interpersonal Abuse, Skill Development, Geographical Barriers, Risk-taking Style, Work Involvement, and Dominant Style. The relative independence of these factors were inferred from the interfactor correlation matrix. A factor extension analysis indicated the overall high quality of the test items. A maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory at item parcel-level was based on a measurement model in accordance with the nine factors mentioned above. This analysis supported the nine factor model and revealed interesting relations among the dimensions of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory. An exploratory factor analysis of the Career Resilience Questionnaire at item-level was also performed. Although the Kaiser criterion suggested the extraction of as many as 15 factors, and the MAP values suggested six factors, the initial communalities based on the squared multiple correlations were also considered. The initial communalities were reiterated twice, and the residual four factors accounted for 27% of the variance. An oblique rotation of the factors by means of Promax resulted in the tentative labelling of four latent dimensions, namely Leadership, Sense of Security in One’s Career, Acceptance of Uncertainty, and Values. These factors had satisfactory reliability coefficients, but no significant intercorrelations. Due to the theoretical inadequacies of this analysis, an oblique multiple groups factor analysis of the Career Resilience Questionnaire was performed in an attempt to cross-validate the factor solution reported by Fourie and Van Vuuren (1998). Low reliability coefficients of the factors were however obtained, an the postulated measurement model could not be supported. In an interbattery factor analysis of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory and the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory both theory and reliability coefficients of various factor solutions were considered, which resulted in the extraction of six factors. The factors were rotated obliquely by means of Direct Quartimin. The resultant factor solution met theoretical expectations by indicating several shared dimensions of the two instruments. Implementation, Advancing, Holding and Updating were grouped with Career Worries and Risk-taking Style. Job Satisfaction related negatively in a shared dimension with Crystallisation, Specification, Implementation, Retirement Planning and Retirement Living. Innovation was associated with Work Involvement, Skill Development and Dominant Style. Stabilisation, Risk-Taking Style and Geographical Barriers formed a shared dimension. Deceleration and Interpersonal Abuse were likewise associated. Lastly, Family Commitment and Updating shared a negative relation within another dimension. In essence, these factor analyses support the construct validity, theoretical generalisability, and usefulness of both the Adult Career Concerns Inventory and the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory, but fails to support the construct validity of the Career Resilience Questionnaire. Moreover, a foundation has been laid for the theoretical integration of the constructs of career concerns and career status.
- Full Text:
The effect of a career guidance training programme on volunteer trainees
- Authors: Molefe, M. J.
- Date: 2008-11-11T06:45:52Z
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Career development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14632 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1586
- Description: M.A. , There is a serious need for effective career guidance programmes in schools. Most of the research point out that the need is more evident in African schools. This can be linked to the high school dropout rate, resulting in unemployment and a low quality of life in some sectors of the population. Other factors like poverty and parents’ socio -economic status plays a part. This study sees the school as the most important setting and environment that is responsible for developing and promoting quality career development programmes that will produce learners that are going to be self-reliant in life. For such programmes to address the needs of the learners, they should be developmental in nature. Some of the characteristics of a developmental career development programme are that it takes all children in the school into consideration. It also has a preventative emphasis. The study raises concerns about the nature of career development in schools and whether their programmes are developmental in nature. The training of the guidance counsellors, as they are responsible for programme development, is also an issue. The study therefore describes at length a developmental career guidance programme, its characteristics, principles on which it is based and implementation. The psycho-education model is seen as a proper vehicle for training and for enhancing the skills of the guidance counsellors. A training manual in career development was developed as an intervention process in this study. Ten teachers who were firstly interviewed to assess their level of knowledge and training on career development were trained using this manual. The teachers were then interviewed, and gave a descriptive account of the knowledge acquired from the training. The results are discussed with reference to the theory and literature that are put forward in this study. The evaluation of the intervention of the study, which was the training manual, was positive. The teachers described it as helpful and easy to apply.
