Re-mining Johannesburg: urban redevelopment through the treatment of acid mine drainage
- Authors: Coetser, Dirk Andre
- Date: 2014-01-27
- Subjects: Acid mine drainage , Acid mine drainage - South Africa - Johannesburg , Abandoned mined lands reclamation , Ground control (Mining) , Community development, Urban , Urban renewal - South Africa - Johannesburg
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: http://ujcontent.uj.ac.za8080/10210/374658 , uj:7949 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/8850
- Description: M.Tech. (Architectural Technology) , The architectural intervention proposes an urban redevelopment along the mining belt of the city of Johannesburg through the treatment of acid mine drainage. The design research includes a network of selected sites located along the Johannesburgmining belt to address the problem of acid mine drainage,as well as to provide solutions for future urban environments. The main solutions to eradicate the acid mine water problem are infrastructural, which in most cases is associatedwith inhumane environments. A design question addressing the marriage between harsh infrast ructure and humane environments is therefore dealt with ,in an attempt to create a self-sustaining architecture in which infrastructure can have an integrative urban function for the future . The dissertation aims to achive a design intervention that will thread the traces of a mining century into this contemporary African city, through an architecture that will grow into the future of the ever-changing and continuously emergent Johannesburg.
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Soil resource management - key to successful mine closure
- Authors: Herb, Stephan William
- Date: 2012-05-02
- Subjects: Soil resource management , Abandoned mined lands reclamation , Mines and mineral resources - Environmental aspects , Mine closures , Mineral industries - Environmental aspects , Reclamation of land - Environmental aspects
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:2245 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4684
- Description: M.Sc. , Coal mining is a mature industry and plays a vital part in the economy and development of South Africa. Coal mining however is a temporary use of land. Historically, when an ore body was exhausted, production ceased and mines were boarded up and abandoned. Today mine closure requires the return of land to a viable and sustainable post-mining land use but a number of challenges are associated with mine reclamation. One of the greatest challenges is the inability of mines in South Africa to return mined land to its pre-mining state or land capability. The minimization of loss of land use capability and equally soil resource is a key part in achieving success in mine reclamation. This study verifies and assesses the replaced soil depth and actual post-mining land capability at a surface coal mine in Mpumalanga province, according to the Chamber of Mines “Guidelines for the rehabilitation of mined land” (2007). Five of the seven reclaimed sites within the study area exceeded the planned land capability proportions determined during the pre-mining stage. A top soil balance done at the end of January 2010 however indicates that the available volume of soil resource at the mine will not suffice the amount needed to achieve the planned land capability in areas not yet reclaimed. It is suggested that the lack of an adequate soil monitoring and management strategy in the past, has led to the shortfall of the available soil resource at the mine. The soil monitoring and reconciliation strategy developed will hopefully assist mine managers and rehabilitation planners to prevent further soil loss at the mine.
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Methods of ground improvement applied during the rehabilitation process in the mining industry
- Authors: De Kloe, Nicolette
- Date: 2011-11-24
- Subjects: Ground control (Mining) , Rehabilitation technology , Abandoned mined lands reclamation
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:1738 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/4087
- Description: M.Ing. , As of 1991 new legislation demands that all existing and proposed mines have to submit and implement a rehabilitation plan. This plan consists of numerous phases and can cost a fair amount of money that almost none of the mines have budgeted for. During the rehabilitation process the improvement of the ground on, for example, discard dumps or slurry ponds, are not stable or adequate to enable the civil engineer to ensure stability for the new development. This can include a new sports field or low cost housing or just the peace of mind that the dump is stable and looks natural. This thesis will aim to introduce some of the numerous different ground improvement techniques that are available in South Africa and overseas.
