Hypnotherapy and childhood sexual abuse: the experiences of adult survivors
- Authors: Battiss, Benita
- Date: 2008-10-29T12:23:25Z
- Subjects: Hypnotism , Child sexual abuse , Adult child sexual abuse victims , Rational-emotive psychotherapy
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13812 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1410
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , Incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse and incest are shockingly high. Children of both genders are sexually abused every 25 minutes in South Africa. This abuse results in emotional, spiritual, social, interpersonal, sexual, psychosomatic, neurological and cognitive disturbances. Many of these consequences persist into adulthood. Adult survivors do not always link their symptoms or problems with their childhood sexual abuse experiences. Those that do seek help for those symptoms only in adulthood. Specialised treatment models have been developed for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. These treatment approaches neglect the spiritual consequences of childhood sexual abuse and have overlooked the value of incorporating the religious or spiritual beliefs of clients into the therapy. Hypnotherapeutic strategies have been successful in treating traumatic conditions, yet, they are not intended for treatment of adult survivors of childhood incest and sexual abuse. This study results in an understanding of the long-term spiritual consequences of adult abuse survivors. A treatment approach, integrating concepts of existing abuse focused models, hypnotherapeutic strategies and the spiritual beliefs of clients is developed to compensate for the aforementioned limitations. To enhance the treatment outcome, principles of Tibetan psychology and rational-emotive therapy were integrated into the treatment approach. The experiences of five female adult survivors’ of the long-term spiritual consequences of the abuse, and their experiences of the hypnotherapeutic approach was assessed in a pilot study. Questions regarding the consequences of the abuse, hypnosis and spirituality were included in the pilot study questionnaire. The results obtained from this study were integrated into the intervention study. The intervention study also consisted of five adult females and the therapy process was defined with reference to the long-term consequences and strategies comprising five modalities (spiritual concepts, Tibetan psychology, cognitive therapy, hypnotherapy, and existing incest focused treatment models). The data obtained from the pilot and intervention studies were qualitatively analysed within an action research methodology. The action research approach consists of four action research cycles. The first cycle comprised the literature review; the second the pilot study; the third the intervention study, and; the fourth, an integration of the above cycles. Findings obtained from the pilot study showed that participants do suffer serious long-term spiritual consequences as a result of having been sexually abused as children. Participants of the pilot study unanimously concluded that the hypnotherapeutic strategies made the therapy more meaningful for them. This corresponds with findings from clinically researched studies. Participants particularly benefited from their visualisations, their self-hypnosis audio-tapes, breathing techniques and from the integration of their personal spiritual beliefs and visualisations into the therapy. The hypnotic trance resulted in greater recall of childhood memories. The interpersonal functioning of the participants improved as well as feelings of guilt, sadness, fear and anger. Conclusions drawn from the interventions study indicate that the synthesis of strategies obtained from the four modalities proved to be a valuable therapeutic treatment approach with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. As a direct result of the therapy clients were able to heal many negative consequences of the abuse. Clients established healthier interpersonal boundaries, resolved feelings of sadness, fear, aggression, resentment and self-doubt. A few clients formed healthier body-images, became more assertive and self-confident. Certain clients were able to forgive the perpetrators and others found it easier to interact with the perpetrators after their therapy. Furthermore, clients were able to find meaning in their abuse experiences and some decided to be of service to mankind after their therapy. This study is a comprehensive guideline for professionals working with such survivors. Findings in this study may assist professionals to acquire an understanding of the experience of childhood sexual abuse and hypnotherapy as experienced by female survivors. It provides insight into the long-term psychological and spiritual consequences suffered from the abuse. It is hoped that the findings of this study will inform future research, contribute towards theory-building in this field, and assist professionals with their clinical practices. , Prof. W.J. Schoeman Dr. R. Pelser.
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'n Gegronde studie oor seksuele molestering
- Authors: Botha, André Christiaan
- Date: 2008-10-31T09:06:32Z
- Subjects: Sexual abuse victims , Adult child sexual abuse victims , Abused women
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13858 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1418
- Description: D. Litt. et Phil. , This study aims to create a grounded model that can contribute to the knowledge about successfully coping with sexual molestation. Sexual molestation is a worldwide problem and is not unique to South Africa. In the past few decades, the problem of sexual molestation has emerged from the cloak of secrecy and has become an important theme in the social sciences and professions. Research on sexual molestation has mainly developed from a pathogenic perspective where the main function was to describe the nature and negative effects of sexual molestation, and to diagnose and treat sexual molestation as an illness. Recent research has however shown that not all sexually abused children develop psychopathology and therefore, a growing number of researchers have moved beyond psychopathology to a salutogenic perspective within the past two decades to explain why many people show signs of adaptation after traumatic experiences. The epistemological framework of this study is that of constructivism where the approaches of both modernism and post modernism are integrated. The dominating paradigm of the study is that of salutogenesis where the focus is on health and the successful adaptation of mankind. The grounded theory research methodology was used to develop a conceptual model about successfully coping with sexual molestation. This model can serve as a point of departure for future research and can contribute to the existing knowledge on resilience. Studying woman who have been sexually molested within a salutogenic paradigm, can have various implications for research and intervention strategies. Salutogenesis provides an optimistic alternative to the study of sexually molested woman and can help them to deal with the trauma in a more constructive way.
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An integrated Ericksonian and ego state intervention for the treatment of survivors of childhood sexual abuse
- Authors: Fourie, Gertruida
- Date: 2011-12-06
- Subjects: Hypnotism , Adult child sexual abuse victims , Counseling of post-traumatic stress disorder patients , Erickson, Milton H.
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1781 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4146
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. , The objective of this study was to describe, apply and evaluate the effect of an integrated Ericksonian and ego state therapy intervention approach for the treatment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Sexual abuse rips away an invaluable inner resource from the victim and this needs to be restored during the healing process. Every adult survivor presents a unique pattern of symptoms and effects of having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Therefore, it was necessary to plan an intervention strategy individualised according to each sexually abused person's unique experience. Therapeutic models and approaches developed to assist in the treatment of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse are available but not always comprehensive and often not evaluated. Thus, evaluated studies that determine the effectiveness of distinct strategies and procedures for treating sexual abuse, are required. Psychological research regarding sexual abuse has tended to focus on aspects related to pathology. This study aimed to explore the possibilities for treatment plans for sexually abused individuals from the salutogenic/fortigenic perspective. This focus emphasises the promotion of strengths, well-being and wholeness. Accordingly, both the Ericksonian and ego state therapy approaches acknowledge the existence of resources within an individual, and therefore focus on the utilisation and mobilisation of strengths and resources during psychotherapy. In 2002, Hartman integrated these two approaches and proposed the Utilisation Model of Ego State Therapy, which included principles of the SARI Model (Frederick & McNeal, 1999; Phillips & Frederick, 11 1995), which was primarily developed for the treatment of trauma and dissociative disorders. Therefore, this study described, applied and evaluated the application of the Utilisation Model of Ego State Therapy as a broad and integrated approach for intervention with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
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Exploring the healing process of female adult survivors of childhood abuse
- Authors: Reichert, Lelani
- Date: 2008-11-12T07:05:26Z
- Subjects: Adult child sexual abuse victims , Sexually abused children , Child sexual abuse , Child abuse
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14659 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1622