- Full Text:
The implementation of a career development and planning programme for under-privileged learners as part of their training at a bridging college.
- Authors: Van Tonder, Dawid Johannes
- Date: 2009-02-11T08:51:35Z
- Subjects: College student development programs , Career development , Counseling in higher education
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8129 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2104
- Description: M.Ed. , Making a career choice is most probably one of the most important decisions any person, or school leaver, has to make. Research has shown that a large percentage of learners are not equipped to make the right career choice (Stead & Watson, 1999:169). It is, therefore, of the utmost importance that, as an Educational Psychologist, career guidance should be seen as a very sensitive process that should be handled with the utmost respect to ensure that the client’s needs are addressed through the process. Because we live in such a dynamic world that is constantly changing, it is important to make sure that the career guidance process keeps up with the latest trends. As the Trait-and-Factor Approach is being relied on very heavily, in the South African context, one must ask if this theory still fulfills all the career guidance needs in the modern age. Although Frank Parsons, the founder of this specific theory, was responsible for a great number of reforms in a modernist era, should we not look for a theory that leads us into a postmodernist era? When talking about a postmodernist time frame, it should be seen in its totality, not just in the information era, but also on a personal level for each individual as to recognise personal differences. Clients present more challenging needs and have greater expectations of a career in a very competitive market. It is, therefore, important for a counsellor, in a postmodernist era, to address these additional needs and to allow the client, not just to be a part of the process, but to make the process more beneficial, in all regards, to the client’s needs. This research study was aimed to describe students’ experiences of a career guidance and development programme. The students attended a bridging college for underprivileged students who had passed matric and were given the opportunity of increasing their mathematics and science marks. The students with the highest mark would then qualify for a bursary to attend a tertiary institute to further their studies in electronic engineering and information technology. The students were from the local area living in the townships and attending the local schools in the townships. There are two college campuses, one in Alberton and one in Boksburg, with fifteen students attending each campus. The students that are successful at the tertiary institute will be offered a position at the company supporting the college as a social upliftment programme for equal opportunity. It was decided to give the students who were attending the college the opportunity to go through a career guidance and development programme as they indicated that they had very little exposure to career guidance programmes while still at school. The programme that was used with the students was based on a constructivist approach using narratives. The programme consisted of a number of different tasks that the students had to do, in order to help them identify their own personal characteristics, and to identify their own values and interests. The knowledge they gained through these tasks helped them to construct a personal narrative. The clients themselves, at the end of the process, edited this narrative after having gone through and completed the process. Focus group interviews, as well as the students’ personal journals, where the different tasks were recorded and deliberated upon, were used as data collection methods. From the data that was collected, it was established that the students’ experience of the career guidance process, was very positive. The students also indicated that they had certain preconceived ideas of a career guidance process, but that they experienced this intervention programme as very insightful on a personal level, and it also made them more aware of their needs with regards to career guidance. The main themes that emerged during the research study were mainly on the students experience with regards to the career guidance processes and the process of self-discovery that was one of the aims of a constructivist approach using narratives. The students indicated that they enjoyed the programme, and that they had gained personally from the process.