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Generic guidelines for rehabilitation of borrow pits on linear pipeline projects
- Authors: Beukes, Werner
- Date: 2010-03-10T06:27:16Z
- Subjects: Abandoned mined lands reclamation , Rehabilitation technology , Borrow pits , Mpumalanga (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:6667 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/3072
- Description: M.Sc. , This study focuses on the rehabilitation of borrow pits on linear pipeline projects. In the past there have been many attempts to rehabilitate borrow pits to an ecological acceptable manner. Recently legislation has become more stringent regarding mine closure and rehabilitation. With the introduction of the new Mineral and Petroleum Development Act (MPRDA 28 of 2002), there has been an increase of awareness towards the immediate environment. As this project was a challenge in itself, there were no clear and concise methods in the Act that provide guidelines for final rehabilitation. Normally borrow pits as used on road concessions for material sourcing is left as different landforms like before excavation. The main reason for this is that materials are removed from the pits and not replaced, resulting in areas that are usually lower than their original ground levels. Some unwanted screened material will return to these borrow pits but will not complement what the original level should be. These borrow pits are usually clearly visible as low lying areas filled with water alongside roads. The Vaal River Eastern Subsection Augmentation Project (VRESAP) pipeline borrow pits were unique in the sense that not only material from screening activities were replaced, but also material excavated from the trench were replaced into the borrow pits. What makes this study unique is the fact that an opportunity was presented and clearly stipulated by the standard environmental management plan (SEMP) that borrow pits had to be filled back to their original ground levels or an acceptable level agreed on by the landowner. With this unique project, unique problems arose causing excess material amounting to 327 700 m³, available from the pipeline cavity. External spoil areas had to be promulgated and managed as part of site. This study through its various elements addresses some of the main problems encountered on VRESAP by looking at soil analysis, monitoring regimes, pre and post land use and other mechanisms from literature studies used on similar projects in the mining industry. vii The study also provides recommendations to the reader for future pipeline developments as well as conclusions made by the author. The recommendations made, include ways of rehabilitation planning through trials and errors made on site. Various conclusions were made that would substantiate this study in perspective to user-friendly and practical approaches.
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The influence of angle and aspect on the established vegetative cover on the slopes of rehabilitated coal discard dumps in Mpumalanga
- Authors: Bloy, Steven Douglas
- Date: 2009-02-09T09:17:00Z
- Subjects: Restoration ecology , Abandoned mined lands reclamation , Coal mines and mining , Mpumalanga (South Africa)
- Type: Thesis
- Identifier: uj:8124 , http://hdl.handle.net/10210/2099
- Description: M.Sc. , The decommissioning of mines and mining-related activities brings about the onset of rehabilitation. A legacy that most coal mines must address is the rehabilitation of the coal discard dumps that are generated by the beneficiation process of the raw coal. Rehabilitation involves the shaping and covering with a topsoil layer of these coal discard dumps. The topsoil layer is then revegetated to provide a stable form of protection against erosion. Considerations taken into account regarding the rehabilitation of coal discard dumps include the final slope angle, physical constraints i.e. railways or rivers, a source of topsoil and the grass species to be sown. Once the dump has been shaped, capped and seeded, regular applications of fertilizer take place for a defined period of time. This is to accelerate the growth of the grasses, as well as to stabilise the nutrient levels in the topsoil capping. Ingwe Mine Closure Operations (MCO), part of Ingwe Collieries Limited, is the business unit entrusted with the management and successful rehabilitation of Ingwe’s defunct operations. All of the coal discard dumps sampled in this study are found on such defunct operations. These coal discard dumps have been rehabilitated to a very high standard by MCO, and in most cases exceed the minimum requirements stipulated by law and guideline documents. This study and the results obtained from it reflect this. This study investigated, in terms of defined types of cover, whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the: • six coal discard dumps from which data were collected; • five different defined slope aspects; • two groups of slope angles; and • slope angle and slope aspect in terms of cover. The data collected was analysed statistically, so as to determine whether significant differences (95 percentile confidence level), in terms of cover, exist. The purpose of this was to determine whether or not a preferred slope aspect or slope angle group could be identified for the six coal discard dumps sampled. By identifying a preferred slope aspect or slope angle group, companies could alter the design of operational or defunct dumps so as to maximise these. This would make the rehabilitation of the dump more sustainable and could possibly reduce aftercare costs. Through statistical analysis of the data collected it was determined that: • of the six coal discard dumps sampled, significant differences did exist between some of the dumps regarding basal cover, plant litter cover and bare ground. As each dump is different with its own specific micro-climate, this can be expected. The age of the dumps could also have played a role in terms of development; • of the five different defined slope aspects analysed, no significant differences existed between any of them; • of the two groups of slope angles analysed, no significant difference existed between them; and • no relationship between slope angle and slope aspect, in terms of cover, could be established. The analysis of the data collected was done by means of ANOVA one-way tests, coupled with Post Hoc Tests and Contrast Tables. The results of the statistical analysis were evaluated by the STATCON Department of the Rand Afrikaans University for accuracy. The data and the statistical analysis thereof were found to be satisfactory and correct. Various other statistical analyses were conducted on the data, but the results obtained from these tests were all the same as that of the original data analysis. These analyses included the Univariate Analysis of Variance, T-tests and Mann-Whitney tests.
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