Nurses' interaction with patients who are HIV/AIDS infected
- Authors: Manamela, Makgabo Johanna
- Date: 2008-11-18T08:33:32Z
- Subjects: Services for AIDS (Disease) patients , Care for AIDS (Disease) patients , Counseling of HIV-positive persons
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14717 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1722
- Description: D.Cur. , The nurses who work in the hospitals are constantly in interaction with the patients. As the HIV infection has now reached the AIDS phase, most people who were infected five to ten years back are now sick due to HIV/AIDS compromised conditions. The statistics inform us that mostly young people are dying. This has reversed nature, in that elders are now burying the youth. The HIV/AIDS infected people who are ill are admitted to general hospitals for health care. At present the patients are cared for in the general wards with other patients who may not be HIV/AIDS infected. In the hospitals they are cared for by the health team, of which the nurses are with these patients for 24 hours a day. This study focused on the interaction between nurses and admitted patients who are HIV/AIDS positive. The patients may have been admitted due to opportunistic diseases or any other illnesses. Most patients with HIV/AIDS suffer from opportunistic diseases, pain and stress. Nurses become aware of the patient’s HIV/AIDS status for health care reasons. Nurses are in most institutions the first contact in health care. Therefore the nurses are engaged in established relationships with patient, families, friends and the community for the purpose of the provision of health care services. These relationships entail interaction. The interaction between the nurse and the patients plays a major role in the care of the patient. This interaction between the nurses and patients entails a number of aspects, such as communication, be it verbal or non-verbal. The latter includes behavioural and affective aspects, such as attitudes, the way care is provided and how the parties feel about the interaction. Nursing is a human interaction. In this interaction the nurse and the patient build a therapeutic relationship, resulting in assistance to facilitate the wellbeing of the patient and rapid recovery. The HIV /Aids infection affects the patient as a whole because of the stigma attached to the disease, therefore the affected patients need to be assisted in order to cope with the illness and its consequences. Therefore the purpose of the study was to: • To explore and describe the nurses’ and patients’ (who are HIV AIDS infected) experience of their interaction. • To develop and describe a model that would assist the nurses to facilitate the promotion of mental health in patients who are HIV/AIDS infected. A theory generation research which is qualitative, descriptive and explorative and contextual in nature was conducted with permission from the Department of Health authorities, hospital authorities, admitted patients with HIV/AIDS, the NGO that looks after the patients in the community after discharge, the nurses who work in the general wards and the University of Johannesburg Ethical and Research committee. Pilot interviews were conducted with one nurse-participant and patientparticipant that met the selection criteria.
- Full Text:
A model to facilitate a quest for emotional maturity of psychiatric nurses through capacity development in promoting their mental health
- Authors: Sekhukhune, Dorothy
- Date: 2008-11-14T14:21:50Z
- Subjects: Psychiatric nurses' mental health , Nurse and patient
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14706 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1698
- Description: D.Cur. , Lifecare, like any other corporate business, in the current environment, has to change all the time. Companies need new customers, innovative products, expanded market and cutting edge technologies. The Company has the potential to shape the behaviour, reinforce common beliefs, and encourage members to apply their efforts to accomplish important Company objectives of providing care for chronic mentally ill patients. The psychiatric nurses are therefore an essential requirement for the success of the Company in a competitive environment. On the other side, psychiatric nurses face the difficult task of confronting the challenges involved in the nature of care required among chronic psychiatric patients. Whilst striving for quality patient care, they find themselves faced with some breakdowns within the environment in which they are interacting, resulting in their resorting to negative media publicity. This type of publicity can lead to damaging the Company’s reputation and can retard the Company’s growth strategy, which the psychiatric nurses might not seem to understand. There was also high staff turnover which hampered quality patient care. This could also affect the Company in terms of what affects the competitiveness of the quality care which the Company aims to deliver. The researcher believes that for clinical care to take place, psychiatric nurses need to be in sound mental health and understand the dynamics within the Company in order to deal with it in an effective way. The following research questions posed were addressed in this research: • What are the psychiatric nurses’ experiences whilst being employed by the Company? • In what way can the formulation of the model be of assistance in the promotion of the psychiatric nurses’ mental health as an integral part of health? The research objectives were: • To explore and describe the experiences of the psychiatric nurses whilst employed by Lifecare.