- Full Text:
The protean career attitude, emotional intelligence and career adjustment
- Authors: Buchner, Morné
- Date: 2009-03-31T09:38:20Z
- Subjects: Career development , Vocational guidance , Emotional intelligence
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8267 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2377
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The rampant and unpredictable changes in the world of work have recently become a particular point of concern. Organisations worldwide require career agents who are more adaptable to respond appropriately to these challenges. The study aimed to firstly assemble a viable empirical career adjustment model to address these challenges. Secondly, the study differentiated and profiled four career agent groups which utilise this model in different and dynamic ways. These career agent profiles provided an exploratory and contextual platform for the third aim, to uncover a narrative of the adaptable career in the South African context. A convenience sample (n = 427) mostly representing engineers (38%), financial professions (22%) and technicians (15%) responded to three instruments which operationalised the dimensions of the proposed career adjustment model. The dimensions included in the model were the (i) Protean and Boundaryless career attitude, (ii) Emotional Intelligence and (iii) Work-Stressor experience. These dimensions were operationalised by (i) the Protean (Self-Directed Career Management and Values Driven scale) and Boundaryless (Organisationally Mobile and Boundaryless Mindset scale) career attitude scales, (ii) the BarOn EQ-i composite scales (Intrapersonal EQ, Interpersonal EQ, Adaptability, Stress Management and General Mood) and (iii) selected scales from the Sources of Work Stress Inventory (Lack of Autonomy and Workload). These instruments were tested for reliability and validity which provided acceptable results in terms of Cronbach alphas and EFA. The Protean and Boundaryless career attitude (PBca) instrument showed less reliable results with the Values Driven scale (α = .65). The SDCM scale produced more reliable results (α = .74). The BM and OM scales rendered the most reliable results (α = .86 and α = .87 respectively). The other instruments reflect excellent alpha iii coefficients ranging from α = .80 to α = .92 for the SWSI and from α = .81 to α = .96 for the BarOn EQ-i composite scales. The EFA of the PBca was primarily guided by the theoretical structure to extract four factors. A similar process followed for the SWSI rendered excellent factor loadings for General Work Stress (GWS), LA and WL. In the empirical construction of the career adjustment model both the use of correlations and hierarchical multiple regression rendered statistically significant results for the intercorrelations between the proposed dimensions of the model. The correlation results (within and between the dimensions) were as expected except for Organisational Mobility and Self-Directed Career Management which did not correlate significantly. Together the three dimensions predicted approximately 32% to 33% of the explained variance in GWS (i.e. the dependent variable chosen to represent a subjective experience of career adjustment). Overall, the findings supported the proposition that the model could be utilised as a viable career adjustment model. The non-hierarchical clustering analysis provided four significantly different clusters based on the PBca scales which were labelled the Protean (P), the Non- Protean (NP), the Organisationally Mobile Protean (OMp) and the Boundaryless Minded Protean (BMp). The Protean clusters all shared the Self-Directed Career Management and Values-Driven scale. These clusters were distinctly different after considering their attributes which originated from the BarOn EQ-i composites and SWSI scales. The most significant factors (attributes) revealed after conducting Descriptive Discriminant Analysis (DDA) where AD, RA, SM, GM and LA. The DDA procedure rendered Lack of Autonomy (SWSI) and Adaptability (EQ-i) as the most significant discriminators. This lead to the profiling of career agent types, namely the Protean Career Architect, the Conglomerate Citizen (study specific), the Solid Citizen and the Traditionalist. With these career agent profiles as basis an attempt was made to explore how their careers can unfold in the South African context.
- Full Text:
An assessment package for a life counselling model
The relationship between career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy expectations among disadvantaged learners
- Authors: Bernard-Phera, Martha Joy
- Date: 2010-11-23T05:44:56Z
- Subjects: Career development , Adulthood , Emotional maturity , Decision making , Self-efficacy , Children with social disabilities
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7024 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3530
- Description: M.A. , The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy expectations among disadvantaged Grade 12 students. Factor analysis was used for this purpose. The construct of career maturity was dealt with comprehensively by means of a theoretical review of the contributions made by Donald Super, John Crites and Ronelle Langley. The second construct, i.e., career decision-making self-efficacy expectations was covered by reviewing the contributions of Albert Bandura, Nancy Betz, Steven Brown, Gail Hackett and Robert Lent. Three measurement instruments were utilised, namely, the Biographical Questionnaire, the Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSES). The data was analysed by means of principal factor analysis with iterated communalities. The Scree-test and eigenvalues-greater-than-one criterion were used to determine the number of factors. The factors were obliquely rotated according to the Promax criterion. The factor analysis revealed that career maturity and career decisionmaking self-efficacy expectations are two distinguishable but empirically and conceptually related constructs. Although the CDQ and CDMSES and their respective sub-scales define two separate factors, the correlation between the factors show that they are not entirely independent. Factor analysis also revealed that the CDQ and CDMSES were valid and reliable measures of career maturity and career decision-making selfefficacy for a sample other than the white, middle-class samples. The results also show that the disadvantaged learner has a lower level of career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy as compared to a normative high school sample and an affluent sample. These results were expected, especially in the light of South Africa's historical past. Changes in the economic environment may prove to be instrumental in changing perceptions about the world of work and attitudes towards career planning and choice. Researchers are challenged to implement programmes that will assist in the enhancement of career maturity and career decision-making self-efficacy ofthe disadvantaged learner.
