Congruence in sensation seeking and marital adjustment
- Authors: Freemantle, Marlene Gerna
- Date: 2014-11-20
- Subjects: Adjustment (Psychology) , Senses and sensation -Testing , Marriage - Psychological aspects
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:13085 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/12963
- Description: M.A.(Counselling Psychology) , Please refer to full text to view abstract
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Designing and developing an intervention to maximise the coping resources of doctors working with trauma patients at Johannesburg General Hospital
- Authors: Maxwell, Sarah-Anne
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:27:13Z
- Subjects: Adjustment (Psychology) , Public hospitals medical staff , Effect of trauma on physicians , Crisis intervention (Mental health services) , Physicians coping behavior
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14606 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1526
- Description: M.A. , This research aimed to design and develop an intervention that would maximise the coping resources of doctors working with trauma patients at Johannesburg General Hospital. Intervention Research methodology was used in order to achieve this objective. The study was divided in to three phases, namely, Diagnosis, Feedback and Discussion and Evaluation. The initial intervention comprised the Diagnostic as well as the Feedback and Discussion phase. The findings from the Diagnostic phase suggested that the doctors who had been working in the unit for less than three months, as well as the doctors who had less than four years medical practice experience, were most likely to show areas of vulnerability. This vulnerability related to their under-use of coping resources accompanied by elevated negative mood states, as identified by the Coping Resource Inventory and the Profile of Mood States questionnaire respectively. Other groups of doctors that shared this vulnerability included interns, medical officers, females and single doctors. The Feedback and Discussion phase brought to light themes relating to the stressors that the doctors’ experience in their work context. These themes along with the results of the Evaluation phase where used in order to re-design the Intervention for future use with doctors working with trauma patients. The findings from the Evaluation phase also confirmed that the doctors found the intervention to be beneficial.
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Die verwantskap tussen koherensiesin en emosionele intelligensie
- Authors: Venter, Marina
- Date: 2008-11-14T14:16:56Z
- Subjects: Emotional intelligence , Life change events , Resilience (Personality trait) , Adjustment (Psychology) , Social medicine , Mental health
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14681 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1675
- Description: M.A. , The present study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between sense of coherence and emotional intelligence. 92 respondents, who work in organisations and who were willing to complete the questionnaires, participated in the study. Sense of coherence has been measured by means of a sense of coherence questionnaire (Antonovsky, 1987). Emotional intelligence has been measured by means of an emotional intelligence questionnaire (Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden & Dornheim, 1997). Various statistical techniques have been employed to test the research hypothesis. The first step in the data-analysis process has been the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the measuring instruments. The second step has been the calculation of the intercorrelation of the sense of coherence and emotional intelligence scales and subscales. The intercorrelations between the subscales were subsequently subjected to a principal factor analysis with iterated communalities and Direct Oblimin rotation. The number of factors were determined by means of a Scree test, theoretical expectations and the interpretability of the factor structure. During the third step the total score of the emotional intelligence questionnaire of the dependent variable and the subscales of the sense of coherence questionnaire as independent variables were used in a multiple-regression analysis. The same procedure was followed during step four, but this time the total score of the sense of coherence questionnaire was specified as a dependent variable and the subscales of the emotional intelligence questionnaire were specified as independent variables. The results show a moderate positive relationship between emotional intelligence and sense of coherence. This relationship can be attributed mainly to the effect of the two subscales, namely optimism (emotional intelligence) and meaningfulness (sense of coherence). Individuals who are optimistic appear to have a high level of sense of coherence. Similarly, it appears that individuals who perceive their lives as meaningful are emotionally intelligent. However, no statement regarding the causal relationship between the variables can be made. This research can be applied in further research with a view to determine the role of emotional intelligence in stress management. In addition, the role that emotions play in the sense of coherence of individuals and resilience can also be investigated.
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Egskeidingsterapie vir laerskoolkinders
- Authors: Meyer, Karin
- Date: 2012-09-11
- Subjects: Divorce therapy -- Research -- South Africa , Children of divorced parents -- Treatment -- Research -- South Africa , School children -- Mental health -- Research -- South Africa , Divorce -- Psychological aspects -- Research -- South Africa , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:10088 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7473
- Description: M.A. , The aim of this study is to develop a divorce therapy program to support children of divorce. The programme is discussed in an attempt at evaluating whether children of divorced families are being supported in terms of their view of the reality of the situation as well as coping with the divorce. Divorce is described as an idiosyncratic life event that causes confusion and fear for all those involved. The affected child is a victim of these circumstances in that he has no control over the decisions that are made and are forced into a position where he is obliged to accept whatever others decide. The child's fear and needs are being ignored. These children have poor self concepts and experience conflict regarding their family concept. This programme was designed as an attempt at supporting children during these difficult periods and involves a comprehensive therapy. In order to accommodate the withdrawn child, the therapy is presented in the context of a group. The child finds it easier to cope if he realizes that he is not the only one whose parents are going through divorce. The child normally experiences feelings of shyness and embarrassment pertaining to the divorce, and regards himself as an outsider at school, and in his peer group. The child who is able to share his feelings with other children who experiences similar feelings will be able to better cope with his situation. The child often feels guilt and blames himself for the divorce. Such feelings are intensified if the parents fail to inform him about the impending divorce. This program offers the child an opportunity to discuss his feelings with other children, and to realise that he is not the only child subjected to divorce. Family concept difficulties occur as a result of the changed family circumstances, which difficulties are of such a nature that the child cannot solve same without professional assistance. In certain instances children attempt to solve their unbearable circumstances by fantasizing about the reconciliation of their parents, and the restoration of a normal and happy family life. This despite the fact that their parents are involved in a second marriage. Loyalty conflicts with associated guilt feelings arise due to the fact that children feel torn between their parents, and are of the view that they are obliged to choose between the parents. The ideal is to teach the child coping mechanisms to cope with the divorce and to support the child at this critical stage of his life.
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Enkele faktore wat met aanpassing na egskeiding verband hou
- Authors: De Wet, Marita
- Date: 2014-03-18
- Subjects: Divorce - Psychological aspects , Divorce - Social aspects , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:4444 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/9787
- Description: M.A. (Psychology) , Divorce rates have escalated dramatically since the early sixties and indications are that it will continue to do so. Although divorce has become a common experience, it remains one of the most stressful life events and a potential source of significant adjustment problems. A review of literature indicates that a relationship between divorce and psychopathology is widely accepted. The most critical question about divorce has not been answered fully, namely: what are the factors that facilitate a good outcome? More often researchers focused on the factors contributing to continued problems and pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine what relationships exist between degree of mental health in divorced people and two factors suggested by literature. These two factors are assertiveness and internal locus of control. Ideally, a holistic view of a person in his/her unique life situation should be taken. In order to limit the scope of this study only the two personal factors were studied, keeping in mind that there is an ecological interaction between many known and unknown factors and granting that it is artificial to isolate only two factors from the encompassing whole. It was postulated that a more internal locus of control orientation would facilitate an individuals adaptation after divorce. Furthermore, it was postulated that assertiveness would greatly enhance the individuals ability to adapt and adjust to the divorce. A person with these qualities would be able to realistically assess the demands of the divorce situation and address the demands in a confident and proactive way. The integrated model of mental health states that a mentally healthy individual would have the following attributes: a positive identity, flexibility, emotional sensitivity, the ability to form intimate interpersonal relationships and altruism. These attributes were used in this study as an indication of the degree of mental health in divorced people...
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Executive functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic growth
- Authors: Hyslop, Jamie L.
- Date: 2016
- Subjects: Psychic trauma , Psychological debriefing , Post-traumatic stress disorder - Physiological aspects , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Language: English
- Type: Masters (Thesis)
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/241384 , uj:24850
- Description: M.A. , Abstract: A trauma represents a negative event that severely challenges or breaks down the assumptive world, or the set of mental frameworks an individual uses to understand the self, other people, and the world. Trauma is associated with distress and can lead to a variety of negative physical and psychological outcomes. However, experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to result in positive individual outcomes, a phenomenon known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Posttraumatic growth is associated with positive changes within the domains of the self, relationships with others, and life perspective and is also linked to greater physical and mental well-being after a trauma. Executive functioning refers to a collection of higher order cognitive processes that support complex human functioning. The higher order nature of these processes implies that executive functions are under the conscious control of the individual and, consequently, support flexible cognition and behaviour. As such, executive functions allow individuals to adapt to a variety of situations, particularly those that are new or complex, where existing guides for thinking and behaving are inadequate. Given the role of executive functioning in adaptive functioning, it is reasoned that executive functions will play a role in rebuilding the assumptive world in the aftermath of a trauma. Because PTG can occur as a result of this rebuilding process, it is further suggested that executive functioning plays a role in the experience of growth. However, little research was found to directly investigate the relationship between executive functions and PTG. As such, the present study investigated executive functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic growth. The study used archival data obtained from 1063 first and second year psychology students at the University of Johannesburg. Executive functioning was assessed using the Executive Function Index (EFI) and posttraumatic growth was assessed using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between the two variables of interest. The study found support for a relationship between executive functioning and PTG in that higher levels of executive functioning related to higher levels of posttraumatic growth. Furthermore, the executive functions of Strategic Planning, Motivational Drive, and Empathy...
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Exploring counsellor burnout and personal accomplishment in organisations that empower abused women
- Authors: Hatfield, Kelly
- Date: 2012-03-05
- Subjects: Counselors , Burn out (Psychology) , Adjustment (Psychology) , Violence , Abused women , Wife abuse , Rape
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2141 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4508
- Description: M.A. , Violence in South Africa has reached epidemic proportions. Violence against women is one area in which this social undercurrent continuously plays itself out. People Opposing Women Abuse (POWA) and Rape Crisis, Cape Town (RCCT) are two organizations that use lay counsellors to focus specifically on counselling women who have endured rape and domestic violence. Burnout is widely recognized as a consequence of this helping profession. This quantitative study comprised of 26 female counsellors from POWA and RCCT, who completed questionnaires that included demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory to measure levels of burnout and personal accomplishment, and the COPE that measures different coping styles. The statistical analysis used was Pearson's correlation t-tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results showed that this small sample group do not feel burned out, but rather have a sense of personal accomplishment. The counsellors listed eleven of the fourteen coping styles suggested as useful, and five of these appeared significantly so. Certain differences in coping techniques became apparent when analysed according to demographic data. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
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Facilitating responsible and self-directed behaviours in learners with special educational needs in the intermediate phase: teacher's perceptions in a private LSEN school in South Africa
- Authors: Bekker, Tanya Lee-Anne
- Date: 2011-06-22T10:38:49Z
- Subjects: Self-culture , Adjustment (Psychology) , Special education schools , Special education teachers
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7104 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3699
- Description: M.Ed. , Internationally in countries such as the United States of America and Australia, there has been a shift in focus over recent years from essentially content based education curricula towards education curricula which offer the opportunity for all individuals to realize their potential, and that are capable of producing productive, contributing members of society. According to the United States Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory's most recent regional needs assessment (www.nwrel.org/planning/rna2000.html), "helping students become self-directed learners who take responsibility for their own academic performance" was ranked near the top of identified priorities. The focus on developing responsible and selfdirected learners extends beyond application to learning as cultivating responsible and self-directed behaviours is clearly intended to equip learners with responsible and self-directed behaviours and skills that in time will translate to their emergence as responsible and self-directed adult members of society. This is significant when considering the South African educational context, which also forwards educational goals that reflect the values of the society and that encapsulate the type of member of society that the educational system envisages producing. Given the legislative framework of South Africa, the resulting educational policies, as well as the importance of preparing learners to participate and contribute to a democratic society, it becomes clear that the development of responsible and self-directed learners is relevant to the South African context. Self-directed learning encourages individuals to take control of the learning experience. This means that learners are given choices and encouraged to make decisions as well as accept responsibility for associated consequences. Various characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of self-directed and responsible learners have been forwarded by various researchers in the field. Jones, Valdez, Nowakowski, and Rasumssen (1995) suggest that responsible learners exhibit behaviours such as setting goals and choosing tasks, and have the ability to plan effectively and think ahead. Responsible and self-directed learners have been identified by Long (in Hiemstra,1994 ) as having typical, common internal personality traits or characteristics as well as characteristic external behaviours, attitudes and responses. In addition to certain personality traits, specific kinds of cognitive skills are identified by Long (in Hiemstra, 1994) as being particularly important in successful self-directed learning. Self-directedness in learning is then a term recognizing both external factors that facilitate a learner taking primary responsibility, and internal factors that predispose an individual to accepting responsibility for learning-related thoughts and actions, which are characterised by particular traits, and skills that are demonstrated by responsible and self-directed behaviours.
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Hope and ways of coping after breast cancer
- Authors: Rubin, Hayley Harriet
- Date: 2008-11-12T08:47:53Z
- Subjects: Breast cancer , Breast cancer treatment , Adjustment (Psychology) , Hope
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14665 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1638
- Description: M.A. , The aim of this study was to ascertain the coping methods of women in long term follow-up of breast cancer treatment. Furthermore, personality traits that deal with the spectrum of positive affectivity were introduced to determine whether these impact on women's appraisal of their situation and their subsequent choice of coping mechanism. Thus, a process approach to exploring coping strategies and a goal-attainment conceptualization of hope were used to determine whether hope is associated with coping appraisal in the long term follow-up of breast cancer treatment. Furthermore, high hope women were expected to use more problem focused coping methods and low hope women were expected to use more emotion focused coping skills. Women in cancer remission who attend yearly or six-monthly check-ups at the Johannesburg hospital were approached to complete the questionnaire and brief interview. Although the study did not confirm that low hope and high hope women use different kinds of coping strategies, the predicted relationship between hope and challenge appraisals was supported by significant correlations. However, it was found that hope may be analogous to positive affect, thus indicating the need for further validation of the Hope Scale. Finally, it was concluded that breast cancer need not be seen as a devitalising disease and that there are a variety of coping strategies which can be utilized to enhance patient's positive emotional state. The women in this study use the emotion focused coping skill of positive reappraisal which concentrates on the possibilities for mastery and growth that inhere in their long term follow-up treatment. Moreover, women are extremely positive and hopeful in their daily outlook and while this personality trait seems to suggest that denial is at play, it is more likely that women in long term remission have a strong belief in their own personal qualities and future. Women in this study choose to distance themselves from the implicit trauma of the threat of recurrence in favour of an active belief in their personal resilience to overcome any stressful event or outcome.
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Meaning in life and sense of coherence as predictors of coping among young adults
- Authors: Hutchinson, Ann-Marie Kerr
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:30:15Z
- Subjects: Young adults mental health , Stress in youth , Stress (Psychology) , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14622 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1540
- Description: M.A. , Late adolescence/young adulthood is characterised by turbulence and major life transitions, and individuals in this life stage are confronted with stressors on a daily basis (Santrock, 2003). This situation necessitates adequate coping so that these young people can negotiate the transition between childhood and adulthood successfully. Health practitioners and educators need to establish ways to enhance adequate coping in young people in order to minimise their stress and ward off negative and unwanted consequences of stressors; consequences such as addictions, suicide, depression and other pathologies (Frydenberg & Lewis, 2004; Puskar, Hoover & Miewald, 1992). Research shows that more and more young people are reporting that their lives seem hopeless and meaningless (Santrock, 2003). Clearly it is beneficial to investigate the relationship between meaning, well-being and coping with stress in young adults. Past research has investigated meaning in life and sense of coherence and other wellbeing measures on adults who have already established themselves, and very specific samples, such as elderly people, the terminally ill and employees in the workplace (for example Marais & Stuart, 2005; Shek, 2003; Strümpfer & Mlonzi, 2001; Yiu-Kee & Tang, 2005). However, researchers have debated the extent to which any real progress has been made in the field of stress and coping (see Coyne & Racioppo, 2000; Lazarus, 2000; Lewis & Frydenberg, 2002; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Somerfield & McCrae, 2000). These and other studies have been critically evaluated in the current study, and it is clear that research is needed on meaning in life and well-being in late adolescence/young adulthood in order to assess how young people cope with stressors. Furthermore, research is needed on young people in SouthAfrica, in order to ascertain how they cope with stressors that may be countryspecific. The overall aim of the study was to establish whether there are relationships between meaning in life, sense of coherence and the ability to cope in young adults. More specifically, the study aimed to ascertain whether the extent to which an individual has discovered meaning in life and the extent to which he/she has developed a sense of coherence predicts coping with stress in a late adolescent/young adult population. A quantitative research methodology was conducted on a sample of male and female young adults (N=258). The participants were selected from a tertiary institution and had an average age range of 17 to 21 years. The measurement instruments have been used in previous research and were deemed culturally fair with valid and reliable psychometric properties. All three questionnaires were self-report measures. In order to assess the extent to which an individual has found meaning in their lives, the Purpose in Life Test (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1981) was used. To ascertain whether or not an individual had developed a strong sense of coherence, the Orientation to Life questionnaire, also known as the Sense of Coherence scale (Antonovsky, 1987) was used. The Adolescent Coping Scale (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) was used to determine the ability to cope in young people. Various statistical analyses were conducted on the raw data collected from the questionnaires. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the internal validity and reliability of the measuring instruments. The distribution of the data within the subscales was tested for normality. Analysis of variance was used to determinewhether certain biographical variables could account for any differences in meaning in life, sense of coherence and ability to cope. Pearson product moment correlations were used. Thereafter both multiple regression and logistic regression were performed to determine if meaning in life and sense of coherence can predict differences in ability to cope. The results indicate that the constructs explored, as measured by the questionnaires, were not influenced by the age, gender, home language or direction of study of the participants. The sample could therefore be regarded as fairly homogeneous and the effect of confounding variables limited. However, as a result of this homogeneity, the findings of this study cannot necessarily be generalised to other populations. Findings indicate that there are relationships between meaning in life and the ability to cope. This finding points to the possibility that the extent to which an individual has discovered meaning in life, or the extent to which an individual views his or her life as meaningful is related to his or her ability to select effective coping strategies. Furthermore it was found that there are relationships between sense of coherence as well as the individual components of sense of coherence, namely comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness, and the ability to cope. This finding suggests that the extent to which an individual has developed a sense of coherence is related to his or her ability to select effective coping strategies.
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Occupational stress in men and women: a comparative study of coping resources
- Authors: Long, Susanne Ingeborg
- Date: 2008-11-06T07:30:23Z
- Subjects: Job stress for men , Job stress for women , Stress (Psychology) , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/381674 , uj:14623 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1541
- Description: M.A. , The ramifications of stress-related illnesses and disorders impact on the individual, the organization that the individual works for and the nation’s economic status as a whole. Coping with occupational stress has thus become the focus of occupational health specialists, organizations and industrial psychologists. South African managers and executives work under constant stress and pressure (Strumpfer, 1983). With the emergence of women into previously male dominated occupations, a greater number of women now hold managerial jobs, resulting in a larger percentage of women being exposed to stress-related illnesses and diseases. Past research regarding occupational stress and coping has largely focused on male managers, with many of these findings frequently being incorrectly generalized to women. Neglecting to include gender as a variable in most stress-related research has resulted in contradictions and perceived biases in the study of stress and coping (Barnett, Biener & Baruch, 1987). A review of the literature indicated that some studies report gender similarities in stress and coping, whilst others report that men and woman differ in this regard. The findings of these studies have been critically evaluated in the literature with some authors indicating that the measurement instruments and research designs of the studies were not adequate. The many contradictions found in the literature pertaining to how men and women cope with stress thus provided an important motivation for the present study. The overall aim of the research was to determine whether male and female managers differed in work-related stressors and whether they differed in the coping strategies adopted to deal with the stressors. A more general aim of the study was to amplify any existing research regarding occupational stress and its impact on men and women managers. A comparative ex post facto research design was applied. In this type of design, the researcher selects two or more groups of subjects that already differ according to one variable. The total sample (N= 70) consisted of 35 male managers and 35 female managers. The subjects worked in administrative support functions and were selected from two large financial organizations. The measurement instruments had to be culturally fair and have universal meaningfulness. Only instruments with sound psychometric properties were selected. The battery of five questionnaires consisted of: two tests taken from the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised, namely the Occupational Roles Questionnaire (ORQ) and the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ). The other three questionnaires consisted of the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire (SOC), the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI) and the Personal Views Survey (PVS). The research question for the present study was whether there are any significant differences between men and women regarding occupational stress and coping resources. The composite null hypothesis was formulated as follows: There are no statistically significant differences between men and women regarding their scores on a battery of five instruments measuring the sources of occupational stress specifically with reference to role strain in the workplace, psychological strain as a result of work stress, sense of coherence, internal or external locus of control and hardiness. In order to ascertain the difference between the two groups, the statistical techniques included the use of the Hotelling’s T-Square Test and Student’s t-test. The overall results, with the exception of the Personal Strain Questionnaire’s sub-scale reported no significant gender differences regarding the perception of occupational stessors, and no overall significant gender differences in coping resources. Thus, regarding the scores of the five questionnaires the following results were reported: The scores taken from the Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) reported a Hotelling’s Trace Value of 0,039 with an associated F value of 0,410. This variance is statistically not significant (P>0,05). The scores taken from the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) reported a Hotelling’s Trace Value of 0,181 with an associated F value of 2,944. This variance is statistically significant (P<0,05). The difference manifested only in one sub-scale, namely the Vocational Strain sub-scale (P=0,075) which is significant at the 0,10 level of significance. In speculating the reason for this, it was suggested that the male subjects may have experienced greater levels of boredom or lack of interest in their work than the female group. Interestingly, the male group also reported a significant difference regarding the Meaningfulness sub-scale of the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire. The Meaningfulness sub-scale (P=0,060) being significant at the 0,10 level of significance. The Meaningfulness sub-scale includes a motivational element similar to the Vocational Strain sub-scale, further reinforcing the male group’s less positive perception of their work. The scores taken from the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire (SOC) reported a Hotelling’s Trace Value of 0,069 with an associated F value of 1,517. This variance is statistically not significant (P>0,05). The scores taken from the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI) reported a Hotelling’s Trace Value of 0,084 with an associated F value of 1,851. This variance is statistically not significant (P>0,05). The scores taken from the Personal Views Survey (PVS) reported a Hotelling’s Trace Value of 0,048 with an associated F value of 1,051. This variance is statistically not significant (P>0,05). The final conclusion of the study’s findings was that with the exception of one scale, there were no overall significant differences in the way that men and women a) perceive occupational stressors and b) utilize coping resources. The findings of the present study have challenged the widely held belief that men and women should be different in the way they think, feel and respond to stress-related events. It is hoped that the present study has not only amplified any existing research regarding occupational stress and coping, but has provided further ideas and recommendations for the design and implementation of South African occupational stress management programmes.
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Psychosocial factors affecting choices in unplanned pregnancy
- Authors: Hosford, Helen Cristin Farah
- Date: 2012-01-24
- Subjects: Pregnancy , Abortion , Adjustment (Psychology) , Abortion applicants
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1930 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4290
- Description: M.A. , The aim of this study was to ascertain which variables affect and influence women when making choices in unplanned pregnancy. In addition, to determine if there were any significant differences between the pregnancy and termination of pregnancy (TOP) group, indicating a specific profile for the respective group. Comparatively little research has been conducted on unplanned pregnancy and abortion within South Africa, as compared with international studies. Future longterm studies are recommended. The research conducted was of a quantitative quasi-experimental research design, wherein the researcher compared the following variables between the two groups: Biographic/demographic data, Personality Styles, perceived Family Environments and Coping Resources. Subjects were not randomly assigned, but selected by the nursing staff and researcher. Statistical analysis reflected that the two groups differed significantly on four variables. The majority of women in the TOP group were found to be the sole earners within their families. Conversely, women in the pregnancy group had more financial resources and lower levels of employment. A lack of sufficient finances was shown to be the strongest determining factor for those electing abortions. A compounding factor, were the nature of the relationships from where conception arose, 71% of the women who elected abortion described difficulties with the partnerin- conception. These included poor relationships due to excessive drinking, extramarital affairs, disinterest in the pregnancy, subsequent abandonment and divorce. Although the two groups had similar profiles in terms of the religious variable, many of the women who elected to remain pregnant, cited religion and/or their beliefs as the primary reason for continuing their pregnancies. In contrast, the TOP group reported a higher level of conflict within their family of origin, compared to the pregnancy group. IV No underlying pathology was found to exist in the group electing terminations, with both groups presenting similar personality styles. The two groups were also found to use comparable coping skills and resources. This research indicates, that most of the women experiencing an unplanned pregnancy based their decisions to abort on external variables; such as their relationships, financial position and religious beliefs. Studies indicate that these women are more likely to experience deleterious consequences, than those who make this decision based on their own personal needs. Many of these women made their decisions based on limitations not preference. This study may be considered to show important findings, as it reflects the need for effective pre- and post-abortion intervention/counselling services, which should be easily accessible to the public. The psychological well-being of the individual is critical for the overall well-being of the community, and ultimately therefore, society.
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Self-efficacy as mediating factor in the stress response
- Authors: Caldeira, Fatima
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Self-efficacy , Stress (Psychology) , Locus of control , Type A behavior , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2015 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4368
- Description: M.A. , Over the years it has become clear that self-efficacy beliefs play a significant role in various domains of human functioning. According to Bandura (1986) individuals possess a self-system that enables them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings and actions. This implies that the construct of self-efficacy has a pervasive influence on human functioning as it is seen to influence the way in which people feel, think and act. The literature has also shown that the physiological dimension of the self also stands to be affected by efficacy beliefs. One of the goal's of this research was to investigate the role of self-effiCacy as a mediating factor in the stress response, and how the various facets of self are affected by and affect an individual's perception of and response to a stressful situation. The stressful condition refers to the semester tests and how the students predicted their academic perfonnance under these conditions of stress. The design of the study was quantitative, and the sample comprised of 49 undergraduate psychology students. They completed a series of questionnaires a week before the first condition of stress, and their blood pressure was also measured at this time. Their blood pressure was also measured pretest and posttest at both conditions of stress. By means of a cluster analysis the group was divided into two homogeneous groups (high self-efficacy group, N=27) and (a low self-efficacy group, N=22) and this was followed by a detailed statistical analysis. The results revealed that the high self-efficacy group showed a bigger decline in diastolic and systolic blood pressure than the low self-efficacy group once the stressful condition had passed. Therefore the high self-efficacy group made a quicker physical recovery than the low self-efficacy group. It thus appears that the stress response of the more efficacious group may have been mediated by their beliefs of coping efficacy. Furthennore, the high self-efficacy group was more accurate in predicting their academic perfonnance than the low self-efficacy group. Even though the more efficacious group did not perfonn as well as the less efficacious group, they showed more optimism, and their prediction suggests that they are able to realistically appraise what they are capable of, since the test result was similar to what they had predicted. This ability to predict perfonnance is vital, as a major function of thought is to predict events and to exercise control over these events. This sense of control can be regarded as a self-confident view of an individual's capability to deal with certain life stressors (Schwarzer, 1997). Even though this study has highlighted some interesting trends relating to selfefficacy and the stress response, further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of this dynamic relationship.
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The effect of a sudden, life-threatening illness on family systems
- Authors: Bartlett, Justine
- Date: 2010-11-22T08:04:11Z
- Subjects: Families , Effect of stress on families , Family relationships , Terminally ill , Stress (Psychology) , Adjustment (Psychology) , Life skills
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7014 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3521
- Description: M.A. , The process of sudden hospitalization is often experienced as a negative and traumatic event in people's lives. Traditionally, these traumatic events are dealt with by the medical professionals in the hospital setting. Due to time constraints and the urgent nature ofthe medical crisis, the patient is often left in very capable hands but the family is often left out ofthis process. This type of crisis throws a family into a tumult of disorganization. Parsonnet and Weinstein (1987), state that when patients are critically ill, their families suffer extreme emotional distress, often without the support of medical staffwho must I focus on the needs ofthe patient first. This study focuses on the family from a systemic perspective and looks at the effects on the whole system when one member becomes critically ill. This type of traumatic event can therefore lead to the family experiencing feelings such as fear, helplessness, shock, distress and a total lack ofcontrol. Many ofthese feelings are common to most traumatic events. Three case studies are examined in which families describe their experience ofICU and sudden hospitalization and a qualitative analysis is then conducted to identify common themes among the three families. This research examines how the fields ofsupportive psychotherapy and emergency medicine can be combined in order to create an environment in which not only the patient's needs are attended to, but where the family system's needs can be supported and guided through an otherwise very traumatic experience. The concepts oftrauma and crisis will be discussed, as vyell as how this relates to family systems theory. The experiences offamilies will be discussed in detail and the possible methods that can be employed in order to support a family through this medical crisis. This study is limited in the fact that only one interview was conducted but this is an exploratory study and is therefore only the beginning of an interesting area ofresearch.
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The relationship between individualism/collectivism, locus of control and sense of coherence
- Authors: Bayne, Gregory
- Date: 2011-02-28T06:19:16Z
- Subjects: Social change , Stress (Psychology) , Personality and culture , Locus of control , Adjustment (Psychology) , Individualism , Coherence (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7036 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3558
- Description: M.A. , The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Locus of Control, Individualism/Collectivism and Sense of Coherence between two groups of participants by using three measures. The study will also investigate the significance of the relationship between Locus of Control and the Individualism/Collectivism, and between Sense of Coherence and Locus of Control. The motivation for the study stems from a question regarding how cultural perceptual style interacts with personality traits to influence a person's Sense of Coherence. A further question faced by all South Africans, regards how one adapts to the cultural changes being experienced in the country, while at the same time maintaining a sense of self·identity. While there are many possible questions, this study will focus on investigating the interaction between the three constructs of Sense of Coherence. Locus of Control, and Individualism/Collectivism. The three core constructs of Sense of Coherence. Locus of Control, and Individualism/Collectivism are defined as follows: • Antonovsky (1987) defines Sense of Coherence as a global orientation that expresses the extent to which one has a pervasive. enduring though dynamic feeling of confidence as a function of one's sense of comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. • Locus of Control refers to a generalised disposition. acquired from past experience, to believe that rewards either are, or are not, controllable by a person's own efforts. Such that those who are externally oriented hold the view that their success is due to factors outside their control such as chance and luck while internally oriented persons attribute success to their personal effort and ability. • Individualism and Collectivism are cultural perceptual styles which indicate whether individuals acts largely for their self interests, or in regard for collective group harmony.
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The relationship between personality and coping amongst members of the South African Police Service
- Authors: Govender, Shane Alvin
- Date: 2010-04-19T07:43:44Z
- Subjects: South African Police Service officials and employees , Police job stress , Police psychology , Adjustment (Psychology) , Personality
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6785 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3215
- Description: M.A. , The South African Police Service (SAPS) has an immense responsibility in terms of providing a safe and secure environment for every individual residing in South Africa. Members of this organisation conduct their duties under difficult and often dangerous conditions. These taxing working conditions add tremendous stress to the lives of police officials (Violanti, 1997). The stressors faced by police officials may vary with regard to frequency and intensity. Stressors associated with the working environment may spill over into their personal lives and may also lead to negativity at work which can also affect the quality of service that should be provided by police officials in South Africa. Various factors can be implicated in the stress process (Sulsky & Smith, 2005). Specific ways of coping have been identified in previous and current literature (Suls & Fletcher, 1985; Swanepoel & Pienaar, 2004). The present study focused on identifying a relationship between personality and coping. The coping styles that South African police officials employ also received some attention. Personality was defined as characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of feelings, thinking and behaviour. This study focused on the Five Factor Model in the conceptualisation and understanding of personality. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and coping amongst members of the SAPS. Each participant (N = 125) completed a consent form, a biographical questionnaire, the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced questionnaire (COPE; Carver et al., 1989) and the Basic Traits Inventory (Taylor & De Bruin, 2006). The first research question related to coping strategies South African police officials employ. The second research question focused on what the relationship between the individual Big Five personality traits (Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) and the coping styles (Problem-focused Coping, Emotion-focused Coping and Dysfunctional Coping) of police officials in South Africa.A non-experimental survey design was implemented in this study. Differential and inferential statistics were used to identify the most commonly used coping strategies and the relationship that exists between coping and personality. Examination of the individual personality traits in relation to coping was done through the use of Pearson’s product-moment correlations. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 15). The results indicated that Extroversion (r = 0.27; p < 0.01), Conscientiousness (r = 0.31; p < 0.01), Agreeableness (r = 0.40; p < 0.01) and Openness to Experience (r = 0.45; p < 0.01) had statistically significant positive relationships with Problem-focused Coping. Neuroticism (r = 0.39; p < 0.01) showed a statistically significant positive correlation with Dysfunctional Coping. Openness to Experience (r = 0.23; p < 0.05) and Agreeableness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) displayed a statistically significant positive correlation with Emotion-focused Coping. Results in this study indicate that members of the SAPS lean towards using Problemfocused and Emotion-focused strategies rather than Dysfunctional Coping strategies. This study has implications for organisations such as the SAPS as it shed light on the different ways in which individuals are predisposed to cope with stress. It also highlights the influence of personality in the stress process and offers insight into possible ways in which individuals generally cope with stress.
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