A conceptual model for pricing health & safety on construction projects
- Authors: Akawi, Edzua Jirel , Musonda, Innocent , Ansary, Nazeem
- Date: 2017
- Subjects: Conceptual model , Construction projects , Cost drivers
- Language: English
- Type: Conference proceedings
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/244757 , uj:25311 , Citation: Akawi, E.J., Musonda, I. & Ansary, N. 2017. A conceptual model for pricing health & safety on construction projects.
- Description: Abstract: The competitive nature of the construction industry (CI) has marginalised health and safety (H&S) on construction projects. Most clients in the CI, if not all, award projects based on price and in most cases to the “cheapest bidder” and not the “safer bidder”. Consequently, such practices have compelled contractors to lower their bid price to increase their chances of being awarded projects, whereas in contrast, H&S is marginalised. The study, which was a case study of nine projects of which six were civil engineering projects and three building construction projects, was purposed to conceptualise a model for pricing H&S on construction projects. The findings showed that contractors do price for H&S using an itemised breakdown even though such items are not included as a trade in the Bill of Quantities (BOQs). With regards to expenditure, the actual costs of H&S ranged between 2.9% and 3.98% for projects with a value below R500 million and between 4.08% and 4.90% for projects with a value above R500 million. Health and safety costs were found to be directly proportional to the projects value and indirectly influenced by the client. Previous studies recommended that H&S should be priced as an itemised trade in the BOQs, but such recommendations are yet to be implemented. The lack of a conceptual model for pricing H&S on construction makes accurate and adequate monitoring of H&S costs unlikely. Thus, a standardised pricing model will assist contractors to price adequately for H&S, and clients, to ensure that provision for H&S measures on construction projects is adequate as required by the Construction Regulations (CR) 2014.
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Conceptual model of H&S culture
- Authors: Musonda, Innocent , Haupt, Theo C.
- Date: 2011
- Subjects: Health and safety , Conceptual model , LIP+3C model
- Language: English
- Type: Conference Paper
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10210/29990 , uj:15446 , 978-0-86970-713-5 , Musonda, I., Haupt, T.C. (2011). Conceptual model of client health and safety (H&S) culture. Proceedings of the 6th built environment conference , Johannesburg, South Africa, July 31st – August 2nd 2011, pp 156-166
- Description: Purpose: This paper presents a conceptual six factor client H&S culture model referred to as the LIP+3C. The factors leadership, involvement, procedures, commitment, communication and competence were theorised to explain the client H&S culture construct. The postulated model is based on theory obtained from literature as well as from a Delphi research. H&S culture has been recognised as the feasible way to improve H&S performance in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: A Delphi study as well as a synthesis of literature was conducted and resulted in a theorised conceptual model. To validate the model, a questionnaire survey with a response of 281 was conducted. Findings from the questionnaire survey were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with EQS version 6.1 software. Findings: The six factor client H&S culture model was found to be well fitting to the sample data through the confirmatory factor analysis. Consequently client H&S culture findings were that client culture could be explained by the level of leadership, involvement, procedures, commitment, communication and competence. Research limitations/implications: The size of the sample may affect the generalisability the findings in view of the complexity of the model. Practical implications: The proposed model in this study makes it possible to determine and predict the client H&S culture. The indicator variables can be used as check items for performance measurement and thus operationalize the concept of H&S culture. Originality/value: Adopting the LIP+3C culture model composed of elements that can easily be implemented and understood will contribute to improving the current H&S status
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