- Full Text:
Evaluering van ‘n loopbaanberadingsintervensie met behulp van die loopbaanportefeulje-aktiwiteitswerkboek
Generational awareness in co-worker relationships in the interactive information society
- Authors: Van der Walt, Sophie
- Date: 2011-08-31T10:05:33Z
- Subjects: Diversity in the workplace , Career development , Academic librarians , Co-worker relationships , Baby Boom generation , Generation X , Generation Y , Cuspers
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7186 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3807
- Description: M.Phil. , Although a great deal of research has been conducted on diversity management in South Africa, very little of this research has focused on age diversity within interactive information societies such as libraries in South Africa. This study will focus specifically on academic libraries. It is also clear that most of the research regarding age diversity within Academic Information Services (AIS) has focused on managing the difference in ages between library patrons and library staff members. Very little of the research is devoted to age diversity between co-workers, and even less research has been conducted regarding Cuspers as a generational cohort within the library environment. This study is aimed at investigating age diversity within AIS in South Africa in relation to its effect on work, work performance and co-worker relationships. It is also aimed at encouraging organisations, and specifically AIS, to take cognisance of the current age demographic of their libraries and to develop and implement not only succession planning policies, but also relevant recruitment and retention policies in order to avoid employee and leadership vacuums. The research findings of this study are relevant as they give organisations in general, and specifically AIS within higher education institutions (HEI), a point of reference to guide the formulation of recruitment and employment policies that would appeal to the values and preferences of younger generational cohorts currently under-represented in these organisations. In addition, this study is of value with regard to the formulation of succession policies focused on the planning and training of new middle and top management staff members in order to improve current succession policies and plans.
- Full Text:
Die validering van 'n loopbaankeuse vir sosio-ekonomiese benadeelde leerders
- Authors: Alexander, Dinah Lydia Magdalena
- Date: 2011-11-10
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Career development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7273 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3948
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil. , The empirical aim of this study is the validation of a career guidance intervention, i.e. the SNUG-guide to career choices. Scheepers (1996) developed this guide for socio-economic deprived learners. An investigation will also be undertaken to ascertain whether the SNUG corresponds at a structural level with the SDS. If this assumption is validated, then the SNUG can replace the SDS as a measuring instrument in South Africa. The learners in the sample come from disadvantaged, socio-economic deprived backgrounds, and therefore Chapter One contained a discussion about the problems that face such communities in the career decision-making realm. The necessity of program development and validation to address these challenges was highlighted. It was determined that the focus should be on empowerment, in order to facilitate sustainability and to ensure that the community can regain control over their lives and future. The theoretical base was formed on Super (1990) and Bandura's assumptions and principles. The intervention was based on Holland's (1985) structural-inter-active model -just like the SDS. To meet the empirical aim of the study, a research method, namely the developmental research method, was utilized. The focus was on the evaluation phase, as this study focused on the validation of an intervention. Due to rationalization and other after-effects of the Apartheid era, there is a shortage of trained guidance personnel in disadvantaged communities. Applying the SNUG-guide can fill this gap, because both facilitators and learners can easily understand it. It was found that the SNUG-guide corresponded with the SDS on a structural level. The results of the research also revealed that most learners like their parents, still preferred Social and Conventional career fields. There is a welcome inclination towards the Investigative careers, which should be encouraged, because few disadvantaged people were historically represented in these careers. There was an absence of interest in the Enterprising fields, which should be investigated further. Learners also indicated that they have an aversion to Realistic careers, because of its historic negative connotation. The learners seemed to view the Artistic field as an extra-mural activity, rather as a career field. In the evaluation, most learners indicated that they had found the program beneficial and that they would be able to make and implement a career decision, due to the help that they have received. An empowerment program, like the SNUG - guide, proved to be a powerful tool to uplift and empower socio-economic deprived communities. It enhances their self-efficacy and leads to feelings of being in control of their lives. With the implementation of the SNUG-guide in this study, the intervention was validated as being an adequate tool to address the career decision-making difficulties of disadvantaged learners, and to empower the community.