• To use the results to generate the concepts for the model that would serve as a framework for the psychiatric nursing specialist to facilitate the implementation of guidelines that would assist the psychiatric nurses to be in a sound mental state. • To describe the guidelines that would serve as a framework for operationalising the model in nursing education, psychiatric nursing practice and nursing research. Methods to ensure trustworthiness were ensured throughout this research. Ethical consideration as outlined in the Position Statements published by the Democratic Nursing Association of South Africa (1998: 2-21), was adopted. The researcher utilized the assumptions of the Theory for Health Promotion in Nursing in this research. This theory focuses on the whole person, that is, the mind, body and spirit as well as on the parameters of nursing and the beliefs about the person, health, illness and nursing. The emphasis in this theory is on mental health promotion of the psychiatric nurses within the Company. This research consisted of three stages as follows: In stage one a qualitative design was used to explore and describe the psychiatric nurses’ inner world experiences of the Company’s culture. Indepth semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain data from these psychiatric nurses. These interviews were conducted by an independent interviewer, and were audio-taped. These were transcribed and were analysed by the researcher. Tesch (1990) in Cresswell (1994: 154) outlined eight steps, which are referred to as decontextualisation and contextualisation, which were adopted in analyzing the results. A description of the results was given. This was followed by literature control which highlighted the similarities to and contributions to this research. Themes that emerged highlighted the experiences that the psychiatric nurses had of the Company culture which affected their mental health. In stage two the research design and theory generation was employed to formulate a model which could be used in nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice. The model formulated was based on the resultsobtained on the inner world experiences of psychiatric nurses. A combination of stages of theory generation by Chinn and Kramer (1991:79-104) and Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach (1968: 431-434) were employed by the researcher to identify the central concepts that guided the identification of the main theme. A tentative model was formulated and was submitted to the independent experts for consultations and clarification. The model was named and presented in its final form to the independent experts. In stage three the researcher formulated the guidelines for operationalising the implementation of the model in clinical practice, nursing education and recommendations were made for further research.
- Full Text:
Group nursing therapy as a resource to assist married women suffering from depression at a mental hospital in Swaziland
- Authors: Dlamini, Phumelele Eunice
- Date: 2010-03-17T06:07:30Z
- Subjects: Group psychotherapy , Depression in women , Anxiety in women
- Type: Mini-Dissertation
- Identifier: uj:6685 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3089
- Description: M.Cur. , Group nursing therapy has been acknowledged to have an impact on women suffering from depression by Bellafoire (2005:1). However, there is no written evidence on the effectiveness of group therapy in Swaziland. It is for this reason that the researcher took the initiative of exploring how group therapy could assist women admitted at a psychiatric / mental hospital in Swaziland suffering from depression. The objective of the study was to describe group nursing therapy as a resource to assist married women suffering from depression. Another objective was to describe guidelines that can be utilised by psychiatric nurse-practitioners when assisting married women suffering from depression to mobilise resources to promote their mental health. The study was conducted through group therapy sessions. During group therapy sessions ethical measures were adhered to. Steps to ensure trustworthiness were also followed (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290). Four aspects of trustworthiness, namely truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality were taken into consideration. The paradigmatic perspective used in this study was guided by the theory for Health Promotion in Nursing (Rand Afrikaans University, 2002:2-8) which focuses on the whole person. A functional reasoning approach based on Botes’ model (1998:8) was followed. The design of the study utilised is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual design (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43-44). Eight sessions of group therapy were conducted with women suffering from depression, admitted at the mental hospital. Field notes were also taken during each session. Data collected was analysed through the descriptive method suggested by Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). The services of an independent coder were employed. The results were tabulated according to major themes, categories and subcategories. The first major theme identified was hope among women suffering from depression related to group therapy intervention. The category that was deduced from the theme was increased self-awareness which was evidenced by the subcategory of self-disclosure, introspection, and a reduction of suicidal tendencies. The second category was that of personal growth related to the subcategories of openness, problem sharing and giving feedback. The third category was that of peace of mind related to the subcategories of improved sleep, feelings of relief because of therapy and reduction of sadness. The fourth category was that of positive independent thinking related to positive decision making about self and planning for their own future by the women. The fifth category was that of spiritual enhancement related to group therapy intervention. The subcategory identified was that of recognition of God’s power and the value of confessions. The sixth category that was deduced was that of increased social interaction related to the subcategory of development of social skills and redefinition of the self. The second theme that was deduced was that of recommendations on group therapy as a resource for women suffering from depression. The subcategories were that therapeutic groups be established and conducted in families, hospitals and communities. Guidelines were described from the findings for psychiatric nurses to use when assisting married women suffering from depression to mobilise resources and promote their mental health. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations made in relation to nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research.
