An assessment of the impact of dry and wet cooling systems on stake holders
- Authors: Jonker, Markus Smith
- Date: 2012-02-06
- Subjects: Eskom (Firm) , Cooling towers , Coal-fired power plants , Water consumption management
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1972 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4329
- Description: M.Ing. , Water gives life. It waters the fields of farmers; it nurtures the crops and stock of rural communities; it provides recreation for our children, our friends, our families; it supports our power generation, our mines, our industry, and the plants and animals that make up ecosystems. Water is the key to development and a good quality of life in South Africa. South Africa's water belongs to its people. It is the task of the South African Government to care for this water, to seek its fair distribution, and to facilitate its wise use for, amongst other things, social and economical development. Issues such as water resource management, use, protection, water services, etc., are presently governed by a number of policies, acts and regulations. All South Africans has a responsibility regarding the management of the country's resources. The supply of water to its entire people makes it extremely important to optimise the use of this scarce source. Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The coal fired power industry is a major user of natural resources; coal for fuel and water for steam generation as well as the cooling systems. It is estimated that 1.5% of the water abstracted in South Africa is used for power generation. The power industry receives its water mainly as abstraction from surface impoundments in the form of rivers and dams. Eskom, as a strategic user of water, is mindful of the importance of water to its business, as well as the development of the country. In addition to the interests of the government as the shareholder, Eskom recognises the legitimate interests, as stakeholders, of specific government departments, employees, consumers, suppliers, investors and lenders of capital, rating agencies, the media, policy and regulatory bodies, trade unions, non-governmental groups and local communities in its affairs. Eskom needs to ensure, through an effective water management strategy, that water is used wisely and effectively and that Eskom's impact on local water resources (surface and underground) is minimised. Eskom therefore has to manage water resources in a manner that will sustain the ecological integrity, support social development and ensure economic growth. Eskom has undertaken to benchmark the power generation industry, in co-operation with the DW AF, in a project aimed at developing the principles of water conservation and water demand management. In order to effectively manage water quality and quantity at Eskom's power stations, and to show Eskom's commitment with regard to water conservation and use, Eskom has compiled its own water and environmental policies.
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Economic scheduling of steam boiler plant shut downs for targeted availability
- Authors: Els, Daniel Pieter
- Date: 2011-11-30
- Subjects: Production scheduling , Steam-boilers
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1750 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4105
- Description: M.Ing. , In the highly competitive environment in which all companies have to operate, it is becoming more and more important to optimise the amount of time a piece of equipment is down for scheduled repairs and the scheduling of these repairs. In this dissertation the equipment that is considered are the seventeen Babcock Borsig designed boilers situated on the Sasol Secunda site. A schematic drawing of these boilers is shown in figure 1. This drawing does not include the Electrostatic Precipitator that is located at the outlet of the boiler. The main function of the seventeen boilers on the Secunda site is to supply process steam to the rest of the factory. With each of the plants that are supplied with process steam having its own needs at any point in time, ensuring that enough steam is available in the system becomes an extremely important issue. The reason for this is that the plants that are supplied with process steam form a train and if one of the plants can not produce to full capacity, the down stream plants are also affected. The secondary function of the boilers is to supply steam to ten turbines for the generation of electricity. This means that any steam that the factory is not using is used for the generation of electricity. The ten generators can not supply the full need of the factory and the rest is drawn in from the national electricity supplier. It is thus best to generate as much electricity as possible. With the price of electricity varying during the year, winter being more expensive, the time when a boiler is off becomes critical. To ensure that the necessary process steam is available the long term plan of the factory is used to calculate the year budget for steam required by the factory. But as with everything plans do change and a short term plan is used to ensure that enough process steam is available for the factory.
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