- Full Text:
The protean career : implications for human resource systems
- Authors: Van den Berg, Ian Johannes
- Date: 2011-12-06
- Subjects: Career development , Personnel management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/374221 , uj:1830 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4190
- Description: M.Comm. , Changes in society, the nature of work, workplaces and employer-employee relationships have made traditional approaches to career development in organizations inadequate with powerful impacts on the employees. New concepts of career and life planning will be needed if such changes continue to take place. This study aims to obtain an overview of how career development is related to traditional human resource systems in organizations, discuss the protean career as a contemporary approach to careers and to explore the implications of the prQtean approach to career development for organizations. The study comprises an analysis of the literature relevant to the protean career concept, career development practice and human resource systems. In order to understand the implications of the protean career, an overview of how career development relates to traditional human resource systems is first undertaken. The fundamental interdependence between an individual's career plans and an organization's human resource plans is illustrated by considering the essential career-oriented human resource systems characteristics, namely organizational-level activities, the individual-level activities and the matching process. The study focuses in particular on the features of the protean career concept as a contemporary approach to career development in organizations. The protean person's own personal career choices and self-fulfilment are the unifying and integrative elements in the person's life. This implies a relational approach to the career development practice in human resources systems. Pursuing a protean career means, therefore, the development of a new psychological contract. Whereas in the past, the contract was with the organization, in the protean career, the contract is with the self. The protean career is therefore a process that the person and not the organization is managing with the criterion for success being internal (psychological) and not external.
- Full Text:
'n Ondersoek na die verband tussen loopbaanvolwassenheid en personeelomset binne 'n lugvaartmaatskappy
- Authors: Jansen van Vuuren, Chanel
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Career development , Adulthood , Emotional maturity , Labor turnover , Airlines employees
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2030 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4381
- Description: M.A. , This study aims to investigate career maturity and career developmental tasks of cabin crew and ground personnel in an airline. This study set out to measure the level of career maturity as well as the mastery of different career developmental tasks. Fifty-one subjects partook in the study of which 30 persons are ground staff and 21 cabin crew. By taking career maturity and the mastery of certain career developmental tasks into consideration, the researcher can make certain assumptions about the turnover of personnel. The measuring instruments that will be used in this study include the Career Mastery Inventory (Crites, 1990), the Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1985) and the Career Development Questionnaire (Langley, 1989). Research questions that will be part of this study includes: • what level of career maturity was achieved in each of the occupations; • what developmental tasks were achieved, like organizational ability, position performance, work habits and attitudes, advancement, career choice and plans and co-worker relationships; and • what coping mechanisms like adjustive, integrative and non-adjustive coping skills were used in the solving of problems within the organization. These factors will be taken into consideration to research the possible effect on personnel turnover.
- Full Text:
The relationship between personality traits and perceived career barriers amongst young adults in South Africa
- Authors: Yates, Duncan
- Date: 2012-02-28
- Subjects: Personality , Vocational guidance , Career development , Young adults conduct of life , Young adults life skills guide , Young adults employment
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2089 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4435
- Description: M.A. , Young adults who are entering the world of work are facing increasing challenges, resulting in elevated levels of employment uncertainty and anxiety. Many of these challenges are due to the continuously changing work environment, which is buffeted by the socio-political and economic climate - both in and outside South Africa. Other challenges could be related to factors such as lack of confidence, decision making difficulties, dissatisfaction with career choice and difficulties with social networking. As a result of such challenges young adults may perceive career barriers that would have an impact on their career development. These challenges could be influenced by an individual’s personality traits. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the career barriers most perceived by young adults. The study also aimed to assess whether any relationship exists between personality traits and perceived career barriers. The sample consisted of 193 participants from two universities in South Africa. Each participant completed a biographical data questionnaire, the Basic Traits Inventory- Short Form and the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised. The three highest standardised mean scores for the perceived career barrier scales were Racial Discrimination (M = 4.90), Dissatisfaction with Career (M = 4.56) and Sex Discrimination (M = 4.49). Examination of the individual personality traits in relation to perceived career barriers was done through the use of Pearson’s product-moment correlations. Extroversion yielded statistically significant negative correlations with the following perceived career barriers: Decision–Making Difficulties (r = -0.241; p < 0.01) and Inadequate Preparation (r = -0.149; p < 0.05). Conscientiousness showed a statistically significant positive relationship with Sex Discrimination (r = 0.274; p < 0.01). The results also indicated a statistically significant positive correlation between Agreeableness and Job Market Constraints (r = 0.166; p < 0.05). This study has implications for career guidance counsellors in their endeavours to provide a comprehensive service to young adults who have difficulties overcoming perceived career barriers.
- Full Text:
Life role salience : black dual-career couples in the South African context
- Authors: Kgaladi, Busisiwe M.
- Date: 2012-06-05
- Subjects: Dual-career families , Married people - Employment , Work and family , Blacks - Employment , Career development
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2439 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4898
- Description: M.Comm. , The rise of the dual-career family has meant that "men and women have ambitions and commitments in both the work and family simultaneously" (Amatea, Cross, Clark & Bobby, 1986 831). Managing the demands of life roles has therefore become a challenge for both men and women. Rajadhyaksha and Bhatnagar (2000 490) noted that, while contemporary career development theories elaborate extensively on the differences in the career development of men and women, such theories may pose challenges when generalised across cultural contexts. The purpose of this study is to replicate Rajadhyaksha and Bhatnagar s (2000) ndian study, where differences in the manifestation of career development for men and women were found, in the black African South African context. The research questions of the study are broadly The research questions of the study are broadly articulated as follows: • Does the importance attached to different life roles differ for married black South African dual-career men and women across their life span? • What are the implications of such differences for career development theories? Data were collected from black African dual career couples through the Life Role Salience Scale as developed by Amatea et al. (1986). The general results of the study indicated that black African couples received more personal satisfaction or fulfilment from life roles than the level of commitment of personal resources they were willing to dedicate to these roles. The study results indicated little support for the results of Rajadhyaksha and Bhatnagar s (2000) study. Black African women displayed the same level of salience towards career as men, while no segmented view towards work and family roles was noted. Within the Indian context the opposite holds true.
- Full Text:
The achievement of authenticity for women within a career context
- Authors: Potter, Tamsyn
- Date: 2012-06-06
- Subjects: Career development , Working women , Authenticity , Kaleidoscope Career Model , Conformity in the workplace
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:2470 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4926
- Description: M.Phil. , Orientation: In South Africa and around the world, the nature of work and careers is changing. Coupled with this, the changing roles of men and women in society due to increasing numbers of women participating in the economy and significant shifts in the expectations of people in relation to their work lives have led to new theories on career development emerging. Work is seen as an opportunity to provide more than an income, and opportunities to experience authenticity in career lives are sought. Research purpose: This study focuses on the interpretation of the phase of authenticity as described in the Kaleidoscope Career Model, which gives cognisance to the differences between men’s and women’s careers in the changing world of work. This study looks specifically at the dimension of authenticity, with particular reference to women.
- Full Text:
An evaluation of a career guidance programme in rural schools in Mpumalanga
- Authors: Du Toit, Francois Gerhardus
- Date: 2012-06-07
- Subjects: Career development , Rural schools - South Africa - Mpumalanga , Vocational guidance - South Africa - Mpumalanga , Career education - South Africa - Mpumalanga
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8649 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5005
- Description: M.Ed. , With the introduction of Curriculum 2005, which was followed by the National Curriculum Statement and later on by the Revised National Curriculum Statement, a whole new world was opened for all the learners in the RSA. Life Orientation became a compulsory subject up to Grade 12. One of the focus areas of Life Orientation is careers and career guidance. Unfortunately very few educators are properly trained to handle this very important educational domain. Learners in the rural areas have a bigger drawback than their peers in the urban areas, seeing that they very often don’t have access to electricity and therefore the electronic media and facilities, such as computers and internet to improve their career knowledge and their knowledge of the world of work. The challenge to open the world of work and tertiary education to these learners is a very real one. This study focused on the evaluation of the implementation of a career guidance programme in a rural area of Mpumalanga. A qual-quan mixed method methodology was used to gather raw data from various sources. The quantitative raw data was gathered through a pre- and post-test of Grade 10 learners from four rural schools with the Career Development Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of these data had limitations, such as the small number of control school participants as well as the problem of English language proficiency. The qualitative data was derived from feedback from Life Orientation educators after they had been trained, semi-structured interviews with open ended questions with Life Orientation educators and Grade 10 learners, observation and field notes and a reflective journal from the researcher. The findings from the results reflected firstly on the outcomes of the career programme in terms of achievement of career maturity as measured according to the sub-scales identified by Langley. The conclusion was that the experimental group did increase their scores from the pre- to the post-test. The increase was however very small and all the participants still ended on the scale where they still needed to improve their knowledge and skills on all the sub-scales. A number of themes referring to LO educators, the school community environment and English language proficiency provided information about the implementation of the programme. Although the results of the outcomes in terms of career maturity were not substantial, the qualitative data provided findings about the positive impact of the training of LO educators for career guidance teaching, their experience of empowerment, the creation of a positive attitude and the positive impact of the CPAWs to learners and educators. Barriers that were identified through the emerging themes were the lack of English language proficiency and a school community environment that was not conducive to career exploration and career decision-making and planning. In reflection, the general consensus among the Life Orientation educators was that the continuation of the program should get the highest priority. They believe that if it can continue, it will have a positive impact on the Grade 12 results and through this a positive impact on the lives of many learners, especially in the rural areas. Recommendations were made about the improvement of aspects of career maturity through exposure to career information and the improvement of conditions at schools to facilitate the implementation of career guidance and effective LO teaching.
- Full Text:
An investigation of the perceptions of the influence of parents or significant others on the career decisions made by South African first-year students at the University of Johannesburg
- Authors: Mantsena, Mikateko Adolphina
- Date: 2012-06-08
- Subjects: Vocational guidance , Vocational interests , Personality and occupation , Career development , Black students
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:8736 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5089
- Description: M.Ed. , Career decision-making has always been a complicated process for South African African students. They often do not receive enough information about career implications of the courses that they are about to choose which may lead to many South African African students making a career choice on a trial and error basis . In addition, they lack the skills of integrating career and self-knowledge and are likely to lack realistic understanding of the world of work and opportunities available for them. The influence of parents or significant others is one of the many factors that influence career decisions. Many African South African students are the first generation students in Higher Education due to the restrictions of the Apartheid era before 1994 and the socio-economic status resulting from that in the decade after 1994. This study focuses on the first year South African students who entered Higher Education in 2008. The investigation is about the perceptions of these first generation students about the influence of significant people on their career decisions. The inquiry utilized a qualitative approach due to its exploratory, descriptive and contextual nature. Furthermore, qualitative research provides information on how the first year students at the University of Johannesburg have made their career decisions. The data collection methods included semi-structured interviews with eighteen participants which permitted the participants to express themselves in ways that are not constrained and dictated by the researcher. Data obtained was analyzed using content analysis to determine the common themes that emerged and to offer a model for systematic qualitative analysis with clear procedures for checking the quality of analysis conducted. The findings revealed that there are no significant differences between the first generation rural and urban students. The role models (parents, teachers, cousins, siblings, uncles, social workers) of both rural and urban students provided support with regard to career information, emotional support in the form of acknowledgement and faith in the participants. The influence is broad and covers all the aspects relating to career decision making such as self-knowledge, reality check, remuneration, career planning, career and self exploration. Career counseling should receive renewed attention on school and HE level and all stakeholders in the school and business community should be involved. Parents should be involved in all instances.
- Full Text:
Educational-psychological practice framework for the personal and professional development of life-orientation teachers in the Gauteng Province : a mixed method study
- Authors: Diale, Boitumelo Molebogeng
- Date: 2012-07-31
- Subjects: Educational psychology , Life orientation , Life orientation - Study and teaching , Career development , Curriculum change
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8878 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/5346
- Description: D.Phil. , Since the inception of democracy in 1994 the country’s educational system has radically changed as one reform rapidly succeeded another. The changing curriculum meant an end to the sole emphasis on academic achievement. Instead, the introduction of Life Orientation (LO) meant that schools had to be concerned with the development of the whole person, placing personal and individual needs in a social context to encourage acceptance of diversity and promote the quality of life for all. Whilst the transformation and curriculum changes have brought about a breakthrough in the education system, LO teachers in the Gauteng Province were presented with new challenges as they found themselves faced with multiple moral and emotional problems that learners brought to school and yet they were not professionally prepared for nor were they trained to deal with. Such problems brought about ambiguity and created confusion in their roles, raising personal and professional dilemmas such as their limited knowledge of the curriculum and specific tools and practice skills needed to teach Life Orientation meaningfully. It is in context of the above that I decided to conduct a study focusing on what should be entailed in the personal and professional development (PPD) of LO teachers in the Gauteng province. I also considered how their personal and professional experiences contributed to the meaningful teaching of LO. Furthermore, these experiences would be used to develop an Educational-Psychological Practice Framework for the PPD of LO teachers in the Gauteng Province. LO teachers and provincial coordinators in Gauteng were identified as study participants. A three-phased sequential explanatory mixed methods design was used in this study. Phase one of the study was quantitative in nature and data was collected using a questionnaire distributed to 154 LO teachers in the province. The main aim of this phase was to obtain descriptive data that would be used to enhance the qualitative data in phase two of the study. Of the total distribution, 130 questionnaires were returned and analysed using the SPSS software package. Synopsis vi In phase two of the study a qualitative approach was used with the aim of obtaining LO teachers’ experiences of their personal and professional development. Individual and focus group interviews were held with a total of 18 participants. In addition, two participants took part through creating collages. The study yielded eight themes namely: 1) LO teachers’ life experiences; 2) Attitudes towards LO; 3) LO curriculum delivery; 4) complex roles of LO teachers; 5) essential characteristics of LO teachers; 6) LO teachers’ needs; 7) dealing with challenging social issues; and finally, 8) support circle for LO teachers. In the third phase of the study an educational-psychological practice framework for the personal and professional development of LO teachers in the Gauteng Province was described. Empowerment and support were identified as key aspects of that should be used in the development of LO teachers in the Gauteng province. As such, the Life (L) Orientation (O) Teacher (T) Empowerment (E) and Support (S) practice framework was designed. Subsequently the framework was called the LOTES Practice Framework. The framework comprised of four interrelated systemic levels which relate to specific forms of empowerment and support for LO teachers at each level. Finally, to ensure successful implementation of this practice framework, key role-players for each level were identified and recommendations for the implementation were set out.
- Full Text: