Die behoefte aan burgerlike opvoeding in Suid-Afrika : 'n politiek-wetenskaplike ontleding van kurrikulum 2005
- Authors: Van der Westhuizen, Zulandi
- Date: 2012-09-11
- Subjects: Civics - Study and teaching - South Africa , Education and state , Curriculum planning - South Africa , Public schools - South Africa
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:9928 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7327
- Description: M.Litt. et Phil. , The purpose of this study is to determine the need for civic education and the degree to which this need is addressed in Curriculum 2005. (Curriculum 2005 is the new education curriculum, implemented in state schools since 1998.) As a young democracy, one of the challenges South Africa faces is to consolidate democracy. Part of this challenge is to establish a culture of political tolerance. Civic education, implemented in schools, is a method to achieve these goals. In the rationale of Curriculum 2005, it is stated that ". . . the child is given opportunities to grow and develop as an active citizen, contributing constructively to the building of a democratic, non-racist, non-sexist and equitable society." (Foundation Phase: Draft Policy/Phase Document, 1997) Intentionally or unintentionally, Curriculum 2005 appears to be the Department of Education's answer to the need for civic education in South Africa at this stage. The degree to which this need is fulfilled needs to be determined, as well as the shortcomings and where and how it can be improved. For civic education to be successful and effective, broad criteria were identified for the content; the method; the approach; resource materials and teacher education. This study found that there is a fair degree of elements of civic education in Curriculum 2005. There are, however, five main problems that may hinder the effectiveness of civic education. The first is the method. Civic education is not taught as a separate subject, but interwoven in mainly the social learning area. The second obstacle is the content. Thirdly, the majority of teachers who have to teach civic education lack sufficient ability and knowledge, as they did not receive training in this field. A fourth point is the budget constraints. On the one hand time and money is needed to develop a civic education programme, while on the other hand, there are some urgent needs to upgrade and expand physical infrastructure in schools. Lastly, the lack of sufficient and appropriate resource material for teachers, probably poses the single biggest obstacle for the successful implementation of civic education. The Department of Educuation did not provide official textbooks or guidelines, and the sourcing of material for discussion and examples is left to the teacher's own discression. Although there is a clear need for civic education in South Africa, and the intention to fulfil this need seems to be present in Curriculum 2005, the means to achieve this goal are absent. The combination of these five points leads to the conclusion that if the results of civic education could be measured, any form of success and effectiveness in Curriculum 2005, would be nothing more than pure coincidence.
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Government mechanisms for resolving land conflict
- Authors: Sibanyoni, Mphikeleli Christopher
- Date: 2012-09-06
- Subjects: Land settlements - Government policy - South Africa , Land tenure - Government policy - South Africa , Land tenure - South Africa , Conflict management , Problem solving , Mediation
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:9698 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/7111
- Description: M.A. , This study analyses the government mechanisms for resolving conflict over land between white farmers and labour tenants in South Africa. Against the background of the evolvement of the institutions for resolution of conflict over land, the issues addressed include: problems experienced by the Land Claims Court with the Land Reform Act; acceptability of the Land Reform Act to farmers and labour tenants; and the use of the government institutions of conflict resolution by farmers and labour tenants. A literature analysis of both primary and secondary sources supplemented by interviews with individuals within the institutions of conflict resolution and land redistribution in KwaZulu- Natal and Mpumalanga form the basis of the research. The institution of conflict resolution came as a result of agreements that were reached at CODESA. The property and land reform clauses that were agreed upon during the negotiations served as the guidelines for the land reform policies, such as the Restitution of Land Rights Act of 1994, Land Reform (Labour Tenants) Act of 1996 and the Extension of Security of Tenure Act of 1997. However, labour tenants and farmers did make an input in the Green and White papers on Land Reform, which led to the establishment of the Land Claims Court. The Land Claims Court and magistrate's courts encountered problems in interpreting the Land Reform Act. The Courts are experiencing problems in interpreting the definition of a "labour tenant", particularly in paragraph (a), (b) and (c), and whether these paragraphs should be interpreted cumulatively or disjunctively. Although there is inconsistency in the interpretation of the Labour Tenants Act, the adjudicative bodies are largely becoming predictable in that conflicts are increasingly handled successfully. The bad draftsmanship is not the only problem regarding the Land Reform. Another problem experienced is the evictions of labour tenants. The evictions are attributed to capitalisation of agriculture, drought, fear and non-acceptance of the Land Reform Act. Although some farmers do not utilise the institutions of conflict resolution and disregard some of the clauses in the Act, farmers and labour tenants are nevertheless gradually beginning to accept land reform. Instead of using violent and illegal means, the conflicting parties are beginning to opt for peaceful means of resolving their disputes. The conflicts are submitted to institutions of conflict resolution, particularly the mediation institutions. The high cost involved in litigation and the likelihood of getting rights to land attribute to this development.
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