The classification of agricultural products according to geographical origin by means of quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry for the determination of ¹¹B/¹°B isotope ratios, and the study of boron isotope fractionation
- Authors: Greeff, Liezl
- Date: 2010-04-01T05:32:05Z
- Subjects: Wine and wine making , Boron isotopes , Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry , Provenance trials
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6740 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3148
- Description: M.Sc. , The 11B/10B stable isotope ratio in wine- and provenance soil samples of four South African wine regions was determined by means of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data obtained was combined with multi-element results for the same samples. Discriminant analysis and ANOVA statistics were utilized to create a footprint of wines compared to their provenance soil. The results showed that the stable boron isotope ratio was a distinguishable characteristic in wine and soil samples for the Stellenbosch, Robertson, Swartland, and Walker Bay wine regions. The potential improvement of precision and accuracy was investigated specifically for ICP-QMS (quadrupole mass spectrometry) analysis of boron isotope ratios. Sample preparation methods for the matrices used in this work were developed and applied. The influence of the matrix components was investigated. Ion exchange separation procedures were developed for the separation of total B from the wine and soil matrices. Results were treated mathematically to minimize mass bias effects. It was found that combined matrix effects and TDS (total dissolved solids) deposition did have a pronounced effect on the 11B/10B isotope ratios of the samples. The possibility of boron isotope fractionation was investigated in vine plants. Hydroponic experiments were set up with test plants of two cultivars. A 10B enriched nutrient solution or growth solution with natural 11B/10B ratio was supplied to the plants during alternating periods of 5 weeks each. New growth leaves were harvested once every week during each of these time periods. All samples were carefully prepared and analyzed to determine the relationship of the 11B/10B ratio in the leaves compared to that of the supplied nutrient solution. It was observed that the 11B/10B isotope ratio of the growth solution had an influence on the 11B/10B stable isotope ratio in new growth leaves of vine plants.
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Provenance determination of South African wines with quadrupole-based ICP-MS measurements of ¹¹B/¹°B isotope ratios
- Authors: De Bruyn, Riette
- Date: 2009-11-16T06:21:56Z
- Subjects: Wine and wine making - South Africa , Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry , Boron isotopes
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8639 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2997
- Description: M.Sc. , The origin of a wine plays a key role in establishing the quality and the price the consumer is prepared to pay. Fingerprinting techniques based on multi-element data combined with multivariate statistical analysis as well as isotope ratio data for certain elements such as boron (11B/10B) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) are being developed and have been used for provenance determination of wine with varying degrees of success. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine boron isotope ratios (11B/10B) with the required precision using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in soil and wine samples and applying this method to establish the origin of South African wines. Analytical difficulties such as the boron memory effect, dead time, mass bias drift and matrix effects were investigated. Although the memory effect, dead time and mass bias drift were satisfactorily resolved, it was not possible to determine what the cause of all the observed matrix effects was during this study. The method was used to categorise wines from the Robertson, Swartland and Stellenbosch regions and an attempt was made to link the measured boron isotope ratios with that obtained from the corresponding provenance soils. The 11B/10B isotope ratios for the wine samples (Robertson: 4.202 ± 0.014, Swartland: 4.173 ± 0.013 and Stellenbosch: 4.174 ± 0.028) were, however, higher than the ratios obtained for the soil samples (Robertson: 4.108 ± 0.020, Swartland: 4.070 ± 0.023 and Stellenbosch: 4.124 ± 0.039). It was possible to distinguish, using the boron isotope ratios (wine and soil samples), between the Robertson area (Breede River region) and the Swartland area (Coastal region). The wine and soil 11B/10B isotope ratios obtained for the Stellenbosch area (Coastal region) overlapped with the 11B/10B isotope ratios of the Robertson and Swartland regions making it impossible to differentiate it from these two regions.
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