The role of abuse in the development of irritable bowel syndrome: a comparative study
- Authors: Rossouw, G. Eileen
- Date: 2008-11-12T07:04:15Z
- Subjects: Irritable colon research , Abused women , Abused children
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14652 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1616
- Description: M.A. , Irritable Bowel Syndrome is defined as a chronic relapsing functional bowel disorder of unknown causes (Weber & McCallum, 1992). IBS is characterized by attacks of abdominal pain and change of bowel habit resulting in diarrhoea, constipation or both, where no structural alteration of the colon is found (Varis, 1987). The symptoms appear to result from a dysfunction of the intestine and are therefore said to be “functional” (Heaton & Thompson, 1999). The prevalence of IBS in the general population of Western countries is 14-24% of women. It is the most common cause of gut symptoms, and the most common reason that people go to their family doctor with a gut complaint. Despite all of this, physicians are still groping to understand the pathogenesis of IBS. The secret of success with IBS is to recognize it quickly and confidently. This is done primarily from the history, as there are no clinical tests that may be done to diagnose IBS. Once the diagnosis has been made it is of utmost importance that the sufferer is told, the syndrome is explained, and a good relationship is established with the health-care giver. Thereafter it becomes important to search for unspoken agendas in the life of the sufferer. According to the literature, stress can exacerbate IBS, and sexual, physical and emotional abuse can pose complex problems that require the assistance of a skilled counsellor. These problems, if left, may lead to the intensified symptoms of IBS. Society is becoming increasingly abusive and women and children often bear the brunt of physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Studies in America of women who present at medical facilities as well as those sampled from the community have found abuse rates that range from 20-76%. There is no reason to believe that these figures would be that different for South Africa. These studies have also found that abused women report a significantly higher number of medical problems and health-care system usage. A number of researchers have also found that there was a significant association between IBS and sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood and adulthood. For the counselling psychologist the challenge is to unravel the mechanisms behind the symptoms, and to provide a rationale for therapy. The role that abuse may play in the development of IBS forms the cornerstone of the present study.
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Confronting the legacy of peer persecution: a narrative study
- Authors: Thayser, Eileen Mary
- Date: 2008-11-13T05:59:41Z
- Subjects: Bullying , Abused children , Psychologically abused children , Narrative discourse analysis
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14677 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1670
- Description: M.A. , This study explores the narratives of six women who were subjected to peer abuse, or bullying, during their school years and attempts to discover the legacy of such persecution. The literature on bullying is discussed together with gender differences in the expression of bullying, various hypotheses about these differences, and the importance of peer relationships during childhood and adolescence. The process of enquiry is embedded in a social constructionist perspective, in particular within a narrative frame, and uses narrative analysis of the content of participants’ stories to elicit common themes. Themes that emerged relate mainly to participants’ social interaction. Use of a variety of defensive techniques in social settings, vigilance extending to hypervigilance, inability to trust, inability to accept from others, social anxiety, wariness around females and self-esteem issues surfaced. Other manifestations of distress, for example depression and loneliness, are not experienced by all participants. Some of the discourses around bullying that may inform participants’ stories and the researcher’s interpretations are explored. Similarities to other forms of abuse and psychological trauma are considered, for example loss of memory, hypervigilance and emotional numbing. The implications for therapy are considered, together with the importance of peer relationships in childhood and adolescence. The need for unequivocal adult intervention in preventing peer abuse is emphasised.
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A psycho-educational programme for abused and neglected children
- Authors: Harrison, M. H.
- Date: 2011-12-06
- Subjects: Abused children , Abused children psychology , Abused children education , Action research
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1792 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4156
- Description: M.A. , Statistics show an increase in the number of cases of abused and neglected children handled by the Child Protection Unit. These particular statistics indicate only the number of reported cases, which according to Lewis (1999) and Starke (1995) should be tripled to estimate the true number of children being abused every day. Action research was selected for this study to assist the parents and the children in extending their understanding of their situation and thus resolve problems that confront them. A high percentage of parents are aware that abuse and neglect exists in their relationships; they are also aware that behavioural problems may be exhibited by their children as a result of exposure to abuse and neglect. There is a growing need for counselling, guidance and support amongst the youth to be assertive, and be safe in their contexts. The psycho-education programme was based on the model of psychoeducation. Psycho-education as an alternative does not focus on sick or abnormal behaviour but rather has as its core a preventative focus-training in skills to solve problems now and in the future. During group work the children were trained to collectively experience, explore and communicate their feelings, and to learn alternative ways of dealing with abuse and neglect in their different contexts. The programme's effectiveness was evaluated. All the children acquired prevention concepts after the exposure to the programme. Fifty six percent of the parents observed some improvement in their children's behaviour, and eighty percent of the children reported that they were still afraid to talk to their parents about issues of discipline, for example corporal punishment.
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Childhood emotional abuse as a cause of adult dysfunction
- Authors: Errera, Jeanine
- Date: 2012-01-25
- Subjects: Abused children , Psychological child abuse , Adult child abuse victims
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/364387 , uj:1966 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4323
- Description: M.A. , This study originated from the researcher's interest in the affect of childhood emotional abuse on the adult. From practice experience there seemed to be a relationship between adult clients' current dysfunctional behavioural patterns and relationships and their experience of emotional abuse as a child. This research investigation aimed at detecting and exploring childhood experiences of emotional abuse in adult respondents. The various aspects of the adults' life that were affected by the experiences of childhood emotional abuse were explored and a theoretically discussion of this phenomenon was presented as an explanation for adult dysfunction. A qualitative research methodology was utilised to explore the diverse recollections of childhood experiences and their current functioning among the respondents. This choice of methodology was applied due to the exploratory aim of the study and its objectives: i.e. to capture the lived experiences of the respondents. The researcher utilized an entire adult caseload consulted during the period of March 2000 to July 2001, as respondents for the study. Data was collected by means of in-depth, face-to-face interviews conducted with respondents. An interview schedule was used for this purpose. A second data-collection method was used. This was done by the interpretation of visual representations obtained during interviews. Data analysis was done according to coding schedules that were generated by the utilization of a computer programme for the analysis of qualitative research data. From this process of data coding central categories and sub-categories were identified. These categories and subcategories were discussed as the themes and sub-themes from the study. These themes were presented as the results ofthe study.
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