The relationship between individualism/collectivism, locus of control and sense of coherence
- Authors: Bayne, Gregory
- Date: 2011-02-28T06:19:16Z
- Subjects: Social change , Stress (Psychology) , Personality and culture , Locus of control , Adjustment (Psychology) , Individualism , Coherence (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:7036 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3558
- Description: M.A. , The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Locus of Control, Individualism/Collectivism and Sense of Coherence between two groups of participants by using three measures. The study will also investigate the significance of the relationship between Locus of Control and the Individualism/Collectivism, and between Sense of Coherence and Locus of Control. The motivation for the study stems from a question regarding how cultural perceptual style interacts with personality traits to influence a person's Sense of Coherence. A further question faced by all South Africans, regards how one adapts to the cultural changes being experienced in the country, while at the same time maintaining a sense of self·identity. While there are many possible questions, this study will focus on investigating the interaction between the three constructs of Sense of Coherence. Locus of Control, and Individualism/Collectivism. The three core constructs of Sense of Coherence. Locus of Control, and Individualism/Collectivism are defined as follows: • Antonovsky (1987) defines Sense of Coherence as a global orientation that expresses the extent to which one has a pervasive. enduring though dynamic feeling of confidence as a function of one's sense of comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. • Locus of Control refers to a generalised disposition. acquired from past experience, to believe that rewards either are, or are not, controllable by a person's own efforts. Such that those who are externally oriented hold the view that their success is due to factors outside their control such as chance and luck while internally oriented persons attribute success to their personal effort and ability. • Individualism and Collectivism are cultural perceptual styles which indicate whether individuals acts largely for their self interests, or in regard for collective group harmony.
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Self-efficacy as mediating factor in the stress response
- Authors: Caldeira, Fatima
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Self-efficacy , Stress (Psychology) , Locus of control , Type A behavior , Adjustment (Psychology)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2015 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4368
- Description: M.A. , Over the years it has become clear that self-efficacy beliefs play a significant role in various domains of human functioning. According to Bandura (1986) individuals possess a self-system that enables them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings and actions. This implies that the construct of self-efficacy has a pervasive influence on human functioning as it is seen to influence the way in which people feel, think and act. The literature has also shown that the physiological dimension of the self also stands to be affected by efficacy beliefs. One of the goal's of this research was to investigate the role of self-effiCacy as a mediating factor in the stress response, and how the various facets of self are affected by and affect an individual's perception of and response to a stressful situation. The stressful condition refers to the semester tests and how the students predicted their academic perfonnance under these conditions of stress. The design of the study was quantitative, and the sample comprised of 49 undergraduate psychology students. They completed a series of questionnaires a week before the first condition of stress, and their blood pressure was also measured at this time. Their blood pressure was also measured pretest and posttest at both conditions of stress. By means of a cluster analysis the group was divided into two homogeneous groups (high self-efficacy group, N=27) and (a low self-efficacy group, N=22) and this was followed by a detailed statistical analysis. The results revealed that the high self-efficacy group showed a bigger decline in diastolic and systolic blood pressure than the low self-efficacy group once the stressful condition had passed. Therefore the high self-efficacy group made a quicker physical recovery than the low self-efficacy group. It thus appears that the stress response of the more efficacious group may have been mediated by their beliefs of coping efficacy. Furthennore, the high self-efficacy group was more accurate in predicting their academic perfonnance than the low self-efficacy group. Even though the more efficacious group did not perfonn as well as the less efficacious group, they showed more optimism, and their prediction suggests that they are able to realistically appraise what they are capable of, since the test result was similar to what they had predicted. This ability to predict perfonnance is vital, as a major function of thought is to predict events and to exercise control over these events. This sense of control can be regarded as a self-confident view of an individual's capability to deal with certain life stressors (Schwarzer, 1997). Even though this study has highlighted some interesting trends relating to selfefficacy and the stress response, further research is needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of this dynamic relationship.
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