- Full Text:
Die belewenis van die ko-afhanklike eggenoot van 'n alkoholafhanklike persoon
- Authors: Jacobs, Frieda Elizabeth
- Date: 2008-11-18T08:05:01Z
- Subjects: Codependency , Alcoholics' spouses , Alcoholics' family relationships
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:14711 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1715
- Description: M.Cur. , The abuse of alcohol has a huge impact on health-related problems worldwide. The incidence rate of alcohol abuse in South Africa is on the increase according to Van Niekerk (2001:325). Alcohol dependency causes dysfunction in families resulting in problems such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, impaired relationships and poor parenting (Prest & Protinsky 1993:352). The family system becomes dysfunctional by organising itself in a way which enables and protects the alcohol dependant’s drinking habits. This phenomenon is called “ co-dependency”. The family is ignorant of the problem and becomes isolated. The concept “co-dependency” has been used since the late 1970’s to describe the problems affecting the spouse of the alcoholic and later to include the children. Co-dependency is characterised by features such as low self-esteem, poor identity formation, overuse of denial and the urge to control others. The co-dependant’s involvement with others in order to care and control leads to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and substance abuse. It becomes a vicious cycle difficult to escape from. Health care professionals may be unaware of the underlying family problems when the co-dependant seeks help for physical and mental illness, resulting in the complexity of the problem not being addressed. Psychiatric nurses need guidelines to facilitate the mental health of the co-dependant spouse. The first goal of this study was to explore and describe the lived experience of the co-dependant spouse. The second goal was to develop guidelines for the psychiatric nurse to facilitate the mental health of the co-dependant spouse. The theoretical framework of the Theory for Health Promotion in Nursing by the Department of Nursing of the Rand Afrikaans University (2002:2-7) was used as point of departure in conducting this research. The researcher followed a functional approach according to the Botes model for nursing research (RAU, 2002:8-13). An explorative, descriptive, contextual and qualitative research design was used for this study (Babbie & Mouton, 2001:79-81). In-depth semi-structured phenomenological interviews were conducted with participants meeting the criteria for inclusion. Purposive sampling was used (Burns & Grove 1997:307). A pilot study was conducted. To ensure trustworthiness, the researcher made use of Guba’s model (Lincoln & Guba 1985: 290-300). The researcher used Tesch’s approach (Poggenpoel in De Vos, 1998:343) to transcribe the recorded interviews and to analyse the data gathered from the interviews. A literature control was conducted to re-contextualise the results within the literature. The researcher came to the conclusion that the total being of the co-dependant is dismantled by the effect of the addictive process. It was found that the ripple effect of co-dependency is far reaching, causing dysfunction of the family structure and mental health problems of the individual family members. In order to break the vicious cycle of addiction, simultaneous intervention at different levels of the addiction process was required. Therefore co-dependency should be dealt with as part of a bigger process by the psychiatric nurse when intervening. Guidelines were developed for the psychiatric nurse in order to facilitate the mental health of the co-dependant in a holistic manner. Conclusions were drawn, limitations of the research were highlighted and recommendations were made for the nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research.
- Full Text: