Air pollution study of a Highveld township during a Basa njengo Magogo rollout
- Authors: Nuwarinda, Henry
- Date: 2010-05-27T06:06:30Z
- Subjects: Air pollution measurement , Air quality measurement , Coal combustion , Basa njengo Magogo
- Type: Thesis (M. Sc.)
- Identifier: uj:6847 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3279
- Description: M.Sc. , Emissions from domestic coal combustion account for high levels of atmospheric particulate concentrations in Highveld townships in South Africa. These levels frequently exceed air quality standards. To reduce these concentrations, a rollout of the “top-down” fire lighting method, also referred to as the Basa njengo Magogo method, was introduced in a Highveld township in Witbank, Mpumalanga, targeting 10,000 households for the winter of 2006. The aims of this study include measuring any reduction in ambient air pollution – specifically particulate matter (PM10) – resulting from reduced emissions due to the rollout of Basa njengo Magogo, and to establish relationships between air pollutants and meteorological parameters. The hypothesis of the study was that the introduction of Basa njengo Magogo would result in a measurable reduction of ambient pollutants, specifically PM10. Continuous measurements were made at intervals of 5 minutes from 12 July to 21 July 2006: ambient concentrations of particulate matter carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen dioxide were measured as well as meteorological parameters. Due to several factors, specifically the short period of valid measurements, this study was not able to observe a clear reduction signal of particulate matter derived from domestic coal burning. The air quality in the township was characterised, looking specifically at the relationship between meteorological factors and the accumulation and dispersion of pollutants. Investigation of diurnal variations H₂S show that minor components of H₂S are associated with domestic coal combustion, while a source external to Vosman township results in episodes of high H₂S concentrations. These episodes occurred between 04h00 to 07h00 and were associated with light breezes from the sector 170° to 180°. This is the first set of quantitative measurements of H₂S in a Highveld township, and the first source apportionment of H₂S in a Highveld township.
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The assessment of the influence of treated underground mine water on the benthic fauna in a portion of the Blesbokspruit Ramsar Site
- Authors: Van der Merwe, Charl
- Date: 2009-02-02T07:15:06Z
- Subjects: Water quality , Water pollution , Mine water , Blesbokspruit (South Africa) , Effect of water pollution on benthic animals
- Type: Thesis (M. Sc.)
- Identifier: uj:14865 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/1986
- Description: M.A. , The increased demand on resources and particular on water in South Africa is, inter alia, owing to the high population growth, urbanisation and concomitant industrial development. A decrease in water quality impairs the sustainable use of water, economic development and environmental health. Although water quality monitoring in the past focused mainly on the determination of the chemical and physical variables it is currently accepted as inadequate to determine the “health” of an aquatic ecosystem. This study does not concentrate on the impact of the chemical and physical variables on the ecosystem but rather determines the biological affect of treated underground mine water pumped into an aquatic ecosystem. The causes of water pollution can be point source in origin, for example, from water purification works and mines or it could also be from a diverse source such as stormwater, agricultural activities, seepage from various sources such as dumpsites, slimes dams and even from some geological formations. Mining, as one of the major job creators in South Africa, is also one of the major sources of pollution of aquatic systems. This is, in particular, relevant to worked out mines, older mines and marginal mines. The area of investigation is a portion of the Blesbokspruit Ramsar Site on the East Rand and, with its large bird specie diversity, appears to be a healthy system. This study shows that there is extensive debilitation of water quality in this portion of the Blesbokspruit which is further being impaired by the treated underground water pumped into the Blesbokspruit by the Grootvlei Mine. The purpose of this study was to determine the probable hazard of the polluted water of the Blesbokspruit for biota by making use of benthic faunal studies. Previous studies (Adendorff, 1997; Chutter, 1998 and Davies & Day, 1998) proved that the benthic fauna decrease with an increase in water pollution. The water quality of the Blesbokspruit in the test area was compared with the water quality standards for natural water set by the National Department of Water Affairs and Forestry as well as the water quality targets as set by Rand Water. The water quality of the test area was below standard when compared with both sets of standards. Biomonitoring also indicated that, because of the low counts of invertebrates, compared to the high counts of invertebrates in pristine aquatic systems, that this system is under pressure. This study indicates that the water quality of the Blesbokspruit Ramsar Site seriously impacts upon the benthic fauna and that the treated mine water from Grootvlei Mine, which is being pumped into the system, leaves this system stripped of all benthic fauna over an undetermined area. From this study it is also clear that managerial standards are urgently needed for water quality control and that water quality management should not only take the data of chemical water analysis into account but biological compounds should also be considered.
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