- Description: M.A. , The incidence of child abuse in southern Africa is problematic to such an extent that it is described by Machel (as cited in Richter, Dawes & Higson-Smith, 2004. p. ix) as "an assault, a war upon our children". The numbers and estimates surrounding, not only sexual abuse, but also physical abuse seem to be rising exponentially. This leads to the obvious deduction that adult survivors are also rising exponentially, and as such need focus and care, since the aftermath of abuse is far reaching, impacting every sphere of their lives. Destructive behaviour and thought patterns characterise all aspects of their interaction with the self and others, which paints a bleak and painful picture for their futures. To compound the aftermath, very few studies have focused on aspects beyond the aftermath, few have gone on to explain and focus attention on whether healing can take place, and if so, how it can be brought about. This important source of hope for the survivors has been neglected for far too long, leaving the survivors struggling with the question of whether positive change is at all possible? This study aims to address that question and to focus on the experience of the process of healing. The participants were members of a support group for survivors. A qualitative approach was followed with the focus on conceptual analysis. Two open-ended questionnaires were constructed. The first questionnaire was administered pre-intervention and the second questionnaire post-intervention. As a qualitative study, information is included regarding the researcher's experience, and is interpreted from the researcher's perspective. It was found that growth and change is indeed possible. Participants showed more insight into their behaviour and actions and were mostly able to cease destructive behaviours, achieve positive goals set for themselves, or were at least in the process of changing some aspects they felt needed attention. Due to analysis taking place on a group, as well as, individual level, individual differences became very visible. In this study, those aspects participants still found problematic were also highlighted. It is suggested that those aspects be scrutinised in future studies. A reflection on the healing process also occurred and is viewed as a platform for future studies to build on.
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A salutogenic perspective on adult female survivors of childhood incest
- Authors: Sher, Loren
- Date: 2008-11-12T08:49:18Z
- Subjects: Incest research , Adult child sexual abuse victims , Incest victims , Women abuse
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14670 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1642
- Description: M.A. , Incest can be defined as, “The involvement of dependant children or adolescents in sexual activities they do not truly comprehend, to which they are unable to give informed consent, or that violate the social taboos of family roles” (Kempe & Kempe, 1978, p.60). Incest may include a multitude of activities, such as fondling, masturbation, exposing genitalia, exposure to pornographic material, as well as intercourse (Gilmartin, 1994). In our sexist patriarchal society, sexual abuse of children and women has been, and still is, a dark secret (Bradshaw, 1995). A study done by Collings (1997) at the University of Natal revealed that over 50% of all second year st udents had reported some incidence of sexual abuse during their childhood and/or adolescent years. Statistics from the South African Police Force indicate an increase in the number of incest cases from 7559 in 1994 to 10037 in 1995 (Tucker, 2000). Lyell (1997) emphasised that the magnitude of the problem of sexual abuse is far greater than any professionals working in this field ever imagined. Over the past 24 years many studies have been published on the psychological impact of incest (Ensink, 1992). These effects include the disruption of normal development (Doyle, 1997), emotional problems (Newman & Peterson, 1996), social problems (Newman Lubell & Peterson, 1998) and physical problems (Tucker, 2000), to name a few. The abovementioned statistics show that incest is of concern in the South African context. It is also of international relevance because as Boyles, De Noon and Key (1999) have noted sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate the way adult female survivor s of childhood incest cope. The epistemological framework of this study is that of the Modernistic approach. Quantitative methods of research were therefore used to collect and analyse the data. The survivors’ ways of coping were assessed through response s t o the “Ways of Coping” Questionnaire given by a multi-e t h n i c sample containing mainly white women. Relevant biographical details were obtained with the use of a constructed biographical questionnaire. The differences regarding the different ways of coping, as related to specific factors, such as duration of therapy, duration of abuse and so forth, were discussed. Possible implications of the results have also been mentioned in this thesis. The information obtained provides a new perspective on incest, that of salutogenesis. Previous research has focused on the adverse effects that occur because of incest. There has not been a focus on the strengths of incest survivors, or the reason why some survivors cope better than others. It was found that incest sur vivors develop constructive coping skills, such as positive reappraisal, seeking social support and planful problem solving, after a minimal time period of one year in therapy. It was also found that the duration of abuse affects the way an adult survivor copes with the incest. Particular ways of coping are correlated with others, for example planful problem solving is correlated with positive reappraisal. The information which has emerged from this study may be useful for therapists working with incest sur vivors. Having a broader understanding of survivors’ ways of coping and some of the factors influencing these, may allow therapists to direct and teach ways of coping, and more specifically to facilitate and encourage more constructive ways of coping.
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Countertransference reactions of incest survivor therapists in psychotherapy with adult incest survivor patients: an interpretative phenomenological analysis
- Authors: Tlali, Molahlehi Tshepo
- Date: 2016
- Subjects: Countertransference (Psychology) , Incest victims , Psychic trauma , Adult child sexual abuse victims
- Language: English
- Type: Doctoral (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/227037 , uj:22968
- Description: D.Litt. et Phil. (Psychology) , Abstract: Psychotherapy between an incest survivor therapist and incest survivor patient presents psychotherapists with numerous challenges, especially in terms of countertransference for therapists. It is believed that therapists‟ countertransference experiences play a pivotal role in the psychotherapy treatment of this population of patients, and if left unchecked, these countertransference reactions can be potentially detrimental to the process of therapy and to patients. This study aimed to gain in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of countertransference reactions of incest survivor therapists (ISTs) in the treatment of incest survivor patients (ISPs). This type of research can potentially enrich the clinical practice in South Africa. Qualitative research, specifically a phenomenological paradigm, was employed as a research method. Using purposive sampling methods four registered psychologists, sourced predominantly from private practice, between the ages of 33 and 69 years old, who had between 3 and 20 years of psychotherapy experience, were interviewed regarding their lived countertransference experiences in psychodynamically treating ISPs. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed based on the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework suggested by Smith and Osborn. The analysis of each participant‟s transcripts provided seven master themes, most of which are supported by superordinate themes. The master themes are: a) Emotional experience of treating ISPs; b) The experience of self in treating incest ISPs; c) The participants‟ perceptions of ISPs; d) The technical issues involved in treating ISPs; e) The importance of clinical supervision and personal therapy; f) Treating ISPs as a mutual and reciprocal process; and g) Unique individual themes. Participants in this study experienced various yet expectable reactions to the reality and the narrative of their patients‟ trauma, such as feelings and behaviour of shock, disbelief, denial, ambivalence, powerlessness, frustration, anger, avoidance, shame, and re-traumatisation. While some participants experienced a sense of competence in treating ISPs, the majority of participants felt incompetent and ill equipped to treat ISPs as they believed they lacked theoretical and practical skills in treating this population of patients. Most participants experienced ISPs as defensive, dissociated, gullible, and frustrating, as well as resilient. Finally, the narratives of the experiences of all participants emphasise the importance of clinical supervision and personal therapy while treating ISPs. All participants experienced treating ISPs as a mutual and reciprocal process. These findings support existing literature in the treatment of survivors of gross interpersonal violations.
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The effects of child sexual abuse on the adult functioning of female victims
- Authors: Van der Westhuizen, Janine
- Date: 2012-09-06
- Subjects: Sexual abuse victims , Adult child sexual abuse victims
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:9660 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7076
- Description: M.A. , The purpose of this dissertation was to gain an in-depth understanding of the way in which survivors of child sexual abuse perceive the abuse to have affected their functioning as adults. Four adult women who were abused as children were interviewed and their perceptions were recorded and analysed. Child sexual abuse has a definite effect on the adult functioning of survivors. The respondents all felt that the abuse had affected them deeply and they all agreed that it had affected them in more or less the same areas of their lives. The differences that were found were differences in severity. Some of the survivors were more deeply affected than others. On the whole the literature study verifies the results found in this study. Most literature agrees that the effects of child sexual abuse are carried into adulthood. Some people may only have bad memories and may function completely normally while others may become suicidal and not function at all as a result of the abuse. Whether the survivors function normally or are completely unable to cope with life, the fact remains that the effects of child sexual abuse are felt in adulthood to a greater or lesser degree.
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